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Archaeological Report - Ballinglanna North 1, Co. Cork (Ireland)

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Also available at http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/ …

Also available at http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/
The excavation of the site at Ballinglanna North 1 revealed a range of features dating
to the Late Bronze Age, the early medieval period and the modern period. The site was located on the western bank of the Glencorra Stream and most of the activity recorded on site was associated with this water source. The earliest evidence, a single flint blade, from the site dated to the Mesolithic. A small group of stone tools including flint debitage was dated to the Early Bronze Age but none of the features recorded on site could be assigned to the Early Bronze Age. A fulacht fiadh was dated to the Late Bronze Age. The mound overlay a substantial rectangular trough. The trough was connected to a well. A small number of post-holes were located to the south of the trough. The site was suitable as a location for metalworking, specifically iron smithing, in the early medieval period.
A large ditch was excavated parallel and to the west of the Glencorra Stream. A large
quantity of slag was recovered from the fills of the ditch and a small amount from a small group of pits on the eastern edge of the ditch. No certain features of metallurgical origin were recorded at the site. Two large storage pits and an area of domestic occupation are associated with the early medieval phase of activity. Finally the site was occupied in the modern period. A small stone structure, some linear features and a revetment wall on the western side of the Glencorra Stream date to the modern period.


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  • 1. Eachtra JournalIssue 10 [ISSN 2009-2237] Archaeological Excavation Report E2414 - Ballinglanna North 1, Co. Cork Burnt Mound, Metalworking Area & Post-Medieval Settlement
  • 2. EACHTRAArchaeological Projects Archaeological Excavation Report Burnt Mound, Metalworking Area & Post-Medieval Settlement Ballinglanna North 1 Co Cork May 2011 Client: Cork County Council Project: N8 Fermoy to Mitchelstown E No: E2414Excavation Director: John Tierney Written by: Nick Garland, Jacinta Kiely and John Tierney
  • 3. Archaeological Excavation Report Burnt Mound, Metalworking Area & Post-Medieval Settlement Ballinglanna North 1 Co Cork Excavation Director John Tierney Written By Nick Garland, Jacinta Kiely and John Tierney EACHTRA Archaeological Projects CORK GALWAY The Forge, Innishannon, Co. Cork Unit 10, Kilkerrin Park, Liosbain Industrial Estate, Galwaytel: 021 4701616 | web: www.eachtra.ie | email: info@eachtra.ie tel: 091 763673 | web: www.eachtra.ie | email: galway@eachtra.ie
  • 4. © 2011The Forge, Innishannon, Co Cork Set in 12pt Garamond Printed in Ireland
  • 5. Table of Contents Summary��������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� v Acknowledgements�������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� vi1 Scope of the project �������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 12 Route location��������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 13 Receiving environment ��������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 34 Archaeological and historical background ��������������������������������������������������������������������� 45 Site Location and Topography ������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������ 116 Excavation methodology ���������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 137 Excavation results ������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������ 15 Fulachtfiadh������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������15 Largepits�������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������19 Metalworkingarea�����������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������23 Ditch�����������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������25 Groupofpost-holesandstake-holes�������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������26 FeaturesassociatedwithGlencorraStream�����������������������������������������������������������������������������������30 Structure1����������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������36 Animalburials���������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������36 Agriculturalfeatures��������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������37 Miscellaneousfeatures��������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������37 Plantremains����������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������37 � Lithics�������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������37 Slag�������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������38 Animalbone�����������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������39 � Radiocarbondates�����������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������398 Discussion ��������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������40 Prehistoricoccupation�������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 40 Earlymedievaloccupation�����������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������42 Modernoccupation������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 449 References �������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 45Appendix 1 Stratigraphic Index ��������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������48Appendix 2 Site matrix �������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������72Appendix 3 Groups and subgroups ������������������������������������������������������������������������������������ 78 �Appendix 4 Finds Register ����������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������104Appendix 5 Plant remains �����������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������109 i
  • 6. Appendix 6 Lithics report ������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������ 118 Appendix 7 Archaeometallurgical residues ��������������������������������������������������������������������123 Appendix 8 Animal remains report �����������������������������������������������������������������������������������154 � Appendix 9 Finds catalogue �������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������156ii
  • 7. List of FiguresFigure 1: The route of the N8 Fermoy to Mitchelstown Bypass overlain on the Ordnance Survey Discovery Series map� ��������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 2Figure 2: The route of the N8 Fermoy to Mitchelstown Bypass overlain on the first edition Ordnance Survey map CO010, 011, 019, 020, 027 and 028� ��������������������������������������������������������� 5Figure 3: The route of the N8 Fermoy to Mitchelstown Bypass overlain on the RMP map CO010, 011, 019, 020, 027 and 028� The map is based on the second edition Ordnance Survey maps� ������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������10Figure 4: Post-excavation plan of Ballinglanna North 1� ������������������������������������������������������������������������������ 12Figure 5: Post-excavation plan of the fulacht fiadh area� ����������������������������������������������������������������������������� 14Figure 6: Section of trough C�183� ������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������ 16Figure 7: Section of gully C�229 and well C�230� ���������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������20Figure 8: Post-excavation plan of the metal working features� �����������������������������������������������������������������21Figure 9: Section of pits C�213, C�215 and C�220 ��������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������22 �Figure 10: Section of ditch C�126� ����������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������27Figure 11: Section of ditch C�376� ����������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������28Figure 12: Post-excavation plan of the group of post-holes and stakeholes� �����������������������������������������29Figure 13: Post-excavation plan of the linears C�340, C�354, C�370 and C�372� �������������������������������������� 31Figure 14: Post-excavation plan of the modern structure� ����������������������������������������������������������������������������32Figure 15: Late Bronze Age sites on and in the environs of the N8 Fermoy Mitchelstown� ��������������33Figure 16: Medieval sites on and in the environs of the N8 Fermoy Mitchelstown road� ������������������34 iii
  • 8. List of Plates Plate 1: View of Glencorra Bridge from north ����������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������11 Plate 2: View of area of excavation at Ballinglanna North 1 from north-east� Note location of Glencorra Bridge� ������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������13 Plate 3: View of mid-excavation at Ballinglanna North 1 from the surface of Glencorra Bridge� ���������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������17 Plate 4: View of western extent of area of excavation at Ballinglanna North 1 from north� The two ranging rods set at right angles mark the location of the trough C�183������������17 Plate 5: View of trough C�183 from east� ���������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������18 Plate 6: View of well C�230 in foreground and gully C�229 and unexcavated trough C�183 in background from south-east� ��������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������18 Plate 7: View of main layer of mound material C�183 from north-west� �������������������������������������������� 23 Plate 9: View of east-facing section of pit C�292� ��������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 24 � Plate 8: View of pit C� 268� ���������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 24 Plate 10: View of northern section of ditch C�378 from south-west� ����������������������������������������������������� 25 Plate 12: Micro disc flint scraper E2414:214:2 ������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 35 Plate 11: View of linear C�390 from north-east� �������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 35 � Plate 13: Early Mesolithic flint blade E2414:US:1 ������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 38 Plate 14: Early Mesolithic flint blade E2414:US:1 ������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 39 List of Tables Table 1: Dimension of the troughs ��������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������15 Table 2: Dimension of the post-holes ��������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������19 Table 3: Dimension of the pits ����������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������19 Table 4: Dimension of the pits ��������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 25 Table 5: Dimension of the post-holes ������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 30 Table 6: Radiocarbon dates ��������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 39 Table 7: Radiocarbon dates from the burnt mound sites on the N8 Fermoy to Mitchelstown ��41iv
  • 9. Ballinglanna north 1-E2414 http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/e2414-ballinglanna-north1-co-cork/SummaryThe excavation of the site at Ballinglanna North 1 revealed a range of features datingto the Late Bronze Age, the early medieval period and the modern period. The site waslocated on the western bank of the Glencorra Stream and most of the activity recordedon site was associated with this water source. The earliest evidence, a single flint blade,from the site dated to the Mesolithic. A small group of stone tools including flint debit-age was dated to the Early Bronze Age but none of the features recorded on site could beassigned to the Early Bronze Age. A fulacht fiadh was dated to the Late Bronze Age. Themound overlay a substantial rectangular trough. The trough was connected to a well. Asmall number of post-holes were located to the south of the trough. The site was suitableas a location for metalworking, specifically iron smithing, in the early medieval period.A large ditch was excavated parallel and to the west of the Glencorra Stream. A largequantity of slag was recovered from the fills of the ditch and a small amount from a smallgroup of pits on the eastern edge of the ditch. No certain features of metallurgical originwere recorded at the site. Two large storage pits and an area of domestic occupation areassociated with the early medieval phase of activity. Finally the site was occupied in themodern period. A small stone structure, some linear features and a revetment wall on thewestern side of the Glencorra Stream date to the modern period.Project DetailsRoad project name N8 Fermoy to MitchelstownSite name Ballinglanna North 1Ministerial Order no. A040E no. E2414Site director John TierneyTownland Ballinglanna NorthParish KilcrumperBarony Condons ClangibbonOS Map Sheet No. CO027National Grid Reference 181463, 103192Chainage 2050-2100 v
  • 10. iSSUE 10: Eachtra JoUrnal - iSSn 2009-2237 archaEological Excavation rEport Acknowledgements The senior archaeologist was John Tierney and the post-excavation managers were Penny Johnston and Jacinta Kiely. Administration of the project was by Choryna Kiely and Fiona Greene. Illustrations are by Ben Blakeman and Maurizio Toscano. Photographs are by John Sunderland, Hawkeye and Eachtra Archaeological Projects. Specialist analysis was carried out by Mary Dillon, Penny Johnston, Farina Sternke, Tim Young and the 14 Chrono Centre at Queen’s University Belfast. The project was funded by the Irish Government under the National Development Plan 2007-2013 and was commissioned by Cork County Council on behalf of the National Roads Authority. The project archaeolo- gist was Ken Hanley.vi
  • 11. Ballinglanna north 1-E2414 http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/e2414-ballinglanna-north1-co-cork/1 Scope of the projectThe archaeological works associated with the N8 Fermoy to Mitchelstown Bypass wascarried out on behalf of Cork County Council, National Road Design Office, Rich-mond, Glanmire, Co. Cork. The project was funded by the Irish Government under theNational Development Plan 2007-2013. The total archaeological cost was administeredby the National Roads Authority through Cork County Council as part of the Author-ity’s commitment to protecting our cultural heritage. The purpose of the archaeologicalservices project was to conduct archaeological site investigations within the lands madeavailable, to assess the nature and extent of any potential new sites uncovered and topreserve by record those sites of agreed archaeological significance, as approved by theDepartment of Environment, Heritage and Local Government in consultation with theNational Museum of Ireland. Phase 1 of the project (archaeological testing of the route) was carried out in October2005 under licence 05E1150 issued by Department of the Environment Heritage and Lo-cal Government (DoEHLG). The principal aim of this phase of the project was to test forany previously unknown sites by a programme of centreline and offset testing and to testsites of archaeological potential identified in the EIS and geophysical surveying. Five Cul-tural Heritage Sites were tested under individual excavation licences 05E1122-05E1126. Phase 2 of the project (resolution) involved the resolution of all archaeological sitesidentified within the proposed road corridor prior to commencement of the constructionof the bypass. This phase of the project was carried out from September 2006 to Septem-ber 2007 and excavations were conducted under the management of a Senior Archaeolo-gist. A total of 28 sites were excavated during this phase of works under separate licencesissued by DoEHLG. A post-excavation assessment and strategy document was prepared in Phase 3 of theproject to present a management strategy for dealing with post-excavation work arisingfrom archaeological works along the route of the new N8 Fermoy to Mitchelstown By-pass. It included a proposal for post-excavation and archiving work and a budget for theworks. The document detailed the location of the route, the receiving environment, thearchaeological and historical background, the scope of the project and the circumstancesand scope of fieldwork. The document presented a scheme-wide summary of the archaeo-logical findings, a research framework within which the findings were dealt with and apublication plan and dissemination strategy for the end results.2 Route locationThe route of the N8 Fermoy to Mitchelstown road is located in the rich pastureland ofNorth Cork (Figure 1). The project involves the construction of c. 16 km of the N8 fromGortore north of Fermoy to Carrigane north-east of Mitchelstown. The N8 Fermoy toMitchelstown road passes through the townlands of Gortore, Ballynacarriga, Glenwood,Ballinglanna North, Ballinrush, Caherdrinny, Gortnahown, Ballybeg, Turbeagh, Glena- 1
  • 12. iSSUE 10: Eachtra JoUrnal - iSSn 2009-2237 archaEological Excavation rEport N Derry Donegal Antrim Tyrone Leitrim Fermanagh Armagh Down Sligo Cavan Garryleagh 1 Carrigane 1 Louth Mayo Roscommon Longford E2433 E2434 Meath Westmeath Dublin Gal ay w Offaly Kildare Clare Laois Wicklow Kildrum 1 Carlow E3971 Tippeary r Kilkenny Limerick Wexford Kilshanny 3 Kerry N8 Waterford E2432 Cork Kilshanny 2 E2431 Ballynamona 2 Kilshanny 1 E2429 E2430 Ballynamona 1 Glenatluckly 1 E2428 E2427 Gortnahown 2 E2426 Gortnahown 1 Gortnahown 3 E2423 E2477 Gortnahown 4 E3832 Caherdrinny 3 E2422 Caherdrinny 2 E2421 Caherdrinny 1 E2420 Ballinrush 1 E2419 Ballinglanna North 5 E2418 Ballinglanna North 4 E2417 Ballinglanna North 3 E2416 Ballinglanna North 6 E3972 Ballinglanna North 2 E2415 Ballinglanna North 1 Ballinglanna North 1 E2414 E2414 Ballynacarriga 3 E2412 Ballynacarriga 2 E2413 Ballynacarriga 1 Key E2411 Post Medieval Gortore 1B Early Medieval E2410 Gortore 2 Prehistoric Site E3973 Prehistoric Settlement Site Burnt Mound Non-archaeological 0km 2km Townland BoundariesFigure 1: The route of the N8 Fermoy to Mitchelstown Bypass overlain on the Ordnance Survey Discovery Series map� 2
  • 13. Ballinglanna north 1-E2414 http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/e2414-ballinglanna-north1-co-cork/tlucky, Ballynamona, Kilshanny, Corracunna, Kildrum, Garryleagh, and Carrigane. Thetownlands are located in the parishes of Kilcrumper, Glanworth and Brigown and Baronyof Condons Clangibbon, with the exception of Gortore, and Glenwood, which arelocated in the Barony of Fermoy. The route begins at the northern end of the Fermoy Bypass at Gortore, c. 2km northof Fermoy, and continues northwards across the River Funshion, and to the west of theGlencorra Stream, a tributary of the Funshion, for 4 km. At Caherdrinny, it crosses overthe western extremities of the Kilworth Mountains. From there it descends north-east-wards onto the broad plain that extends east and north-eastwards from Mitchelstown. Itcrosses the existing N8 at Gortnahown and passes to the east of Mitchelstown, crossingthe R665 Mitchelstown-Ballyporeen road and links up with the N8 Cashel MitchelstownRoad at Carrigane south of Kilbeheny and 2 km west of where the borders of the Cork,Limerick and Tipperary counties meet.3 Receiving environmentThe topography of East Cork and Waterford consists of east/west valleys separated by in-tervening ridges. The ridges consist of sandstones and mudstones of the Devonian Period(Old Red Sandstone) laid down 355-410 million years ago and the valleys of Carbonifer-ous limestones laid down 290-355 million years ago. The sediments covering many ofthe rocks are mainly of glacial origin deposited by glacial ice or meltwater (Sleeman andMcConnell 1995, 1). The landscape of the area is dominated by the Galtee Mountains to the north, theBallyhoura Mountains to the north-west, the Kilworth Mountains to the east and theNagles to the south. The landscape is drained by the Blackwater River, the FunshionRiver (which flows into the Blackwater River c. 2 km north-east of Fermoy), and theGlencorra Stream, a tributary of the Funshion River. The largest population centres inthe area, Fermoy and Mitchelstown, have developed on the banks of the River Blackwaterand Gradoge (a tributary of the Funshion), respectively. The route begins at Gortore, c. 2 km north of Fermoy, at an elevation of c. 40 m OD.At Caherdrinny, it rises to its maximum elevation of c. 180 m OD as it crosses over thewestern extremities of the Kilworth Mountains, before descending onto the broad plainthat that extends east and north-eastwards from Mitchelstown, at an elevation of 100-120m OD. The soils on the southern portion of the route are characterised by acid brown earthsderived from mixed sandstone and limestone glacial till. These soils occur generally inthe valleys of Cork and Waterford (Gardiner and Radford 1980, 61), and have a wide userange, being suitable for tillage and grass production. The soils on the western limits ofKilworth Mountains are characterised by brown podzolics derived from sandstone. Thesoils on the northern portion of the route are characterised by brown podzolics derivedfrom sandstone and shale glacial till. They have a wide range of potential uses and are well 3
  • 14. iSSUE 10: Eachtra JoUrnal - iSSn 2009-2237 archaEological Excavation rEport suited to arable and pastoral farming (ibid., 67). Land use along the route was almost en- tirely grassland devoted to intensive dairying and cattle-rearing, with only an occasional tillage field. 4 Archaeological and historical background Archaeological sites of numerous periods were discovered along the route of the new road (Figure 2). The periods are referred to as follows: Mesolithic (c. 8000 to 4000 BC), Neolithic (c. 4000 to 2000 BC), Chalcolithic (Beaker) (c. 2500-2000 BC), Bronze Age (c. 2000 to 500 BC), and Iron Age (c. 500 BC to AD 500), early medieval period (c. AD 500 to 1100), medieval period (c. AD 1100 to 1650), post-medieval period (c. AD 1650 to the present). A number of Giant Irish Deer (Megaloceros giganteus) skulls, large antlers, antler frag- ments and various long-bones were retrieved from the clay sediments, c. 1.5 m below the peat stratum at Ballyoran Bog (04E1014) on the route of the N8 Rathcormac Fermoy. A radiocarbon date of cal BC 11201-10962 was returned for the Giant Irish Deer. Gi- ant Irish Deer are extinct but are known to have inhabited Ireland during two separate periods in the Pleistocene (from 37,000-32,000 BP and 11,750-10,950 BP), with examples from lake deposits beneath peat bogs frequently dating to the period between 11,750 BP and 10,950 BP (Woodman et al. 1997). The Ballyoran Bog examples were found in this typical location of lacustrine (lake) sediments beneath peat and they therefore pre-date the beginnings of bog formation and the first human settlement of the area. Mesolithic (c. 8000 to 4000 BC) The earliest known human settlement in Ireland dates from the Mesolithic period (c. 8000 BC - 4000 BC). In Munster, the majority of the evidence (flint scatters) for Meso- lithic occupation has ‘come from the Blackwater valley in Co. Cork’ (Woodman 1989, 116). Flint scatters were recorded in the townlands of Kilcummer Lower (CO034-060) on the northern bank of the Blackwater c. 13 km to the south-west of the route and in Ballynamona (CO018-099) and Wallstown (CO018-100) on the northern and southern sides of the Awbeg river respectively c. 20 km to the west of the route (Power et al. 2000, 2). Mesolithic sites and find spots were recorded on other road schemes in Co. Cork, these included; Rath-healy 3 03E1678 and Curraghprevin 3 03E1138 (N8 Rathcormac Fermoy Bypass), Ballynacarriaga 1 01E0567 (N25 Youghal Bypass), Ballinaspig More 5 01E0546 (N22 Ballincollig Bypass) and Carrigrohane 3 02E0431 (N22 BG). Mesolithic activity was recorded on the route of the N8 Fermoy-Mitchelstown at Gortore E2410 and at Caherdrinny 3 E2422 and Mesolithic stone tools were recovered from Ballinglanna North 1 E2414, Ballinglanna North 3 E2416 and Ballinglanna North 6 E3972.4
  • 15. Ballinglanna north 1-E2414 http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/e2414-ballinglanna-north1-co-cork/ N Derry Donegal Antrim Tyrone Leitrim Fermanagh Armagh Down Sligo Cavan Garryleagh 1 Carrigane 1 Louth Mayo Roscommon Longford E2433 E2434 Meath Westmeath Dublin Gal ay w Offaly Kildare Clare Laois Wicklow Kildrum 1 Carlow E3971 Tippeary r Kilkenny Limerick Wexford Kilshanny 3 Kerry N8 Waterford E2432 Cork Kilshanny 2 E2431 Ballynamona 2 Kilshanny 1 E2429 E2430 Ballynamona 1 Glenatluckly 1 E2428 E2427 Gortnahown 2 E2426 Gortnahown 1 Gortnahown 3 E2423 E2477 Gortnahown 4 E3832 Caherdrinny 3 E2422 Caherdrinny 2 E2421 Caherdrinny 1 E2420 Ballinrush 1 E2419 Ballinglanna North 5 E2418 Ballinglanna North 4 E2417 Ballinglanna North 3 E2416 Ballinglanna North 6 E3972 Ballinglanna North 2 E2415 Ballinglanna North 1 Ballinglanna North 1 E2414 E2414 Ballynacarriga 3 E2412 Ballynacarriga 2 E2413 Ballynacarriga 1 Key E2411 Post Medieval Gortore 1B Early Medieval E2410 Gortore 2 Prehistoric Site E3973 Prehistoric Settlement Site Burnt Mound Non-archaeological 0km 2km Townland BoundariesFigure 2: The route of the N8 Fermoy to Mitchelstown Bypass overlain on the first edition Ordnance Survey map CO010, 011, 019, 020, 027 and 028� 5
  • 16. iSSUE 10: Eachtra JoUrnal - iSSn 2009-2237 archaEological Excavation rEport Neolithic (c. 4000 to 2000 BC) The Neolithic Period is characterised by the introduction of agriculture and the begin- nings of the clearance of the woodlands. The population increased and became more sedentary in nature. A substantial Neolithic settlement site has been recorded at Lough Gur, Co. Limerick. Previously the nearest known Neolithic house was located in Pepper- hill (CO016-226/01) c. 30 km to the northwest of the route. It was recorded during the construction of the Bruff-Mallow gas pipeline (Gowen 1988, 44-51). The material culture includes the manufacture of pottery, flint and stone arrowheads, scrapers, axes etc. The range of monuments types includes Megalithic tombs, single burial graves and stone circles. Megalithic tombs can be sub-divided into court tombs, portal tombs, passage tombs and wedge tombs. There are few wedge tombs or stone circles known from north or east Cork. Two of the exceptions are wedge tombs located at Lab- bacallee (CO027-086), which is one of the largest wedge tombs in the country, and at Manning (CO027-091) both located c. 4 km west of the N8. Recent infrastructural work on the N8 Rathcormac to Fermoy and the Ballincollig Bypass have added significantly to the number of Neolithic sites in the county. A Neo- lithic house was excavated at Gortore (E2119), on the N8 Rathcormac to Fermoy road and another Neolithic house was excavated at Barnagore (02E0384), along the route of the Ballincollig Bypass. Both of these Cork examples produced essentially the same ra- diocarbon results (cal BC 3940-3620 at Barnagore and cal BC 3928-3655 from Gortore) and they represent the oldest known houses in the county. A single pit at Fermoy town- land (05E0078), located c. 3 km to the south of Gortore, produced 12 sherds of a Middle Neolithic Globular bowl, and another site at Curraghprevin (c.12 km south of Gortore) produced Western Neolithic (Early Neolithic) pottery and a radiocarbon date of 3090- 2580 BC (Late Neolithic). Rectangular Neolithic houses were recorded on the route of the N8 FM at Gortore 1b (E2410), Ballinglanna North 3 (E2416) and Caherdrinny 3 (E2422). A large enclosure containing several structures associated with Late Neolithic pottery was excavated at Bal- lynacarriaga 3 (E2412). Activity dating to the Neolithic was also recorded at Ballynamona 1 (E2428), Ballynamona 2 (E2429), and Gortnahown 2 (E2426) and Gortore 2 (E3973). Bronze Age (c. 2000 to 500 BC) The Bronze Age is characterised by the introduction of metallurgy and an increase in settlement and burial sites. Copper ores were mined and copper, bronze and gold items manufactured. The range of burial site types includes cist graves, pit and urn burials, cremation cemeteries, barrows, ring-ditches and wedge tombs. Stone circles and stand- ing stones also date to the Bronze Age. Both enclosed and unenclosed settlement sites are known. The most prolific Bronze Age site type is the fulacht fiadh; over 2,000 examples have been recorded in County Cork alone. These monuments survive as low mounds of charcoal rich black silt, packed with heat-shattered stones, and generally situated close to a water source. Fulachta fiadh are generally classified as ‘cooking places’, whereby stones6
  • 17. Ballinglanna north 1-E2414 http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/e2414-ballinglanna-north1-co-cork/were heated in a hearth and subsequently placed in a trough of water, the water continuedto boil with the addition of hot stones and wrapped food was cooked within the hot wa-ter. The trough eventually filled with small stones, ash and charcoal that were removed,forming the basis of the familiar mound. The Bronze Age cemetery site at Mitchelstowndown West, c. 16 km to the north ofMitchelstown, contains 53 small barrows. The Discovery Programme Report 1 (Daly andGrogan 1992, 44) selected four of this group for excavation. Until recently, Bronze Age settlement sites were a rarity in North Cork. A Bronze Ageoccupation site was recorded underlying the medieval ringfort Lisleagh I (CO027-158)c. 2.5 km to the west of the N8 (Power et al. 2000, 210). A house site was excavated atKillydonoghoe on the route of the N8 Glanmire-Watergrasshill Bypass (Sherlock 2003).Three circular houses dating to the Middle Bronze Age were excavated at Mitchelstown(04E1072) on the N8 Mitchelstown Relief Road. A large Bronze Age settlement site con-sisting of three circular enclosures and three circular houses was excavated in 2003 atBallybrowney (03E1058), on the route of the N8 Rathcormac-Fermoy (Cotter 2005, 40). Bronze Age round houses were recorded on the route of the N8 Fermoy – Mitchel-stown at Kilshanny 1 (E2432) and Ballynamona 2 (E2429). Burnt mounds/fulachta fiadhsites were recorded at Ballinglanna North 1 (E2414), Ballinglanna North 3 (E2416), Ball-inglanna North 6 (E3972), Ballynamona 2 (E2429), Caherdrinny 1 (E2420), Kilshanny3 (E2432) and Kildrum 1 (E3971). Two ring ditches and associated cists and pits burialswere recorded at Ballynacarriga 3 (E2412). Portions of several encrusted urns and foodvessels dating to the Early Bronze Age were recorded in association with the burials. Acremation burial and associated Early Bronze Age urn were also recorded at Glenatlucky(E2427).Iron Age (c. 500 BC to AD 500)Until the last decade there was little evidence of a significant Iron Age presence in theCork region. Settlement sites are few and far between as well as being difficult to identify(Woodman, 2000) while the material culture of this period is limited. Linear earthworks,believed to have marked tribal boundaries, and hillforts are two of the most visible monu-ments of the period. Three separate stretches of a linear boundary, the Claidh Dubh, have been recorded inCounty Cork. The longest stretch, c. 24 km in length extends from the Nagle Mountains,across the Blackwater valley and into the Ballyhoura Hills. Radiocarbon dating followingexcavation of a section of it revealed it dated to some time before AD100 (Doody 1995,23). Two of the four hillfort sites in Cork are located in North Cork (Power et al. 2000,205). Caherdrinny (CO019:97/0103) is located at the western end of the KilworthMountains, c. 700 m to the west of the N8, Corrin (CO035:49/01) is located at the east-ern end of the Nagle Mountains, overlooking a pass between the Blackwater and Brideriver valleys just south of Fermoy. 7
  • 18. iSSUE 10: Eachtra JoUrnal - iSSn 2009-2237 archaEological Excavation rEport Iron Age dates were returned from a roundhouse at Ballinaspig More 5 01E0546, a possible bowl furnace at Curraheen 1 01E1209 and the fulacht fiadh at Curraheen 4 02E1297 on the N22 Ballincollig Bypass; the Iron Age structure at Muckridge 1 01E0429 on the N25 Youghal Bypass; iron working sites at Kilrussane 01E0701 and Trabstown 01E0501 on the N8 Glanmire Watergrasshill Bypass; the iron working site at Lisnagar De- mesne 1 03E1510, the pit at Maulane East 1 03E1286, the pit at Scartbarry 3 03E1800, the corn-drying kiln at Rath-healy 1 03E1139, the burnt mound at Fermoy Wood 04E1014 and the ring ditch at Ballybrowney Lower 3 05E0233 all on the M8 Rathcormac Fermoy. Activity dating to the Iron Age was recorded on the route of the N8 Fermoy – Mitch- elstown at Ballinglanna North 3 E2416, Ballinglanna North 4 E2417, Ballynacarriaga 3 E2412, Gortnahown 1 E2423, Gortnahown 3 E2477 and Caherdrinny 3 E2422. The sites, with the exception of a single fire pit at Ballinglanna North 4 E2417, did not date exclusively to the Iron Age. Early medieval period (c. AD 500 to 1100) The early medieval period is characterised by the arrival of Christianity to Ireland. The characteristic monument type of the period is the ringfort. Ringforts are the most nu- merous archaeological monument found in Ireland, with estimates of between 30,000 and 50,000 illustrated on the first edition of the Ordnance Survey 6” maps of the 1840’s (Barry 1987). As a result of continued research, the construction of these monuments has a narrow date range during the early medieval period between the 7th and 9th centuries AD. Although there are some very elaborate examples of ringforts, they often take the form of a simple earth or stone enclosure functioning as settlements for all classes of secu- lar society (Stout 1997). A major research excavation of two ringforts was undertaken at Lisleagh, c. 2.5 km to the west of the N8 route, in the late 1980s/early1990s. Structural, domestic and industrial evidence was recorded at both sites. A number of stake and wattle round houses, and ironworking were recorded in Lisleagh I, which had two phases of occupation, ranging from the early 7th century to the 9th century AD (Monk 1995, 105-116). Souterrains, frequently associated with ringforts and enclosures, are man made un- derground chambers linked by narrow passageways. The concealed entrance is located at ground level. It is thought souterrains were used for storage or places of refuge during times of trouble (Clinton 2001). It has also been hypothesised that some may have been used for housing slaves. The monastery of Brigown (which gave the name to the modern parish in Mitchel- stown) was founded in the 7th century by Fanahan. Fanahan is reputed to have com- missioned seven smiths to make seven sickles which were used by him for self-mortifica- tion. The new monastery was named, Brí Gabhann, for the smiths (Power 1996, 3). The ecclesiastical remains comprise a church, graveyard, holy well and site of round tower (CO019:30/01-05). A possible enclosure site with evidence of metalworking was excavated8
  • 19. Ballinglanna north 1-E2414 http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/e2414-ballinglanna-north1-co-cork/by John Purcell in Brigown. This was possibly the enclosure of Brigown. No dates wereobtained from the site (John Purcell personal communication). A horizontal-wheeled mill (CO027-108) was located on the northern side of the Glen-corra Stream c. 120 m north of the confluence with the River Funshion. A ringfort and associated souterrain (CO027-109) were excavated on the route of theN8 Fermoy – Mitchelstown at Ballynacarriga 2 (E2413). Two circular houses and a com-prehensive range of metalworking activities were excavated at Gortnahown 2 (E2426).Sites with evidence of metalworking activities were also excavated at Ballynamona 2(E2429) and Ballinglanna North 1 (E2412).High and later medieval periods (c. AD 1100 to 1650)This period is characterized by the arrival of the Anglo-Normans and the building oftower houses. Mitchelstown was formerly known as Brigown / Mitchelstown (CO019-149). It was listed as a market town in 1299 and was located on the southern bank of theGradoge River, to the east of Mitchelstown Castle (Power et al. 2000, 595). The towndeveloped under the patronage of the House of Desmond. It passed into the hands of theEarls of Kingston in the 17th century (Power 1996, 23). The Condon family controlled the barony of Condons and Clongibbon. Two oftheir castles are located in close vicinity to the route of the N8 FM. Cloghleagh Castle(CO027:113) is located on the northern bank of the Funshion River to the east of thenew route. It was built on an outcrop of limestone bedrock. It is a 5-storey tower withassociated bawn wall (Power et al. 2000, 537). Caherdrinny Castle (CO019:97/02) is lo-cated to the west of the route. It was a 5-storey tower built within the hillfort enclosure(CO019:97/0103). Glanworth Castle (Boherash CO027-42) is located on a sheer lime-stone cliff overlooking the River Funshion 5 km to the west of the route. The 13th-centuryhall house is associated with a four-sided walled enclosure (ibid. 516).Post-medieval period (c. 1650 to the present).The post-medieval period is characterised by mills, limekilns, workhouses, country hous-es and associated demesnes, vernacular buildings and field systems (Figure 3). Three de-mesnes associated with country houses are within the route of the N8 at Moorepark,Ballynacarriga and Glenwood. The estate system was dismantled in Ireland in the early20th century. Demesnes usually comprise of a large country house with associated stables,farm buildings and gate lodges, areas of woodland and ornamental gardens etc. The de-mesne was usually enclosed by a high stone wall such as that associated with Moorepark.Moorepark house and demesne was the seat of the Earls Mountcashell (Lewis 1988, 312).The Moorepark Estate covered an area around 800 acres and extended both north andsouth of the river Funshion. The house was sold to the British War Office c. 1903 bythe 5th Earl’s daughter (Bence-Jones 1996, 211). It burned down in 1908 and was neverrebuilt. No trace of it now survives The demesne is clearly defined by woodland on the 9
  • 20. iSSUE 10: Eachtra JoUrnal - iSSn 2009-2237 archaEological Excavation rEport N Derry Donegal Antrim Tyrone Leitrim Fermanagh Armagh Down Sligo Cavan Garryleagh 1 Carrigane 1 Louth Mayo Roscommon Longford E2433 E2434 Meath Westmeath Dublin Gal ay w Offaly Kildare Clare Laois Wicklow Kildrum 1 Carlow E3971 Tippeary r Kilkenny Limerick Wexford Kilshanny 3 Kerry N8 Waterford E2432 Cork Kilshanny 2 E2431 Ballynamona 2 Kilshanny 1 E2429 E2430 Ballynamona 1 Glenatluckly 1 E2428 E2427 Gortnahown 2 E2426 Gortnahown 1 Gortnahown 3 E2423 E2477 Gortnahown 4 E3832 Caherdrinny 3 E2422 Caherdrinny 2 E2421 Caherdrinny 1 E2420 Ballinrush 1 E2419 Ballinglanna North 5 E2418 Ballinglanna North 4 E2417 Ballinglanna North 3 E2416 Ballinglanna North 6 E3972 Ballinglanna North 2 E2415 Ballinglanna North 1 Ballinglanna North 1 E2414 E2414 Ballynacarriga 3 E2412 Ballynacarriga 2 E2413 Ballynacarriga 1 Key E2411 Post Medieval Gortore 1B Early Medieval E2410 Gortore 2 Prehistoric Site E3973 Prehistoric Settlement Site Burnt Mound Non-archaeological 0km 2km Townland BoundariesFigure 3: The route of the N8 Fermoy to Mitchelstown Bypass overlain on the RMP map CO010, 011, 019, 020, 027 and 028� The map is based on the second edition Ordnance Survey maps� 10
  • 21. Ballinglanna north 1-E2414 http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/e2414-ballinglanna-north1-co-cork/Plate 1: View of Glencorra Bridge from north1841-2 and 1906 edition Ordnance Survey maps, which was most likely enclosed by awall. It is likely that the demesne walls are contemporary with the mansion house andtherefore date to the 18th century. The Cork to Dublin mail coach road originally ran towest of the demesne walls as it appears on the 1841-2 and 1906 Ordnance Survey maps. The site of a workhouse (C0019-11301-) built in 1852 is located in Kilshanny townlandto the east of Mitchelstown. The complex of buildings, including a hospital chapel andmortuary, was enclosed within a three-metre high limestone wall and could accommo-date up to 600 people. Closed in 1916 and burned by the IRA in 1922, only the boundarywall and main entrance way survive today (Power 2002, 48). A late 19th century bridge of rubble limestone, approached by a causeway at eitherend, carries a tertiary road from Kilworth-Glanworth over the Glencorra Stream. A roadcrosses the stream at the same location on the 1841-2 Ordnance survey map, but thebridging structure is not named. The site is named Glencorra Bridge on the 1906 editionof the Ordnance Survey map and is of local architectural significance.5 Site Location and TopographyThe site at Ballinglanna North 1 is located on the western bank of the Glencorra Streamand the northern side of the Glencorra Bridge. The Glencorra Bridge (Plate 1) crosses thesouthern end of the Glencorra Stream c. 400 m before it joins the River Funshion. Thesite is located on the flood plain of the river (Plate 2). The western side of the Glencorravalley, which is mostly wooded, rises steeply to the west. 11
  • 22. 181424 18149212 375 ± 103212 103212 92 Ditch 272 Fulacht Fiadh 126 iSSUE 10: Eachtra JoUrnal - iSSn 2009-2237 178 O ) Group of postholes, 38 m O.D. stakeholes and pits 181 14 22 382 333 6 29 10 183 72 144 20 270 176 284 378 331 39 64 30 174 191 17 24 27 292 185 Metalworking 78 4 70 274 230 260 220 area 88 8 376 241 318 Structure 325 264 213 268 303 255 320 296 215 305 258 328 82 342 74 323 83 344 301 41 42 75 340 390 353 315 m 354 a 370 tre Features as 103165 103165 r associated 372 or c with stream len G 0 25 m 181424 181492 archaEological Excavation rEport Figure 4: Post-excavation plan of Ballinglanna North 1�
  • 23. Ballinglanna north 1-E2414 http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/e2414-ballinglanna-north1-co-cork/Plate 2: View of area of excavation at Ballinglanna North 1 from north-east� Note location of Glencorra Bridge� 6 Excavation methodologyThe excavation was carried out under E-Number E2414 and complied with the methodstatement approved by the Department of Environment, Heritage, and Local Govern-ment, in consultation with the National Museum of Ireland. The site was mechanicallystripped of topsoil under strict archaeological supervision. Stripping was done with atracked machine with a flat toothless bucket. Where appropriate mini-diggers were used,and in the larger areas to be stripped multiple large tracked machines were used; all strip-ping operations involved the use of multiple dumpers for topsoil mounding. Topsoil strip-ping commenced in the areas of identified archaeology and continued radially outwarduntil the limit of the road take was reached or until the limit of the archaeological re-mains was fully defined. A grid was set up in the excavation area(s) and all archaeologicalfeatures were sufficiently cleaned, recorded and excavated so as to enable an accurate andmeaningful record of the site to be preserved. The excavation, environmental sampling,site photographs, site drawings, find care and retrieval, on-site recording and site archivewas as per the Procedures for Archaeological works as attached to the licence methodstatements for excavation licences. The site was excavated over a 19 week period from 6 October 2006 to 7 March 2007by a crew of six people. Only areas within the CPO were resolved. The full extent of thearea of excavation measured 4,500 m2. The full record of excavated contexts is recordedin the context register (Appendix 1) and the stratigraphic matrix (Appendix 2). Detailedstratigraphic descriptions are found in the groups and sub-groups text (Appendix 3). 13
  • 24. iSSUE 10: Eachtra JoUrnal - iSSn 2009-2237 archaEological Excavation rEport 181427 181431 ± 272 178103194 103194 Fulacht Fiadh 181 231 225 249 Trough 243 245103188 103188 233 247 183 251 219 176 229 168 174 185 187 230 191 274 Structure 0 2 m 181427 181431 Figure 5: Post-excavation plan of the fulacht fiadh area� 14
  • 25. Ballinglanna north 1-E2414 http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/e2414-ballinglanna-north1-co-cork/7 Excavation resultsThis site comprised of a range of features including a fulacht fiadh, a substantial ditch,pits associated with metalworking, an area of occupation comprising a group of post-holes, stake-holes and pits, a post-medieval structure and a group of linear features associ-ated with the Glencorra Stream (Figure 4, Plates 3 and 4). A layer of colluvium coveredthe western half of the site up to a depth of 0.7 m. It originated from the western side ofthe Glencorra valley and spread across the flood plain of the river.Fulacht fiadhThe fulacht fiadh was located at the western side of the site on low lying ground at thebase of the side of the valley of the Glencorra Stream. The stream itself, flowing in asoutherly direction, was located 50 m to the east. The trough (C.183) measured 2.2 m in length, 1.8 m in width and 0.8 m in depth. Itwas rectangular in shape with a flat base, with some stone lining still evident (Figures 5and 6, Plate 5). It was connected to a water management system which extended from thesouth-east corner to the south. The trough directly connected to a gully (C.229) whichmeasured 2.22 m in length, 1.46 m in width and 0.27 m in depth. The basal fill of thegully was sandy and the upper fills were a mixture of burnt mound material. A flint blade(E2414:US:1) dating to the Early Mesolithic was recovered from the area of the north-west corner of the trough. The gully in turn was connected to a well (C.230) (Figure 7, plate 6). The well waslocated 2.28 m south of the trough. It measured 2.16 m in length, 1.66 m in width and0.51 m in depth. It was consistently full of water during the process of excavation. Thismay have been used as a water supply to fill the large trough. The trough, gully and well were truncated by cut features, which were interpreted aspossible troughs (C.187, C.191 and C.219). The trough (C.187) lay directly over the fillof the gully (C.229), while the second trough (C.191), truncated both the fills of gully(C.229) and well (C.230). The third trough (C.219) truncated the intersection of the maintrough and the water gully. All were of a later date than the water management system butmay have been used as a later phase of activity in connection with the main trough C.183.The fills of all of the troughs were a mixture of burnt mound material. Context Length (m) Width (m) Depth (m) Volume (m3) 183 2.2 1.8 0.8 3.168 187 1.72 1.05 0.28 0.505 191 1.27 0.9 0.18 0.205 219 0.92 0.56 0.48 0.247Table 1: Dimension of the troughs There were six post-holes (C.174, C.176, C.185, C.225, C.231 and C.233), five stake-holes (C.234, C.245, C.247, C.249 and C.251) and three pits (C.168, C.178 and C.181)associated with the fulacht fiadh. Of these three post-holes (C.225, C.231 and C.233) and 15
  • 26. 16 Ballinglanna North 1 E2414 East facing section of trough C.183 C.163 iSSUE 10: Eachtra JoUrnal - iSSn 2009-2237 Baulk C.184 C.163 Limit of Excavation C.183 0 500 mm archaEological Excavation rEport Figure 6: Section of trough C�183�
  • 27. Ballinglanna north 1-E2414 http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/e2414-ballinglanna-north1-co-cork/Plate 3: View of mid-excavation at Ballinglanna North 1 from the surface of Glencorra Bridge�Plate 4: View of western extent of area of excavation at Ballinglanna North 1 from north� The two rang- ing rods set at right angles mark the location of the trough C�183� 17
  • 28. iSSUE 10: Eachtra JoUrnal - iSSn 2009-2237 archaEological Excavation rEport Plate 5: View of trough C�183 from east� Plate 6: View of well C�230 in fore- ground and gully C�229 and unexcavated trough C�183 in background from south-east�18
  • 29. Ballinglanna north 1-E2414 http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/e2414-ballinglanna-north1-co-cork/all five stake-holes (C.243, C.245, C.247, C.249 and C.251) were associated with the maintrough C.183, suggesting that the trough was timber lined. Three of the post-holes cut thecorners of the trough, the south-western corner being the exception. The fill of post-holeC.231 returned a Late Bronze Age date of cal BC 766-537 529-524 (UB-12969). Three ofthe stake-holes (C.243, C.245 and C.247) cut the post-hole C.233 on the south-easternedge of the trough. A fourth stake-hole C.251 was located immediately to the east. Thefifth state-hole C.249 was located to the east of post-hole C.231. All the stake-holes mayhave supported the post-hole C.233. The other three post-holes (C.174, C.176 and C.185) and three pits (C.168, C.178 andC.181) were located beneath the spread of burnt mound material. The post-holes werelocated to the south-west of the trough and two of the pits to the north-east. The post-holes were similar in plan and size and may have formed part of a temporary structureassociated with the trough. Context Diameter (m) Depth (m) 174 0.32 0.27 176 0.4 0.24 185 0.3 0.2Table 2: Dimension of the post-holes The pits varied in terms of size, plan and contents. None of the fills were derived fromthe burnt mound material. Context Length (m) Width (m) Depth (m) 168 1.07 0.2 0.15 178 1.3 0.62 0.21 181 0.58 0.52 0.34Table 3: Dimension of the pits The burnt mound material (C.163) was composed of charcoal and heat shattered stone(Plate 7). It overlay the trough and all of the cut features mentioned above. It measured15.6 m in length, 7.75 m in width and was a maximum of 0.4 m in depth. A retouchedflint artefact (E2414:163:1) dating to the Early Bronze Age was recovered from the layer.Two layers (C.164, C.166) of colluvium, overlaid the burnt mound material. Charredplant remains were recovered from layer C.163, a fill of the well C.230 and a post-holeC.225. They were predominantly barley but also included rye and a small percentage ofwheat and oat. Two pits (C.171, C.257) and a post-hole (C.211) truncated the burnt mound materialafter the abandonment of the fulacht fiadh. The three features were located in the vicinityof the trough C.183 and may have been associated with modern agriculture.Large pitsThere were two large pits (C.268 and C.292), in close proximity, on the south-westernedge of the area of excavation. The largest pit C.268 measured 2.42 m in length by 1.4 m 19
  • 30. 20 Ballinglanna North 1 E2414 North east facing section of C.230/229 C.196 C.191 C.195 C.193 iSSUE 10: Eachtra JoUrnal - iSSn 2009-2237 C.188 C.192 C.187 C.194 C.229 C.189 C.190 C.230 0 500 mm archaEological Excavation rEport Figure 7: Section of gully C�229 and well C�230�
  • 31. 181438 181444 ± 378 Ditch 103183 103183 Ballinglanna north 1-E2414 260 220 264 376 241 255 213 Metalworking area 215 103179 103179 258 0 5m 181438 181444 Figure 8: Post-excavation plan of the metal working features� http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/e2414-ballinglanna-north1-co-cork/21
  • 32. 22 Ballinglanna North 1 E2414 South west facing section of C.213 S S C.217 C.214 S C.213 iSSUE 10: Eachtra JoUrnal - iSSn 2009-2237 Ballinglanna North 1 E2414 North facing section of C.215 C.216 C.215 Ballinglanna North 1 E2414 North facing section of C.220 C.221 0 500 mm C.220 archaEological Excavation rEport Figure 9: Section of pits C�213, C�215 and C�220
  • 33. Ballinglanna north 1-E2414 http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/e2414-ballinglanna-north1-co-cork/Plate 7: View of main layer of mound material C�183 from north-west�in width, with a depth of 1.22 m (Plate 8). A moderate quantity of cereal grains was re-covered from the fills of the pit. In contrast to the percentage breakdown of plant remainsfrom the other areas of the site, oat was the most common cereal type in these deposits,representing 55% of the identifiable cereal count. Rye and barley were also present insmaller amounts. A small quantity of iron slag was recovered from one of the fills. The smaller pit C.292, located to the north-east of pit C.268, measured 1.56 m inlength, by 1.77 m in width with a depth of 0.76 m (Plate 9). The pit was only partiallyexcavated as it extended beyond the edge of the excavation. One of the fills returned anearly medieval date of cal AD 664-782 789-811 847-854 (UB-12970). A single stake-hole C.266 was located to the south of large pit C.268 at a distance ofapproximately 1.5 m. A single post-hole C.270 was located 2 m north of the pit C.292.The post-hole could be related to the three post-holes (C.174, C.176 and C.185) that wereassociated with the burnt mound. It was similar in size.Metalworking areaFive pits (C.213, C.215, C.220, C.241 and C.255) were concentrated in a group on theeastern side of the ditch (Figures 8 and 9). These pits were all located within a 6 m diam-eter of one another. The pits were generally sub-rectangular in shape. Charcoal, iron nails(E2414:217:2 and E2414:221:1) and iron slag was recovered from fills of four of the pits(C.213, C.220, C.241 and C.255). Two retouched lithics (E2414:214:1 and E2414:214:2),dating to the Early Bronze Age, were recovered from the fill of pit C.213. 23
  • 34. iSSUE 10: Eachtra JoUrnal - iSSn 2009-2237 archaEological Excavation rEport Plate 8: View of pit C� 268� Plate 9: View of east-facing section of pit C�292�24
  • 35. Ballinglanna north 1-E2414 http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/e2414-ballinglanna-north1-co-cork/ Context Length (m) Width (m) Depth (m) 213 1.87 0.61 0.18 215 0.6 0.35 0.15 220 0.6 0.5 0.2 241 1.3 0.35 0.2 255 0.49 0.27 0.24Table 4: Dimension of the pits There were two linear feature (C.260 and C.264) located in the immediate area aroundthe pits described above. Both features were aligned in an east to west direction and lay par-allel to each other at a distance of c. 3 m. Linear C.260 measured 2.56 m in length, 0.38 min width and 0.17 m in depth while linear C.264 measured 2.9 m in length, 0.72 m in widthand 0.17 m in depth. Iron slag was recovered from the fills of both linears. A clay pipe stemand a fragment of an iron blade (E2414:265:1 and 2) was recovered from linear C.264. It islikely that the linears are modern agricultural furrows which truncated the metalworkingarea.DitchA ditch ran north to south across the site for c. 60 m and extended beyond the edge of thearea of excavation to both the north and south. The ditch was approximately 1.5 m wideand ranged in depth from 0.55 m to 1.4 (Plate 10). The ditch was deepest at the northernend of the site and, following the topography of the landscape, became shallower to thesouth. The ditch was cut into the underlying natural clay and river gravel deposits and thesurface was obscured by the layer of colluvium that extended across the site from the west.Plate 10: View of northern section of ditch C�378 from south-west� 25
  • 36. iSSUE 10: Eachtra JoUrnal - iSSn 2009-2237 archaEological Excavation rEport The sides of the ditch were splayed wider at the top forming a partially stepped profile. The lower half of the sides of the ditch was steeper and sharper that the upper ditch sides. Eight distinct phases of deposition within the ditch cut was recorded in the excavated sections of the ditch including silting, re-deposited burnt mound material, several dumps of metalworking residues and colluvium deposits. Structure 1 cut the colluvium overlying the southern area of the ditch. The evidence from the ditch fills, suggests intense occupa- tion of the area, particularly to the east of the ditch on the flatter terrain. Five sections were excavated in the ditch (C.92, C.126, C.382, C.378 and C.376) (Figures 4, 10 and 11). The excavated sections revealed a series of complex deposits repre- senting the construction, erosion, truncation of earlier activity and re-use of the ditch. A basal layer of occupation material was recorded in ditch section C.92 only. It underlay the deposits at the very base of the ditch which were probably derived from natural silting. These accumulated at the base of the ditch from both the inside and outside edges and the erosion of the ditch sides from weathering. These deposits were recorded in four of the ditch sections. A layer of burnt mound material was recorded on the western edge of the ditch in section C.379. It was up to 0.66 m in depth. A series of layers of metalworking residues overlay the silt in four of the ditch sections, ditch section C.126 being the exception. The layers were brown silty clays with inclu- sions of charcoal and slag. An early medieval date of cal AD 684-784 787-827 839-864 (UB12968) was returned from the primary metalworking layer C.338 in ditch section C382. A secondary layer C.222 overlay the primary metalworking residue in ditch sec- tion C.376 only. It measured at least 4 m by 2 m by 0.25 m in depth and extended beyond the area of the section. C. 73 kg of slag was recovered from this layer alone. An iron tool (E2414:222:1) was also recovered from the fill. Layers of silt overlay the primary layer of metalworking residues in all of the ditch sections. They were deepest in the northern sections, particularly in ditch section C.126, and shallowest in the two southern ditch sections C.378 and C.376. It may indicate a period of inactivity at the site or have ac- cumulated from flooding of the Glencorra Stream. Overlying the silting episode were secondary layers of metalworking residues. They occurred in all of the ditch sections except the southernmost ditch section C.376. The amount of metalworking residues in these layers was considerably smaller in size, c. 18 kg, than the primary layers. The ditch was sealed by a layer of colluvium, ranging in depth from 0.3-0.45. It represents the final phase of activity associated with the ditch. Group of post-holes and stake-holes A total of eleven post-holes (C.10, C.14, C.17, C.30, C.33, C.35, C.39, C.64, C.72, C.315, C.318), 14 stake-holes (C.4, C.6, C.8, C.22, C.27, C.29, C.41, C.42, C.63, C.74, C.75, C.78, C.82 and C.83), a linear slot C.144 and two small pits (C.37, C.43) were excavated in the eastern area of the site (Figure 12). In addition nine irregular features (C.20, C.24, C.61, C.70, C.88, C.284, C.325, 331 and C.333) located in the midst of the area of occupa- tion may have been truncated post-holes, stake-holes or small shallow pits.26
  • 37. Ballinglanna North 1 E2414 South west facing section of Trench 4 Area 3 C.145 C.137 C.155 C.148 C.128 C.138 C.130 C.146 C.129 Ballinglanna north 1-E2414 C.344 C.141 C.156 C.131 C.139 C.132 C.140 C.133 C.126 C.134 C.135 C.136 C.145 C.150 C.148 C.143 C.146 C.141 Legend Charcoal C.126 Manganese 0 500 mm Figure 10: Section of ditch C�126� http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/e2414-ballinglanna-north1-co-cork/27
  • 38. 28 Ballinglanna North 1 E2414 South facing section of C.376 slot 8 W E C.373 C.222 iSSUE 10: Eachtra JoUrnal - iSSn 2009-2237 C.278 C.374 C.376 0 500 mm archaEological Excavation rEport Figure 11: Section of ditch C�376�
  • 39. 181464 181472 ± 333 6 Ballinglanna north 1-E2414 22 14 29 10 103190 103190 63 61 144 20 72 Group of postholes, 24 stakeholes and pits 27 30 331 39 64 37 43 17 70 33 35 103185 103185 4 78 88 8 318 325 0 5m 181464 181472 Figure 12: Post-excavation plan of the group of post-holes and stakeholes� http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/e2414-ballinglanna-north1-co-cork/29
  • 40. iSSUE 10: Eachtra JoUrnal - iSSn 2009-2237 archaEological Excavation rEport Context Length (m) Width (m) Depth (m) 10 0.37 0.25 0.23 14 0.26 0.24 0.06 17 0.36 0.30 0.23 30 0.18 0.15 0.06 33 0.26 0.20 0.18 35 0.40 0.30 0.30 39 0.30 0.26 0.27 64 0.31 0.25 0.2 72 0.42 0.31 0.25 315 0.15 0.14 0.08 318 0.57 0.34 0.20 Table 5: Dimension of the post-holes Flecks of charcoal and burnt bone were common in the fills of many of these features indicating some domestic activity in the immediate vicinity. Small quantities of plant remains including hazelnut shell fragments, oat grains, barley grains, and indeterminate cereal grains were recovered from fills of eight (C.10, C.17, C.20, C.30, C.33, C.42, C.64 and C.75) of the features. The recovery of a small assemblage of faunal and plant remains would suggest that this was an area of domestic occupation. There was no discernable pattern evident in these remains and it was not possible to determine whether a structure occupied this area. Features associated with Glencorra Stream Ballinglanna North 1 is located on the western bank of the Glencorra Stream. The stream was diverted and straightened in the 19th century. The alteration of the Glencorra Stream may have been associated with the construction of the Glencorra bridge. A group of features located towards the east of the site were associated with the 19th century work on the Glencorra stream. Four linear features (C.340, C.354, C.370 and C.372) were located in the south-east corner of the area of excavation, all orientated north- east to south-west (Figure 13). All four linear features were parallel to one another at vary- ing spaces and were approximately 1 m in width and 0.28 m in depth. The length of these linear features varied from 4.37 m to 9.25 m. Slag, post-medieval glass (E2414:371:1), clay pipe bowl (E2414:359:1), iron tools (E2414:359:2) and charcoal flecks were recovered from the fills of these linears. Linear C.340 was truncated by the burial of a complete horse C.301. The skeleton of the horse was complete and extended. Sherds of 18th/19th century pottery, transfer print ware (E2414:307:1), was recovered from the fill of the burial. Two stake-holes (C.342 and C.344) were located along the northern edge of the linear feature. It is likely that the linear features represent drainage channels connected with the Glencorra Stream. They run from higher ground to the north-east to the lower more wa- terlogged area to the south-west next to the Glencorra Bridge and are probably associated with the diversion and straightening of the Glencorra stream. A linear feature C.390 was located to the north on the eastern edge of the site on the bank of the Glencorra Stream (Plate 11). It measured 14.2 m in length, 1.2 m in width30
  • 41. 181456 325 181472 320 ± Ballinglanna north 1-E2414 82 103176 103176 328 74 342 323 83 344 75 301 340 41 42 390 315 353 Features associated with Glencorra Stream 370 354 am 372 tre 103164 103164 S ra or nc le G 0 10 m 181456 181472 Figure 13: Post-excavation plan of the linears C�340, C�354, C�370 and C�372� http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/e2414-ballinglanna-north1-co-cork/31
  • 42. 181427 18143532 219 176 229 ± Fulacht Fiadh 378 168 185 187 174 191 230 103184 103184 Ditch iSSUE 10: Eachtra JoUrnal - iSSn 2009-2237 274 376 Structure 264 241 296 103179 103179 215 303 258 0 5m 305 181427 181435 archaEological Excavation rEport Figure 14: Post-excavation plan of the modern structure�
  • 43. 174694 189694 GA LTY MOU NTAINS IN S Kea le NTA Shanbally U Tar MO Funshion A Sheep UR O YH MITCHELSTOWN LL Ballinglanna north 1-E2414 BA Ogeen n Duag Funshio 112074 112074 ge Fa a do r ah Gr y UN TAINS H MO ORT Awb KILW e g l in Arag Glencorra 103574 103574 Funshion Do Gl o u gla una s gad Gl e n finis h FERMOY ter Glenmore Blackwater a Blackw 174694 189694 Barrow (24) Cairn (3) Fulacht Fiadh (162) Lithic Scatter (5) Standing stone (19) 0 10 Burial (30) Cave (3) Kerb circle (2) Settlement (16) Kilometres Figure 15: Late Bronze Age sites on and in the environs of the N8 Fermoy Mitchelstown� ¢ http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/e2414-ballinglanna-north1-co-cork/33
  • 44. 174694 18969434 GA LTY MOU NTAINS IN S Kea le NTA Shanbally U Tar MO Funshion A Sheep UR O YH MITCHELSTOWN LL BA Ogeen n Duag Funshio 112074 112074 iSSUE 10: Eachtra JoUrnal - iSSn 2009-2237 ge a do Fa Gr r ah TAINS y UN H MO ORT Awb KILW e g lin Arag Glencorra GLANWORTH 103574 103574 Funshion Do Gl o u gla una s gad Gl e n finis h FERMOY ter Glenmore a Black w ater Blackw 174694 189694 Enclosure (143) Castle (44) Kiln - corn-drying (6) Ringfort (219) Settlement site (20) Water mill (3) 0 10 Ecclesiastical site (22) Church (58) Metalworking site (4) Ritual site (29) Souterrain (30) Kilometres ¢ archaEological Excavation rEport Figure 16: Medieval sites on and in the environs of the N8 Fermoy Mitchelstown road�
  • 45. Ballinglanna north 1-E2414 http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/e2414-ballinglanna-north1-co-cork/ Plate 11: View of linear C�390 from north-east�Plate 12: View of Structure 1 at Ballinglanna North 1 from east�and 0.6 m in depth. The linear contained the base of a wall C.322 which revetted thewestern edge of the Glencorra Stream. The foundation trench for the wall (C.50) was c.2.5 m in width and 0.55 m in depth. The mortared stone wall c. 1.3 m in width was con-structed into this trench and extended the length of the Glencorra stream in this area. Thewall straightened and maintained the course of the stream after it was re-channelled into 35
  • 46. iSSUE 10: Eachtra JoUrnal - iSSn 2009-2237 archaEological Excavation rEport this new location. Sherds of post-medieval pottery, glazed red earthenware (E2414:322:1) were recovered from in between the stone courses and sherds of pearlware and transfer print ware (E2414:391:2) from the fill of the foundation cut. Structure 1 A rectangular modern structure (Structure 1) was located to the south-west corner of the site (Figure 14, Plate 12). It was aligned north-west to south-east and it measured at least 7.7 m in length and 4.9 m in width. A foundation trench C.274 was evident on the north- ern and western sides of the structure. A dry stone wall survived within this foundation trench. While no stone walls remained on the southern and eastern sides of the structure, a foundation trench (C.296) was still visible. The structure cut the layer of colluvium that extended across the site. The construction cut C.274 was best preserved on the western side of the structure. It cut the burnt mound layers. It was 12 m by 0.46 m by 0.5 m in depth. A dry stone wall was contained within the cut. It survived to a height of three courses. Tiny amount of charred cereal grains were recovered from the fills. Two pits (C.303 and C.305) were located underneath the occupation layers of the structure. The pits may have been associ- ated with the construction of the structure. Ten layers were found within the structure, representing three phases of deposition; pre-construction, occupation and abandonment. Natural gravels (C.286 and C.289) rep- resent pre-construction of the structure and acted as a base layer used for the building of the structure. An iron blade (E2414:286:1) was recovered from the gravel. Re-deposited natural (C.295) and re-deposited burnt mound material (C.288 and C.377) represent the disturbance caused by construction of the building. Layer C.285 was the main occupa- tion layer within the structure. It measured 4.8 m by 3 m by 0.25 m in depth. It included modern pottery, sherds of jugs, plates and cups of glazed red earthenware, decorated slipware, transfer print ware, creamware and stoneware, glass, nails and clay pipes. Two fragments of flint debitage (E2414:285:1 and 2) were also recovered from the layer. The entire structure was sealed by layers of silt. Animal burials There were two animal burials (C.301 and C.320) located to the south-east corner of the area of excavation (Figures 4 and 13). The burial cut (C.301) measured 2.2 m in length, 1.5 m in width and 0.74 m in depth. The pit cut the linear C.328. The burial contained an articulated horse skeleton, with horseshoes and associated nails still attached. Post- medieval pottery was also recovered from this fill. The burial (C.320) measured 2 m in length, 1.2 m in width and 0.5 m in depth and it contained an articulated bovine skeleton, probably a calf. These burials date to the modern period as modern pottery was found within the fill of the horse burial. In addition, the bones from the burials were in relatively good condi-36
  • 47. Ballinglanna north 1-E2414 http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/e2414-ballinglanna-north1-co-cork/tion, indicating a relatively recent origin. However, the landowner had no memory orrecall of these burials or of tales associated with them.Agricultural featuresTwo parallel linear agricultural furrows (C.258 and C.323) were aligned north-west tosouth-east. These were regular in shape and parallel, suggesting that they were ploughfurrows. A sherd of modern pottery (E 2414:327:1) was recovered from furrow C.323. Afield drain C.279 truncated the south-west corner of the modern structure. It measured1.6 m wide by 0.45 m in depth. The field drain was cut by a pit C.353.Miscellaneous featuresTwo isolated pits were located on the western side of the area of excavation (Figure 4).A large pit C.375 was located at the north-western corner of the area of excavation, westof the ditch. It measured 4.64 m by 1.9 m by 0.6 m in depth. A fragment of flint debit-age E2414:361:1 was recovered from one of the fills. The smaller shallow pit C.272 waslocated to the west of the burnt mound.Plant remainsThe plant remains were examined by Penny Johnston (Appendix 5). The burnt mounddeposits and associated features contained charred plant remains. These included theburnt mound deposit (C.163) and the fill of a well (C.230) and a post-hole (C.225). Thecereals were predominantly barley, but a significant portion of rye was also found alongwith a small percentage of wheat and oat. A moderate quantity of cereal grains were alsorecovered from the large pit C.268. Oat was the most common cereal type in these depos-its, representing 55% of the identifiable cereal count. Rye was also present, as was barley.Charred seeds, primarily barley were identified in the fills of three of the pits and a linear(C.213, C.241, C.255 and C.264) associated with metalworking. The charred cereals mayhave been burnt for fuel.LithicsThe lithics were examined by Farina Sternke (Appendix 6). The eight lithic finds from thearchaeological excavation at Ballinglanna North 1 (E2414) are seven flaked pieces of flintand a natural chunk of flint. The flaked assemblage contains one blade, three retouchedartefacts (E2414:163:1, E2414:214:1 and E2414:214:2 (Plate 13)) and three pieces of deb-itage. The presence of three pieces of debitage suggests that a limited amount of knappingtook place at the site. The assemblage is dominated by an Early Bronze Age typologi-cal and technological component which includes the fragment of a possible micro discscraper (E2414:214:2). In addition, a residual Early Mesolithic element in the assemblage 37
  • 48. iSSUE 10: Eachtra JoUrnal - iSSn 2009-2237 archaEological Excavation rEport Plate 13: Micro disc flint scraper E2414:214:2 comprising one blade (E2414:US:1) was recovered from the area of the burnt mound, but may have been re-deposited (Plate 14). Slag The assemblage was examined by Tim Young (Appendix 7). The assemblage is unusual in many respects and provides a unique insight into iron production on a large scale in early medieval times. Two radiocarbon dates are relevant to the iron working activity, both with calibrated ranges spanning the late 7th to mid 9th centuries. The residues are almost entirely from the smithing of iron. The smithing hearth cakes (SHCs) are large, the aver- age weight is the largest for any assemblage investigated by the specialist to date. The high weights suggest that the site was a specialist bloomsmithing operation on a large scale. While the weights of the SHCs were very variable the internal textures exhibited were rather constant. This factor is unusual. The only exception was the fill of pit C.255, located in the metalworking area, which contained a small quantity of possible iron smelting slag. This assemblage is indicative of smithing but not iron-smelting. The large size of the smithing hearth cakes, with an average weight of almost 3kg (almost double that of any other described early medieval assemblage), is indicative of a site specialising in bloom refining, rather than end-use blacksmithing. The highest mean weight for an assemblage yet recorded in Ireland. The occurrence of this assemblage in association with a large stream and parallel ditch raises the possibility that water power was being harnessed for hammering the blooms. The waste from the smithing process ended up in various cut features but no certain features of metallurgical origin were identified. It may be that that38
  • 49. Ballinglanna north 1-E2414 http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/e2414-ballinglanna-north1-co-cork/ Plate 14: Early Mesolithic flint blade E2414:US:1the smithing took place outside the excavated area or that it was conducted on waist levelhearths.Animal boneThe animal bone assemblage was examined by Margaret McCarthy (Appendix 8). Thesample of recovered faunal material was small. A total sample of 83 animal bones wasrecovered from the fills of the ditch. Identified bones included sheep/goat, cow and do-mestic goose. All of the bone from the ditch had been in contact with intense heat andwere totally calcined. 80 fragments of bone were recovered from the pit C.331. The bonewas totally calcined and could not be identified to species. The partial skeleton of a horseand a calf were recovered from two modern pits.Radiocarbon datesRadiocarbon analysis was carried out by the 14 Chrono Centre in Queen’s UniversityBelfast. Dates were calibrated using Calib Rev 5.0.2 (©1986-2005 M. Stuiver P.J. Re-imer) and in conjunction with Stuiver Reimer 1993 and Reimer et al. 2004. Lab Context Material Un-calibrated δ 13 C 2 sigma 1 sigma code date calibration calibration UB- 338 Hazel/alder charcoal 1245+/-21 -29.7 cal AD 684-784 cal AD 693-748 12968 from ditch C.382 787-827 839-864 764-779 795-798 UB- 232 Willow/poplar char- 2589+/-21 -26.1 cal BC 766-537 cal BC 756-734 12969 coal from post-hole 529-524 690-684 669-662 C.231 in trough 649-606 601-546 UB- 299 Hazel nut shell from 1270+/-29 -23.2 cal AD 688-726, cal AD 664-782 12970 pit C.292 737-771 789-811 847-854Table 6: Radiocarbon dates 39
  • 50. iSSUE 10: Eachtra JoUrnal - iSSn 2009-2237 archaEological Excavation rEport 8 Discussion Prehistoric occupation Evidence of many phases of activity, closely associated with the Glencorra Stream, were recorded at Ballinglanna North 1. The site, located on the narrow flood plain of the Glencorra Stream was utilised during the Early Mesolithic period. An Early Mesolithic blade was recovered from the site. Early Mesolithic stone tools have also been recovered at Gortore 1 E2410, on the bank of the River Funshion, c. 1.5 km to the south and at Ballin- glanna North 6 E3972, on the bank of the Glencorra Stream, c. 1.2 km to the north. The Glencorra Stream probably served as a route way in early prehistoric times. The site was later occupied in the Early Bronze Age. A small assemblage of stone tools, including three retouched artefacts and three pieces of debitage were recovered from the area of the excavation. The lithic assemblage is dominated by an Early Bronze Age typo- logical and technological component. Only one of the lithics was recovered from the area of the fulacht fiadh. The presence of the debitage would indicate that a limited amount of knapping took place at the site. None of the features recorded on site could be assigned to the Early Bronze Age. A fulacht fiadh was recorded on the western edge of the flood plain of the river. The layers of burnt mound material covered a substantial rectangular trough which was con- nected to a small well. Many theories speculate as to the actual use of burnt mound/ fulacht fiadh sites (e.g. O’Kelly 1954; Ó Drisceoil 1988). We recognise the sites archaeo- logically by the remains of charcoal and heat shattered stones but as Ó Néill (2004) points out, these are the remains of a technology (the use of hot stones known as ‘pyrolithic technology’), rather than specific indications of the aims of the process. The large trough and smaller pits indicate that there was extensive use of hot stone technology at this site and that it was probably used for heating water. Burnt mounds are the most common Bronze Age sites found in Ireland. Estimates suggest that at least 4,500 examples are known, over 3,000 in Co. Cork and an usual high density specifically in North Cork (Power 2000). The characteristic site-type is found in low-lying and damp ground and consists of a mound of charcoal-rich black sediment that is packed with heat shattered stones and forms a horse-shoe shape around a pit or trough that filled with water. In many cases all that survives to the present day are black charcoal rich deposits with fragments of shattered stones visible in ploughed fields. These sites are associated with the process of roasting stones to heat water. The remains of these ‘pyrolithic technologies’ (terminology follows Ó Néill 2004) produce the tell-tale deposits rich in charcoal and heat-affected stone. Debate continues about their use, as hot water is required for many processes including cooking, brewing, washing, dyeing and, most recently it has been argued that some burnt mounds were primarily used to boil and cure meat for long term storage (Roycroft 2006).40
  • 51. Ballinglanna north 1-E2414 http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/e2414-ballinglanna-north1-co-cork/ Traditionally these sites have been interpreted as ancient cooking places, where largestones were heated in fires and then added to the water filled trough the extreme heatof the stones eventually heating the water in the trough until it reached boiling point.Experimental cooking at reconstructed sites such as Ballyvourney (O’Kelly 1954) hasdemonstrated that meat wrapped in straw and placed into a boiling trough can be cookedquite effectively. The perceived lack of any animal bones from these excavated sites hasbeen used as an argument against this theory. More recently however there is a growingcorpus of sites which have produced animal bone (Tourunen 2008). The traditional perception of the burnt mound site is that they are isolated featureson the landscape situated on marginal ground away from settlement. Recent studies how-ever are requiring a re-evaluation of this perception. It can be regarded as certain thatthe settlement sites and associated burnt mounds are only one part of a wider prehistoriclandscape which also includes lithic production and metalworking sites as well as burialsites (Sternke 2009). The inventory for North Cork lists over 1600 burnt mounds located in North Co.Cork. (Power 2002) (Figure 15). Many more have been recorded since the inventory waspublished. A total of seven burnt mounds including Ballinglanna North 1 were excavatedon the N8 Fermoy to Mitchelstown. Three burnt mound sites were excavated on the N8Mitchelstown Relief Road, and 12 on the N8 Mitchelstown to Cashel. Site Name E No. Radiocarbon date (2 sigma) cal BC Period Ballinglanna North 1 E2414 cal BC 766-537 529-524 Late Bronze Age Ballinglanna North 3 E2416 cal BC 2293-2140 Early Bronze Age Ballinglanna North 3 E2416 cal BC 1750-1628 Early Bronze Age Ballinglanna North 3 E2416 cal BC 1740-1627 Early Bronze Age Ballinglanna North 6 E3972 cal BC 1902-1737 1710-1696 Early Bronze Age Ballynamona 2 E2429 2 dates pending Kildrum E3971 cal BC 2138-2011 2000-1978 Early Bronze Age Kildrum E3971 cal BC 2434-2421 2404-2379 2349-2199 Early Bronze Age Kilshanny 3 E2432 cal BC 978-829 Late Bronze AgeTable 7: Radiocarbon dates from the burnt mound sites on the N8 Fermoy to Mitchelstown Most dated burnt mound sites have a focus of activity in the Middle to Late BronzeAge (Brindley and Lanting 1990; and see graph of dates in Ó Néill 2003/2004). In allten radiocarbon dates were obtained from the burnt mound sites on the route of the N8Fermoy Mitchelstown Bypass. The majority of the sites are Early Bronze Age in date. TheLate Bronze Age date from Ballinglanna North 1 is the latest date in the sequence. There are six main types of archaeological features encountered at burnt mound sites;wells/springs, layers/deposits, hearths, trough/boiling pits, smaller pits, and stakeholes/postholes. Five of the six feature types were recorded at Ballinglanna North. The lowlyingsite on the banks of the Glencorra Stream was eminently suitable as a location for a burntmound. Two other burnt mound sites, Ballinglanna North 3 E2416 and 6 E3972 werelocated on the banks of the Glencorra. One of the necessary raw materials, an availablesource of water, was readily available. In addition to the proximity of the stream a well 41
  • 52. iSSUE 10: Eachtra JoUrnal - iSSn 2009-2237 archaEological Excavation rEport close to the trough was utilised as an additional water source. The mound at Ballinglanna survived to a general height of 0.5 m. It was composed of layers of heat shattered stone mixed with charcoal. It was truncated during the early medieval period by the excavation of a substantial ditch. No formal hearth was identified in association with the mound. The trough at Ballinglanna was a substantial rectangular trough that showed evidence of lining. The other three possible troughs had a limited capacity for boiling water, less that 1 m³. If a trough was too small the water would boil off very quickly. They may have held containers made from organic material such as baskets or wooden buckets. Stakeholes and postholes, regularly found at burnt mound sites, were associated with the trough at Ballinglanna. In addition a few post-holes, located to the south of the trough, may have formed a structure which was truncated by the modern stone built structure. Ballinglanna North 1 is one of the few burnt mound sites that yielded a moderate por- tion of charred cereal grains. The majority were recovered from the mound itself. Barley was the most common cereal type, representing 83% of the identifiable grains. However the presence of rye (13%) and oat (2%) would suggest that the mound was disturbed by the excavation of the ditch and subsequent metalworking activities at the site. The lithic artefacts from the burnt mound indicate the use of the area in the Mesolithic and the Early Bronze Age but are not residual to the activities associated with the mound itself. Early medieval occupation Evidence for iron working in the early medieval period was recorded at Lisleagh I and II ringforts (Monk ibid.). New evidence for iron metalworking was recorded at two sites on the N8 Fermoy Mitchelstown at Ballinglanna North 1 and Gortnahown 2 E2426 (Figure 16). The following discussion on early medieval ironworking is largely based on the ac- count in Tim Young specialist report (Appendix 7). While it is true to say that the lowlying site on the banks of the Glencorra Stream was eminently suitable as a location for a burnt mound, it was also suitable as a location for metalworking, specifically iron smithing, in the early medieval period. As one of the necessary raw materials, an available source of water, was readily available. A large ditch was excavated on the western side and parallel to the Glencorra Stream. Charcoal from the ditch returned an early medieval date (cal AD 684-784 787-827 839-864). The full extend of the ditch was not known. It is possible that the ditch was constructed to func- tion as a water channel or race associated with the processing of iron working. 90% of the assemblage was recovered from the fills of the ditch and over 60% was from the two southernmost sections. Slag was also recovered from the small group of pits on the eastern edge of the ditch. There were no certain features of metallurgical origin but it is possible that two of the pits may have functioned as a furnace and hearth. Bloomsmithing involves the reworking of the iron by repeated heating and hammer- ing to draw the iron out into a bar. According to Tim Young there are four broad styles of SHC assemblages from early medieval Irish sites. 1. Sites concerned with the end use of iron e.g. Coolamurry 7 04E0323, Navan.42
  • 53. Ballinglanna north 1-E2414 http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/e2414-ballinglanna-north1-co-cork/ 2. Sites with evidence for iron smelting and smithing e.g. Gortnahown 2 E2426, Clonmacnoise WWS and Woodstown 6. 3. Sites with evidence for a wide range of activities e.g. Clonmacnoise NG and Clonfad. 4. Specialist bloomsmithing sites e.g. Ballinglanna North 1, Borris and Lismore/ Bushfield 1 E2220. The residues from bloomsmithing at Borris occurred mainly in a large ditch. Mostof the residues at Lismore/Bushfield 1 were recovered from a single undated pit associ-ated with a ringfort, containing a 6th-7th century cemetery. Multiple smithing hearthswere located adjacent to a linear ditch at Borris. 200 kg of slag was recovered from theditch which was fully excavated and over 100 m in length. In contrast 235 kg of slag wasrecovered from the ditch at Ballinglanna which was 60 m in length and only c. 20 % wasexcavated. The quantity of large, similar bloomsmithing slag cakes suggests a level of activityabove that of typical early medieval iron production sites in Ireland. It is more reminis-cent of sites in Britain some 600 years younger that Ballinglanna, when bloomsmithiesadopted water power. It is possible the ditch represents a leat supplying power for thewater hammer. No water powered bloomsmithing of this period has been recognised inIreland but all the components of the technology would have been available in contempo-rary corn mills. It is interesting that a horizontal-wheeled mill (CO027-108) was locatedon the northern side of the Glencorra Stream c. 120 m north of the confluence with theRiver Funshion and c. 100 m south of the Ballinglanna North 1. The site was discoveredin 1948. No mill structure was recorded but what appears to be an ancient headrace ex-tended for some distance up the glen (Power 2000, 473). The range of dates for early Irishmills is between the early 7th and late 10th centuries (Rynne 1989, 110-14). Two large storage pits located in the south-western corner of the site are associatedwith this phase of activity. Charcoal from one of the pits returned an early medieval date(cal AD 688-726, 737-771). In addition the area of domestic occupation, including post-holes, stake-holes and pits located to the north-east of the metalworking area probablydates to the early medieval period. The small assemblages of charred cereal and faunalremains are indicators of domestic activity. No inclusions of slag were recovered from thisarea. Charcoal flecks and flecks of burnt bone were common in the fills of many of thesefeatures indicating some domestic activity in the immediate vicinity. Small quantitiesof plant remains including hazelnut shell fragments, oat grains, barley grains, and inde-terminate cereal grains were recovered from fills of eight (C.10, C.17, C.20, C.30, C.33,C.42, C.64 and C.75) of the features. There was no discernable pattern evident in theseremains and it was not possible to determine whether a structure occupied this area. Therecovery of a small assemblage of faunal and plant remains would suggest that this wasan area of domestic occupation. 43
  • 54. iSSUE 10: Eachtra JoUrnal - iSSn 2009-2237 archaEological Excavation rEport Modern occupation The last phase of activity at the site dates to the nineteenth century. A stone structure, measuring at least 8 m in length and 5 m in width, overlay the southern end of the ditch. The structure is probably associated with the construction of the Glencorra Bridge and the straightening and revetment of the stream. Clay pipe fragments, iron nails, pottery and the burial of a complete horse and calf date to this phase of activity on site. A group of post-holes, stake-holes, pits and linear features are associated with this phase of activity.44
  • 55. Ballinglanna north 1-E2414 http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/e2414-ballinglanna-north1-co-cork/9 ReferencesBarry, T. (1987) The Archaeology of Medieval Ireland. London, Methuen Co. Ltd.Bence-Jones, M. (1996) A Guide to Irish County Houses. London, Constable Co. Ltd.Brindley, A.L. and Lanting, J.N (1990) ‘The dating of fulachta fiadh’ in Buckley, V. (ed.) Burnt Offerings. International contributions to burnt mound archaeology. 55- 56. Dublin, Wordwell.Clinton, M. (2001) The Souterrains of Ireland. Bray, Wordwell.Cotter, E., Buckley, K. Drumm, M. (2006) N8 Fermoy Mitchelstown Phase 1 – final archaeological testing report, unpublished report for licence no. 05E1150.Cotter, E. (2005) ‘Bronze Age Ballybrowney, Co. Cork’, Recent Archaeological Discoveries on National Road Schemes 2004. National Roads Authority Monograph Series No.2.Daly, A. and Grogan, E (1992) ‘Excavation of Four Barrows in Mitchelstowndown West, Knocklong, Co. Limerick’, Discovery Programme Reports 1. Dublin, Royal Irish Academy.Doody, M. (1995) ‘Ballyhoura Hills project’, Discovery Programme Reports 2, 12-44. Dublin, Royal Irish Academy.Doody, M. (1999) ‘Ballyhoura Hills project’, Discovery Programme Reports 5, 97-110. Dublin, Royal Irish Academy.Gardiner, M.J. and Radford,T. (1980) Soil Assocaitions of Ireland and Their Land Use Potential. Dublin, An Foras Talúntais.Gowen, M. (1988) Three Irish Gas pipelines: new archaeological evidence in Munster. Dublin, Wordwell.Lewis, S. (1988) Lewis’ Cork: A Topographical Dictionary of the Parishes, Towns and Villages of Cork City and County. Cork, Collins Press.Monk, M. (1995) ‘A Tale of Two RIngforts Lisleagh I and II’, Journal of the Cork Historical and Archaeological Society Vol.100.105-116.O’Drisceóil, D. A. (1988) Burnt mounds: cooking or bathing?, Antiquity, 62, 671-80. 45
  • 56. iSSUE 10: Eachtra JoUrnal - iSSn 2009-2237 archaEological Excavation rEport O’Kelly, M (1954) ‘Excavations and experiments in Irish cooking places.’ Journal of the Royal Society of Antiquaries of Ireland, Vol 84, 105-55. Ó Néill, J. (2003/2004) Lapidibus in igne calefactis coquebatur: The historical burnt mound “tradition”, Journal of Irish Archaeology Vol. XII XIII. Power, D., Lane, S. and Byrne, E., Egan, U., Sleeman, M., with Cotter, E., Monk, J. (2000) Archaeological Inventory of County Cork, Volume 4: North Cork Parts I II. Dublin, The Stationery Office. Power, B. (1996) From the Danes to Dairygold A History of Mitchelstown. Mount Cashell Books. Power, B. (2002) Images of Mitchelstown, Stories and pictures from my own place. Mount Cashell Books. Reimer, P.J., Baillie, M.G.L., Bard, E., Bayliss, A., Beck, J.W., Bertrand, C., Blackwell, P.G., Buck, C.E., Burr, G., Cutler, K.B., Damon, P.E., Edwards, R.L., Fairbanks, R.G., Friedrich, M., Guilderson, T.P., Hughen, K.A., Kromer, B., McCormac, F.G., Manning, S., Bronk Ramsey, C., Reimer, R.W., Remmele, S., Southon, J.R., Stuiver, M., Talamo, S., Taylor, F.W., van der Plicht, J. and Weyhenmeyer, C.E. (2004) ‘IntCal04 Terrestrial Radiocarbon Age Calibration, 0–26 Cal Kyr BP’, Radiocarbon 46, 1029-1058. Roycroft, N (2006) Boiled bull and burnt mounds. Seanda 1, 38-43. Rynne, C. (1989) Archaeology and the early Irish watermill, Archaeology Ireland 3, 110-14. Stuiver, M., and Reimer, P.J. (1993) ‘Extended (super 14) C data base and revised CALIB 3.0 (super 14) C age calibration program’, Radiocarbon 35, 215-230. Sherlock, R. (2003) ‘Killydonoghoe’ Bennett, I. (Ed) Excavations 2001. Bray, Wordwell. Sleeman, A.G., McConnell, B. (1995) Geology of East Cork-Waterford. Dublin, Geological Survey of Ireland. Sternke, F. (2009) More than meets the eye burnt mounds and lithics on the N7 Seanda 4, 30-31. Stout, M. (1997) The Irish Ringfort. Dublin, Four Courts Press.46
  • 57. Ballinglanna north 1-E2414 http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/e2414-ballinglanna-north1-co-cork/Tourunen, A (2008) ‘Fauna and fulachta fiadh: animal bones from burnt mounds on the N9/N10 Carlow Bypass.’ In J. O’Sullivan and M. Stanley (eds.), Roads, Rediscovery and Research. Archaeology and the National Roads Authority Monograh Series No. 5. Wordwell.Woodman, P. McCarthy, M. and Monaghan, N.T. (1997) ‘The Irish Quaternary Fauna Project’, Quaternary Science Reviews 16 (2), 129-159.Woodman, P.C. (1989) ‘The Mesolithic in Munster: a preliminary assessment’, pp. 116 – 124 in Bonsall, C. (Ed) The Mesolithic in Europe. Edinburgh, John Donald.Woodman, P.C. (2000) ‘Hammers and Shoeboxes: New Agendas for Prehistory’., pp. 1 -10 in Desmond, A., Johnson, G., McCarthy, M., Sheehan, J. and Shee Twohig, E. New Agendas in Irish Prehistory. Papers in commemoration of Liz Anderson. Bray, Wordwell. 47
  • 58. iSSUE 10: Eachtra JoUrnal - iSSn 2009-2237 archaEological Excavation rEport Appendix 1 Stratigraphic Index Context Context Fill of Strat Strat Short Description Dimensions (m) # Type Above Below 1 Layer 2 Mid brown clayey silt, soft in compaction. across site (0.4m Moderate sub-angular and angular fine depth) pebbles. Moderate sub-angular small and medium stones. Occasional large stones. Frequent flecks of charcoal. 2 Layer 1 Mid brown clayey silt, firm in compaction. across site (0.15m Occasional sub-angular coarse pebbles and depth) small and medium stones. 3 Deposit 2 Mid orangish brown pebbly sand, loose in 1.68 x 1.41 x 0.05 compaction. Moderate sub-angular and sub-rounded fine, medium and coarse pebbles. Occasional sub-angular and sub- rounded small stones. Moderate flecks and small pieces of charcoal. 4 Stakehole 5 59 Sub-circular in shape with rounded corners 0.18 x 0.14 x 0.21 Cut and sharp break of slope top and base. Base sub-circular in plan and tapered rounded point in profile. Slightly undercut on W side. 5 Stakehole 4 2 4 Dark orangish brown clayey silty sand, 0.18 x 0.14 x 0.21 Fill soft compaction. Occasional inclusions of coarse sub-rounded pebbles and sub-round- ed and rounded small stones. 6 Stakehole 7 59 Sub-circular in shape with rounded corners 0.17 x 0.16 x 0.03 Cut and gradual break of slope top and base. Base sub-circular in plan and concave in profile. 7 Stakehole 6 2 6 Mid-orangish brown silty clay, soft 0.17 x 0.16 x 0.03 Fill compaction. Occasional inclusions of fine sub-rounded pebbles. Occasional charcoal flecks. 8 Stakehole 16 59 Circular in shape with rounded corners and 0.20 x 0.20 x 0.11 Cut sharp to gradual slope top and base. Base sub-circular in plan and tapered rounded point in profile. 9 Stakehole 8 2 16 Dark brown sandy silt, firm compac- 0.18 x 0.16 x 0.02 Fill tion. Occasional flecks and large charcoal inclusions. 10 Posthole 13 59 Oval in shape with rounded corners and 0.37 x 0.25 x 0.23 Cut sharp break of slope top and base. Base oval in plan and flat in profile. 11 Posthole 10 2 12 Light pinkish brown sandy silt, loose 0.40 x 0.28 x Fill compaction. Occasional inclusions of 0.07 fine, medium and coarse sub-angular and sub-rounded pebbles. Occasional charcoal flecks. 12 Posthole 10 11 13 Mid orangish brown sandy silt, loose 0.28 x 0.20 x 0.15 Fill compaction. Moderate inclusions of fine, medium and coarse sub-angular and sub- rounded pebbles and small sub-angular stones. Occasional flecks and small inclu- sions of charcoal.48
  • 59. Ballinglanna north 1-E2414 http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/e2414-ballinglanna-north1-co-cork/Context Context Fill of Strat Strat Short Description Dimensions (m)# Type Above Below 13 Posthole 10 12 10 Dark greyish black sandy clay, friable 0.28 x 0.20 x Fill compaction. Occasional inclusions of fine 0.06 and medium angular, sub-angular and sub- rounded pebbles, and small sub-rounded and rounded stones. Frequent charcoal flecks and moderate small and occasional medium charcoal inclusions. 14 Posthole 15 59 Sub-circular in shape with rounded corners 0.26 x 0.24 x Cut and gradual to sharp break of slope at top 0.06 and base. Base sub-circular in plan and concave in profile. 15 Posthole 14 2 14 Mid greyish/orangish brown clayey silt, 0.26 x 0.24 x Fill soft compaction. Occasional inclusions of 0.06 fine sub-angular pebbles and medium sub- angular stones. 16 Stakehole 8 9 8 Mid orangish brown sandy silt, firm 0.20 x 0.18 x 0.09 Fill compaction. 17 Posthole 26 59 Sub-circular in shape with rounded corners 0.36 x 0.30 x Cut and sharp break of slope top and base. Base 0.23 sub-circular in plan and flat in profile. 18 Posthole 17 2 26 Dark brown sandy silt, firm to soft com- 0.38 x 0.31 x 0.12 Fill paction. Occasional inclusions of coarse sub-rounded pebbles and medium sub- angular stones. Occasional flecks and small charcoal inclusions. 19 VOID 20 Cut 21 59 Irregular in shape with rounded corners, 0.30 x 0.29 x gradual break of slope at top and impercep- 0.06 tible at base. Base irregular in plan and flat in profile. 21 Fill 20 2 20 Mid orangish brown sandy silt, loose 0.30 x 0.29 x compaction. Occasional fine sub-angular 0.06 pebbles and small sub-angular stones. Occasional flecks and small charcoal inclusions. Occasional flecks and small inclusions of cremated bone. 22 Stakehole 23 59 Sub-circular in shape with rounded to 0.15 x 0.14 x 0.06 Cut square corners. Break of slope gradual to sharp at top and base. Base circular in plan and concave in profile. 23 Stakehole 22 2 22 Mid orangish brown clayey silt, soft 0.26 x 0.24 x Fill compaction. Occasional inclusions of fine 0.06 sub-rounded pebbles. Occasional charcoal flecks. 24 Cut 25 59 Irregular in shape with rounded corners. 0.30 x 0.15 x 0.06 Gradual to imperceptible break of slope top and sharp to imperceptible break of slope base. Base sub-circular in plan and tapered blunt point in profile. 25 Fill 24 2 24 Mid orangish brown sandy silt, loose 0.30 x 0.15 x 0.06 compaction. Occasional fine and medium sub-angular pebbles. 26 Posthole 17 18 17 Dark brown sandy silt, firm to soft 0.38 x 0.31 x 0.21 Fill compaction. Frequent inclusions of coarse sub-rounded pebbles, and moderate small sub-rounded stones. Occasional charcoal flecks. 27 Stakehole 28 59 Oval in shape with rounded corners and 0.12 x 0.09 x 0.07 Cut sharp break of slope top and base. Base oval in plan and flat to pointed in profile. 49
  • 60. iSSUE 10: Eachtra JoUrnal - iSSn 2009-2237 archaEological Excavation rEport Context Context Fill of Strat Strat Short Description Dimensions (m) # Type Above Below 28 Stakehole 27 2 27 Mid orangish brown sandy silt, loose com- 0.12 x 0.09 x 0.07 Fill paction. Occasional inclusions of coarse sub-rounded pebbles. 29 Stakehole 32 59 Sub-circular in plan with rounded to 0.2 x 0.19 x 0.14 Cut square corners and sharp to gradual break of slope top and base. Base is sub-circular in plan and flat in profile. 30 Posthole 31 59 Sub-circular in shape with rounded 0.18 x 0.15 x 0.06 Cut corners, sharp break of slope top and imperceptible break of slope base. Base sub- circular in plan and flat in profile. 31 Posthole 30 2 30 Mid orangish brown silty clay, friable 0.18 x 0.15 x 0.06 Fill compaction. Occasional coarse sub-angular pebbles. Occasional flecks of charcoal and burnt bone. 32 Stakehole 29 2 29 Mid orangish brown silty clay, soft com- 0.2 x 0.19 x 0.14 Fill paction. Occasional inclusions of medium and coarse sub-rounded pebbles, moderate small sub-rounded stones and occasional medium sub-rounded stones. 33 Posthole 34 59 Sub-circular in shape with sharp break of 0.26 x 0.20 x 0.18 Cut slope at top and gradual at base. Base sub- circular in plan and concave in profile. 34 Posthole 33 35 33 Dark brownish black silty sand, loose com- 0.32 x 0.08 x 0.13 Fill paction. Occasional inclusions of medium sub-rounded pebbles and small sub-angular stones. Occasional flecks of cremated bone. 35 Posthole 36 34 Sub-circular in shape with sharp break of 0.40 x 0.30 x Cut slope at top and gradual at base. Base sub- 0.30 circular in plan and concave in profile. 36 Posthole 35 37, 43 35 Mid brownish black silty sand, loose com- 0.52 x 0.35 x 0.10 Fill paction. Occasional inclusions of medium sub-angular and sub-rounded pebbles and small angular and sub-angular stones. Oc- casional flecks of cremated bone. 37 Pit Cut 38 36 Sub-circular in shape with sharp break of 0.60 x 0.30 x slope at top and gradual at base. Base sub- 0.25 circular in plan and concave in profile. 38 Pit Fill 37 2 37 Dark brownish black silty sand, loose com- 0.60 x 0.52 x 0.17 paction. Moderate inclusions of medium sub-angular and sub-rounded pebbles and occasional small sub-angular stones. Moderate flecks of cremated bone. 39 Posthole 40 59 Sub-circular in shape with rounded to 0.30 x 0.26 x Cut square corners and sharp break of slope 0.28 top and base. Base is circular in plan and concave in profile. 40 Posthole 39 2 39 Dark brown sandy silt, firm to soft com- 0.31 x 0.26 x 0.28 Fill paction. Occasional inclusions of medium sub-angular and sub-rounded pebbles and moderate small sub-angular and sub- rounded stones. Moderate flecks and small inclusions of charcoal. Occasional small bone fragments. 41 Stakehole 46 59 Irregular in shape with rounded to square 0.15 x 0.12 x 0.16 Cut corners. Sharp break of slope at top and gradual at base. Base irregular in plan and concave in profile.50
  • 61. Ballinglanna north 1-E2414 http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/e2414-ballinglanna-north1-co-cork/Context Context Fill of Strat Strat Short Description Dimensions (m)# Type Above Below 42 Stakehole 47 59 Sub-circular in plan with rounded corners 0.18 x 0.16 x 0.14 Cut and gradual to sharp break of slope top and base. Base sub-circular in plan and concave in profile. . 43 Pit Cut 44 36 Sub-circular in shape with gradual to sharp 0.45 x 0.35 x 0.20 break of slope at top and gradual at base. Base sub-circular in plan and irregular concave in profile. 44 Pit Fill 43 2 43 Light orangish brown silty sand, loose com- 0.46 x 0.36 x paction. Occasional inclusions of medium 0.09 sub-angular pebbles and small sub-angular stones. Occasional flecks of cremated bone. 45 VOID 46 Stakehole 41 2 41 Mid brown clayey silt, soft compaction. 0.15 x 0.12 x 0.16 Fill Occasional inclusions of small sub-angular stones. 47 Stakehole 42 2 42 Mid greyish brown clayey silt, firm com- 0.18 x 0.16 x 0.14 Fill paction. Occasional inclusions of small sub-angular stones. 48 Fill 50 2 49, Mid brown pebbly stony clay, firm com- 0.70 x 0.35 322 paction. Moderate inclusions of fine sub- angular pebbles and occasional medium sub-angular stones. 49 Fill 50 48 50 Mid pinkish brown clayey sand, compact. 0.3 x 0.15 Moderate inclusions of medium sub- angular stones. 50 Cut 49, 51 Irregular in shape. Visible in section of a 0.55 322 slot. 51 VOID 52 VOID 53 Layer 50 54 Light yellowish greyish brown sandy pebbly 1.95 x 0.1 silt, friable compaction. Moderate inclu- sions of fine and coarse sub-angular pebbles and frequent medium sub-angular pebbles. Occasional small sub-angular stones. 54 Layer 53 55 Mid reddish orangish brown sandy peb- 1.6 x 0.08 bly silt, friable compaction. Moderate to frequent inclusions of fine, medium and coarse sub-angular stones. Occasional small sub-angular stones. 55 (56) Layer 54 Light yellowish greyish brown sandy peb- 2.0 x 0.11 bly silt, friable compaction. Moderate to frequent inclusions of fine and medium sub-angular pebbles. Moderate small and medium sub-angular stones. 56 (53) Layer 54 Dark brownish black silt, friable compac- 0.6 x 0.04 tion. Frequent inclusions of fine sub-an- gular pebbles. Moderate to frequent flecks and small charcoal inclusions. 57 VOID 58 VOID 59 Layer 2 Light orangish brown sandy silt, firm 11.0 x 15.0 compaction. Occasional inclusions of me- dium and coarse sub-angular pebbles, and occasional medium sub-angular and large sub-rounded stones. Moderate flecks and occasional small charcoal inclusions. 51
  • 62. iSSUE 10: Eachtra JoUrnal - iSSn 2009-2237 archaEological Excavation rEport Context Context Fill of Strat Strat Short Description Dimensions (m) # Type Above Below 60 Fill 61 2 61 Mid greyish brown silt, soft compaction. 0.14 x 0.13 x 0.04 Occasional flecks of charcoal and cremated bone. 0.14m x 0.13m x 0.04m. 61 Cut 60 59 Irregular in shape with sharp to gradual 0.12 x 0.13 x 0.03 break of slope top and base. Base irregular in plan and irregular in profile. 62 Stakehole 63 2 63 Mid greyish brown sandy clay, soft com- 0.14 x 0.10 x 0.05 Fill paction. Charcoal flecks. 63 Stakehole 62 59 Sub-circular in shape with rounded corners 0.14 x 0.10 x 0.05 Cut and gradual break of slope top and base. Base sub-circular in plan. 64 Posthole 76 59 Square to sub-circular in shape with sharp 0.31 x 0.25 x 0.2 Cut to rounded corners. Break of slope sharp at top and gradual to sharp at base. Base square to sub-circular in plan and flat in profile. 65 Layer 2 66 Mid greyish brown clayey stony sand, 4.36 x 0.72 weakly cemented. Frequent inclusions of small sub-angular stones. 66 Layer 65 68 Mid yellowish brown stony sand, loose 1.44 x 0.26 compaction. Occasional to frequent inclu- sions of small to medium sub-angular stones. 67 Layer 66 Mid yellowish brown stony sand, loose 1.6 x 0.50 compaction. Occasional to frequent small, medium and large sub-angular stones. 68 Layer 66 A light pinkish grey stony clay, stiff in ? x 4.36 x 0.72 compaction. Moderate sub-angular small and medium stones. 69 Pit Fill 70 2 70 Mid greyish brown silt, very soft compac- 0.2 x 0.16 x 0.05 tion. Occasional charcoal flecks. 70 Pit Cut 69 59 Rounded to square corners. Break of slope 0.21 x 0.18 x 0.05 varied at top, and gradual to sharp at base. 71 Posthole 72 2 84 Dark greyish brown silty pebbly clay, 0.42 x 0.31 x 0.07 Fill soft compaction. Occasional inclusions of fine and medium sub-angular pebbles and small sub-angular stones. Moderate flecks and small inclusions of charcoal and cremated bone. 72 Posthole 84 59 Oval in shape with rounded corners and 0.42 x 0.31 x 0.25 Cut sharp break of slope top. Base oval in plan and flat in profile. 73 VOID 74 Stakehole 77 59 Irregular in shape with rounded corners 0.12 x 0.08 x 0.13 Cut and gradual break of slope top and base. Base oval in plan and concave in profile. 75 Stakehole 80 59 Sub-circular in plan with rounded corners, 0.15 x 0.13 x 0.27 Cut sharp break of slope at top and gradual at base. Base sub-circular in plan and tapered rounded point in profile. 76 Posthole 64 2 64 Dark orangish brown clayey silt, soft Fill compaction. Moderate inclusions of fine sub-angular and occasional medium sub- rounded pebbles. Occasional inclusions of small and medium sub-rounded stones. Moderate flecks and small inclusions of cremated bone. 77 Stakehole 74 2 74 Mid greyish brown clayey sand, loose com- 0.12 x 0.08 x 0.13 Fill paction. Occasional charcoal flecks.52
  • 63. Ballinglanna north 1-E2414 http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/e2414-ballinglanna-north1-co-cork/Context Context Fill of Strat Strat Short Description Dimensions (m)# Type Above Below 78 Stakehole 79 59 Stakehole cut, circular in shape with verti- 0.15 x 0.14 x 0.12 Cut cal and smooth sides and a flat circular base. Sharp break of slope at top and bot- tom except on S side - gradual. 79 Stakehole 78 2 78 Dark brown sandy silt, firm to soft in com- 0.15 x 0.14 x 0.12 Fill paction. Occasional medium sub-rounded pebbles and charcoal flecks. 80 Stakehole 75 2 75 Mid greyish brown sandy clay, soft 0.15 x 0.13 x 0.27 Fill compaction. 81 VOID 82 Stakehole 91 59 Irregular in shape with rounded corners, 0.08 x 0.07 x 0.13 Cut sharp break of slope at top and gradual at base. Base irregular in plan and concave in profile. 83 Stakehole 85 59 Oval in shape with rounded corners, sharp 0.15 x 0.10 x 0.17 Cut break of slope at top and gradual at base. Base circular in plan and tapered rounded point in profile. 84 Posthole 72 71 72 Dark brownish black sandy silt, friable 0.40 x 0.29 x Fill compaction. Moderate inclusions of fine 0.05 and medium sub-angular pebbles and occasional small sub-angular stones. Mod- erate flecks, frequent small and moderate medium inclusions of charcoal. 85 Stakehole 83 2 83 Mid greyish brown sandy clay, soft in com- 0.15 x 0.1 x 0.17 Fill paction. Occasional sub-angular medium stones. 86 VOID 87 VOID 88 Cut 89 59 Oval in shape with vertical and smooth 0.32 x 0.19 x 0.12 sides. Sharp break of slope at top. Sharp break of slope at base except gradual on S side. Oval and flat base. 89 Fill 88 2 88 Dark orangish brown sandy silt, firm in 0.32 x 0.19 x 0.12 compaction. Occasional sub-rounded fine pebbles. Occasional sub-angular and sub- rounded medium pebbles. 90 VOID 91 Stakehole 82 2 82 Mid orangish brown clayey sand, loose 0.08 x 0.07 x 0.13 Fill compaction. Occasional inclusions of small sub-angular stones. 92 Cut 93 Linear ditch cut. Moderate and stepped ? x 5.9 x 2.25 sides, with a linear and concave base. Gradual break of slope at both N and S sides for top and bottom of slope. 93 Fill 92 94 92 Dark brownish grey silty clay, firm in com- ? x 5.9 x 0.41 paction. Occasional medium sub-angular pebbles and small to medium sub-rounded stones. Moderate flecks and occasional small pieces of charcoal. 94 Fill 92 95 93 Mid greyish brown silty clay, soft in ? x 5.9 x 0.22 compaction. Occasional fine and medium sub-rounded pebbles. 95 Fill 92 96 94 Light greyish brown silty clay, firm in ? x 5.9 x 0.28 compaction. Occasional sub-rounded me- dium and coarse pebbles and small stones. Occasional flecks of charcoal. 53
  • 64. iSSUE 10: Eachtra JoUrnal - iSSn 2009-2237 archaEological Excavation rEport Context Context Fill of Strat Strat Short Description Dimensions (m) # Type Above Below 96 Fill 92 97 95 Mid greyish brown clayey silt, firm in ? x 5.9 x 0.58 compaction. Occasional sub-rounded small and large stones (approx 0.5m). Moderate medium stones and occasional small pieces of charcoal. Occasional small and medium decomposed stones. 97 Fill 92 98 96 Mid brown silty clay, stiff in compaction. ? x 5.9 x 0.85 Moderate sub-angular coarse pebbles and small stones. Frequent sub-angular medium stones. 98 Fill 92 2 97 Light greyish/orangish brown sandy silt, ? x 5.9 x 0.31 stiff in compaction. Moderate sub-rounded medium and coarse pebbles. Occasional sub-rounded small stones. 126 Cut 135 136, Cut of ditch. Moderate and smooth slope ? x 6.13 x 1.84 155, on N side, moderate and stepped slope on S 148 side. Sharp break of slope at top, gradual at base. Flat base. 127 VOID 128 Fill 126 137 129 Fill of ditch. Mid reddish, yellowish brown ? x 2.0 x 0.29 sandy silt, friable in compaction. 129 Fill 126 128 130 Fill of ditch. Light to mid yellowish brown ? x 2.3 x 0.31 sand, loose in compaction. 130 Fill 126 129 138 Fill of ditch. Light pinkish brown sand, ? x 3.6 x 0.3 loose in compaction. Occasional rounded medium pebbles. 131 Fill 126 138 132 Fill of ditch. Mid greyish brown silty clay, ? x 4.1 x 0.47 firm in compaction. Occasional sub-angu- lar small stones. 132 Fill 126 131 139 Fill of ditch. Dark greyish black silty clay, ? x 3.54 x 0.35 soft in compaction. Moderate small pieces of charcoal. 133 Fill 126 140 134 Fill of ditch. Mid greyish brown sandy silt, ? x 1.92 x 0.18 soft in compaction. Moderate sub-angular medium pebbles and small and medium stones. 134 Fill 126 133 135 Fill of ditch. Mid greyish brown sandy ? x 4.34 x 0.53 stony silt. Frequent sub-angular small and medium stones. Soft in compaction. 135 Fill 126 134 126 Fill of ditch. Mid pinkish brown silty stony ? x 2.0 x 0.18 clay, soft in compaction. Frequent sub- angular medium pebbles. 136 Layer 126 A layer of natural material in slot 4. Light ? x 1.2 x 0.18 bluish grey silt, very soft in compaction 137 Fill 126 2 128 Fill of ditch. Mid reddish brown silty sand, ? x 5.18 x 0.42 soft in compaction. 138 Fill 126 130 131 Fill of ditch. Mid greyish brown silty clay, ? x 1.4 x 0.3 stiff in compaction. Moderate sub-angular small stones. 139 Fill 126 132 140 Fill of ditch. Mid greyish brown sandy ? x 1.18 x 0.52 stony silt, soft in compaction. Occasional sub-angular small stones. 140 Fill 126 139 133 Fill of ditch. Mid yellowish brown sandy ? x 1.4 x 0.2 stony silt, soft in compaction. Moderate sub-rounded small stones.54
  • 65. Ballinglanna north 1-E2414 http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/e2414-ballinglanna-north1-co-cork/Context Context Fill of Strat Strat Short Description Dimensions (m)# Type Above Below 141 Layer 146 A layer of natural material in slot 4. Mid ? x 5.78 x 0.52 brown stony sand, loose in compaction. Frequent sub-angular small and medium stones. Occasional sub-angular large stones (approx. 0.3m diameter). 142 VOID 143 Layer 145 142 Layer of natural material in slot 4 . Light ? x 3.26 x 0.48 pinkish yellowish brown silty clay, soft in compaction. Moderate sub-angular small stones, occasional sub-angular medium stones. 144 Linear 153 59 Cut of linear feature. Steep and smooth 1.12 x 0.26 x 0.1 Cut on NE side, moderate and stepped on SE side, gentle and smooth on SW side, steep and concave on NW side. Gradual break of slope at top on NE and SE, sharp on SW and NW. Irregular at base. 145 Layer 2 143, Layer of subsoil in slot 4. Dark brown silt, ? x 10.65 x 0.25 137 firm in compaction. 146 Layer 147 141 Layer of natural material in slot 4. ? x 5.03 x 0.58 Light pinkish brown sandy clay, soft in compaction. 147 VOID 148 Layer 126, 147 Layer of natural material in slot 4. Mid ? x 1.45 x 0.47 149 brownish red stony sand, very soft in com- paction. Moderate sub-angular medium stones. 149 VOID 150 Layer 142 149 Layer of natural material in slot 4. Mid red- ? x 0.83 x 0.23 dish brown silty sand, firm in compaction. 151 VOID 152 VOID 153 Linear 144 2 144 Fill of linear feature. Mid greyish orangish 1.12 x 0.26 x 0.1 Fill brown silty clay, soft in compaction. Occa- sional sub-angular coarse pebbles and small stones. Occasional flecks of charcoal. 154 VOID 155 Layer 126, 156 Layer of natural material in slot 4. Light ? x 0.4 x 0.2 149 brownish pink silty clay, hard in compac- tion. Occasional sub-angular small stones and small pieces of charcoal. 156 Layer 155 Layer of natural material in slot 4. Mid ? x 1.1 x 0.35 brown stony sand, loose in compaction. Frequent sub-angular small and medium stones. 157 Layer 158 Layer of subsoil material in southern ? x 0.67 x 0.1 baulk. Mid greyish brown clay, firm in compaction. 158 Layer 157 159 Layer of material in southern baulk. Dark ? x 2.3 x 0.4 brown silty clay, firm in compaction. Oc- casional sub-angular small stones. 159 Layer 158 160 Layer of material in southern baulk. Mid ? x 2.3 x 0.14 yellowish brown silty clay, firm in compac- tion. Occasional sub-angular medium pebbles and small stones. 160 Layer 159 161 Layer of material from S baulk. A mid ? x 2.3 x 0.14 orangish brown sandy pebbly silt, friable in compaction. Frequent sub-angular fine pebbles. 55
  • 66. iSSUE 10: Eachtra JoUrnal - iSSn 2009-2237 archaEological Excavation rEport Context Context Fill of Strat Strat Short Description Dimensions (m) # Type Above Below 161 Layer 160 Levelling layer (possibly for construction ? x 2.3 x 0.1 of bridge). A mid orangish brown silty stony clay, firm in compaction. Frequent sub-angular and sub-rounded small and medium stones. Occasional angular large stones (diameter 0.3m). 162 Layer 2 Modern levelling layer at N end of Slot 3. ? x ? x 0.6 Mid yellowish brown silty clay, soft in com- paction. Moderate angular and sub-angular medium pebbles. Moderate sub-angular medium stones. 163 Layer 164 Burnt mound material from Fullacht 15.6 x 7.75 x 0.4 Fiadh. Dark brownish black stony silt, soft in compaction. Frequent angular small and medium burnt stones. Moderate flecks and occasional small pieces of charcoal. 164 Layer 2 163 Layer of subsoil material overlying burnt ? x 0.45 x 0.1 mound material. Mid brownish orange stony sand, loose in compaction. Frequent sub-angular coarse pebbles and small stones. 165 Layer 163 167 Transference layer. Mid greyish brown ? x 0.9 x 0.07 sandy pebbly clay, firm in compaction. Moderate angular and sub-angular coarse pebbles. Occasional sub-angular small stones. 166 Layer 2 163 A layer of sub-soil (possible culluvium). ? x 5.0 x 0.1 Mid brown silty stony clay, firm in com- paction. Frequent angular and sub-angular small stones. Moderate sub-angular medium stones. 167 Layer 165 A layer of natural underlying Fullacht Fiadh. Light orangish brown sandy clay, firm in compaction. 168 Linear 169 167 Cut of linear. Sides: gentle and irregular to 1.07 x 0.2 x 0.15 Cut N; gentle and stepped to S; gentle and con- cave to E; steep and concave to W. Gradual break of slope at top and base. Concave and irregular base. 169 Linear 168 163 168 Fill of linear. Light reddish brown silty 1.07 x 0.2 x 0.15 Fill sand, loose in compaction. Occasional sub- angular small stones. 170 VOID 171 Cut 180 167 Possible cut. Gentle and smooth edges on 2.2 x 1.25 x 0.25 all sides. Gradual break of slope at top, imperceptible break of slope at base. Flat sub-circular base, oval in shape. 172 Fill 171 163 180 Fill of possible feature. Dark black silty clay, 2.0 x 1.1 x 0.25 firm in compaction. Occasional angular and sub-angular fine pebbles and small stones. Moderate angular and sub-angular medium stones. 173 VOID 174 Posthole 175 167 Cut of posthole. Circular in shape. Steep 0.32 x 0.31 x 0.27 Cut and smooth on all sides. Sharp break of slope at top and base. Circular and flat at base.56
  • 67. Ballinglanna north 1-E2414 http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/e2414-ballinglanna-north1-co-cork/Context Context Fill of Strat Strat Short Description Dimensions (m)# Type Above Below 175 Posthole 174 163 174 Fill of posthole. Dark brownish black stony 0.32 x 0.31 x 0.27 Fill silt, soft in compaction. Frequent angular medium stones. Occasional sub-angular large stones (diameter 0.2m). Occasional small pieces of charcoal. 176 Posthole 177 167 Cut of posthole. Sub-rectangular in shape. 0.4 x 0.28 x 0.24 Cut Sides: steep and smooth on N; vertical and smooth on S and E; moderate and smooth on W. Gradual break of slope top on W side; sharp elsewhere. Base sub-rectangular in plan, flat in profile. 177 Posthole 176 163 176 Fill of posthole. Dark greyish brown 0.4 x 0.28 x 0.24 Fill silty clay, soft in compaction. Moderate sub-angular small and medium stones. Oc- casional sub-angular large stones. 178 Pit Cut 179 167 Cut of pit. Sub-rectangular in plan. Steep 1.3 x 0.62 x 0.21 and smooth on all sides. Sharp break of slope at top and base. Sub-rectangular and flat base. 179 Pit Fill 178 163 178 Fill of pit. Mid greenish brown silty clay, 1.3 x 0.62 x 0.21 soft in compaction. Moderate sub-angular and angular medium and large stones (diameter 0.1 to 0.15m). 180 Fill 171 172 171 Fill of possible feature. Mid brownish black 0.2 x 0.15 x 0.1 silty clay, firm in compaction. Occasional angular and sub-angular fine pebbles and small stones. 181 Pit cut 182 167 Cut of pit. Sub-circular in shape. Vertical 0.58 x 0.52 x 0.34 and smooth on all sides. Sharp break of slope top, gradual break of slope base. Sub- circular and concave at base. 182 Pit Fill 181 180 181 Fill of pit. Mid brown silty clay, soft in 0.58 x 0.52 x 0.34 compaction. Occasional sub-angular and sub-rounded medium pebbles. Frequent sub-angular and angular medium stones. 183 Trough 163 167 Cut of trough. Rectangular in shape. Sides: 2.2 x 1.3 x 0.8 Cut gentle and stepped to N and S; moderate and smooth to E; steep and smooth to W. Sharp break of slope at top on N and W; gradual on S and E. Sharp break of slope at base. Rectangular and flat at base. 184 Pit Fill 257 211 197 Fill of pit. Mid brown sandy silt, firm in 2.8 x 1.2 x 0.8 compaction. Sub-angular and sub-rounded stones. Occasional medium pebbles. Moderate coarse pebbles and small stones. Frequent medium stones. 185 Posthole 186 167 Cut of posthole. Square in shape. Vertical 0.3 x 0.28 x 0.2 Cut and smooth on all sides. Sharp break of slope at top and base. Square and flat base. 186 Posthole 185 163 185 Fill of posthole. Dark brownish greyish 0.3 x 0.28 x 0.2 Fill black stony silt, very soft in compaction. Frequent angular and sub-angular small stones. Moderate angular and sub-angular medium stones. Occasional sub-angular large stones. 187 Cut 188 189, Cut of feature. Oval in shape. Sides: mod- 1.72 x 1.05 x 0.28 192, erate and smooth to SE; steep and steeped 193 to NW. Gradual break of slope at top and base. Flat base. 57
  • 68. iSSUE 10: Eachtra JoUrnal - iSSn 2009-2237 archaEological Excavation rEport Context Context Fill of Strat Strat Short Description Dimensions (m) # Type Above Below 188 Fill 187 163 187 Fill of feature. Dark bluish black stony silt, 1.72 x 1.05 x 0.28 soft in compaction. Occasional angular small and medium stones. Occasional flecks of charcoal. 189 Fill 230 187 190 Fill of feature. Mid greyish brown stony 1.66 x 1.1 x 0.26 silt, loose in compaction. Occasional sub- angular small and medium stones. 190 Fill 230 189 230 Fill of feature. Dark greyish black silty 1.66 x 0.8 x 0.3 sand, soft in compaction. 191 Cut 195 192, Cut of feature (possibly re-cut of linear ? x 0.9 x 0.18 193 [229]). Sides: gentle and convex on SE; gentle and concave on NW. Gradual break of slope at top and base. Concave base. 192 Linear 229 191 194 Fill of linear. Dark black stony silt, soft 1.46 x 0.7 x 0.2 Fill in compaction. Moderate angular small and medium stones. Occasional flecks of charcoal. 193 Linear 229 191 194 Fill of linear. Dark black stony silt, soft 1.46 x 0.26 x 0.1 Fill in compaction. Moderate angular small and medium stones. Occasional flecks of charcoal. 194 Linear 229 192, 229 Fill of linear. Light reddish brownish 1.46 x 1.3 x 0.14 Fill 193 orange silty sand. Loose in compaction. 195 Fill 191 196 191 Fill of feature. Mid brownish greyish black ? x 0.92 x 0.14 stony silt, soft in compaction. Occasional sub-angular small stones. 196 Fill 191 163 195 Fill of feature. Dark greyish black stony ? x 0.9 x 0.1 silt, soft in compaction. Moderate angular small and medium stones. 197 Pit Fill 257 198 199 Fill of pit. Mid greyish brown sandy silt, 0.6 x 0.3 x 0.5 (184) firm in compaction. Occasional sub- rounded fine pebbles. 198 Pit Fill 257 211 197 Fill of pit. Light yellowish orangish brown 0.8 x 0.6 x 0.25 (184) clayey sand, compact. 199 Pit Fill 257 197 257 Fill of pit. Mid yellowish brown sandy clay, 2.8 x 1.1 x 0.7 firm in compaction. Moderate sub-angular and sub-rounded small stones. Frequent sub-angular and sub-rounded medium stones. 200 Layer 59, Layer of possible re-deposit. Mid orangish ? x 3.28 x 0.56 201 brown silty pebbly sand, loose in compac- tion. Frequent sub-angular and sub-round- ed fine, medium and coarse pebbles and small and medium stones. 201 Layer 202 200 Layer of possible bank slippage. Mid ? x 2.2 x 0.6 brownish yellow sandy pebbly silt, friable in compaction. Frequent sub-angular, sub-rounded and rounded fine, medium and coarse pebbles and small and medium stones. 202 Ditch 239 201, Cut of ditch. Steep and smooth on N and S ? x 1.72 x 0.56 Cut 208 sides. Sharp break of slope at top; gradual at base on N side. Sharp break of slope at base on S side. Base flat. 203 Ditch Fill 202 238, 239 Fill of ditch. Light greyish pink silty sand, ? x 2.0 x 0.34 205 compact. Occasional sub-angular small and medium stones. 204 VOID58
  • 69. Ballinglanna north 1-E2414 http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/e2414-ballinglanna-north1-co-cork/Context Context Fill of Strat Strat Short Description Dimensions (m)# Type Above Below 205 Ditch Fill 202 206, 203 Fill of ditch. Light greyish orangish brown ? x 1.54 x 0.26 207 silty pebbly sand, friable in compaction. Frequent sub-angular and sub-rounded fine and medium pebbles. Moderate sub- angular and sub-rounded coarse pebbles and small stones. 206 Layer 2 237, Layer of sub-soil material in slot 9. Mid ? x 3.14 x 0.18 205 greyish brown silty clay, firm in compac- tion. Occasional sub-angular small stones. 207 Layer 2 237, Layer of sub-soil material in slot 9. Mid ? x 2.9 x 0.12 205 greyish brown silty clay, firm in compac- tion. Occasional sub-angular small stones. 208 Layer 202 Layer of natural material in slot 9. Light ? x 0.96 x 0.36 greyish brown silty pebbly sand, loose in compaction. Frequent sub-angular, sub- rounded and rounded fine and medium pebbles. Occasional sub-rounded medium stones. 209 Fill 219 163 219 Fill of feature associated with trough 0.92 x 0.56 x 0.48 [183]. Dark greyish black stony silt, soft in compaction. Moderate angular and sub-an- gular small and medium stones. Occasional flecks and small pieces of charcoal. 210 Posthole 211 2 211 Fill of posthole. Light brownish grey sand 0.36 x 0.36 x Fill clay, soft in compaction. Moderate sub- 0.34 angular medium stones. Occasional flecks of charcoal. 211 Posthole 210 184, Cut of posthole. Circular in shape. Steep 0.36 x 0.36 x Cut 198 and concave on all sides. Sharp break of 0.34 slope at top and base. Circular and concave at base. 212 VOID 213 Pit Cut 217 167 Cut of pit. Sub-rectangular in shape. Sides: 1.87 x 0.61 x 0.18 steep and smooth to N; gentle and concave to S; vertical and smooth to E; steep and concave to W. Gradual break of slope at base. Sub-rectangular and concave at base. 214 Pit Fill 213 2 217 Fill of pit. Mid brownish orange sandy silt, 0.85 x 0.61 x 0.13 soft in compaction. Occasional sub-angu- lar medium pebbles and small stones. 215 Pit Cut 216 167 Cut of pit. Sub-rectangular in shape. Sides: 0.6 x 0.35 x 0.15 vertical and smooth on N and S; steep and smooth on W; gentle and smooth on E. Gradual break of slope at top on E, sharp elsewhere. Gradual break of slope at base. Sub-rectangular and flat base. 216 Pit Fill 215 2 215 Fill of pit. Mid yellowish greyish brown 0.6 x 0.35 x 0.15 silty stony clay. Occasional sub-angular small stones. Moderate sub-rounded and sub-angular medium stones. 217 Pit Fill 213 214 213 Fill of pit. Dark brown sandy silt, soft in 1.08 x 0.61 x 0.1 compaction. Occasional fine sub-angular pebbles. Occasional angular small stones. 218 Deposit 2 167 Deposit of redeposited natural. Mid yel- 0.75 x 0.6 x 0.15 lowish brown silty clay, firm in compac- tion. Moderate sub-angular coarse pebbles. Occasional sub-angular small and medium stones. 59
  • 70. iSSUE 10: Eachtra JoUrnal - iSSn 2009-2237 archaEological Excavation rEport Context Context Fill of Strat Strat Short Description Dimensions (m) # Type Above Below 219 Cut 209 183, Cut of feature associated with trough [183]. 0.92 x 0.56 x 0.48 192, Sides: gentle and smooth to NW; steep and 193 smooth to SE; moderate and concave to N; moderate and undercut to S. Gradual break of slope at top and base. Oval base, flat in profile. 220 Pit Cut 221 167 Cut of pit. Oval in shape. Sides: gentle and 0.6 x 0.5 x 0.2 concave to N; steep and convex to S; gentle and convex to E; steep and smooth to W. Gradual break of slope at top and base for N and E sides; sharp break of slope at top and base for S and W sides. Base oval in plan, tapered rounded point in profile. 221 Pit Fill 220 2 220 Fill of pit. Mid reddish brown clayey sand, 0.6 x 0.5 x 0.2 loose in compaction. Moderate sub-angular small stones. Moderate angular and sub- angular medium stones. Occasional flecks of charcoal. 222 Ditch Fill 376 373 278 Fill of ditch. Dark brownish black clayey ? x 2.8 x 0.25 - Slot 8 silt, soft in compaction. Occasional sub-an- gular small and medium stones. Frequent flecks, small, medium and large pieces of slag material. 223 VOID 224 VOID 225 Posthole 226 183 Cut of posthole. Sides: steep and undercut 0.33 x 0.21 x 0.22 Cut to N and E; vertical and smooth to W; open to S. Sharp break of slope at top and base. Base sub-circular in plan, flat in profile. 226 Posthole 225 163 225 Fill of posthole. Dark greyish black stony 0.33 x 0.21 x 0.22 Fill silt, soft in compaction. Occasional sub- angular and sub-rounded small stones. Occasional flecks of charcoal. 227 VOID 228 VOID 229 Linear 194 167 Cut of linear. Steep and smooth sides on 2.22 x 1.46 x Cut the NE and SW. Sharp break of slope at 0.27 top and bottom. Flat base. 230 Cut 190 167 Cut of feature. Oval in plan. Steep and 2.16 x 1.66 x 0.51 concave sides. Sharp break of slope at top, gradual at base. Base oval in plan, flat in profile. 231 Posthole 232 167 Cut of posthole. Sides: gentle and undercut 0.5 x 0.33 x 0.35 Cut on N and W; steep and irregular on E; open on S. Sharp break of slope at top and base. Base sub-circular in plan, flat in profile. 232 Posthole 231 163 231 Fill of posthole. Dark greyish black stony 0.5 x 0.33 x 0.35 Fill silt, firm in compaction. Occasional sub- angular and sub-rounded small stones. Occasional flecks of charcoal. 233 Posthole 234 183 Cut of posthole. Sub-circular in shape. 0.46 x 0.29 x 0.33 Cut Steep and smooth on N and E sides; steep and irregular on S; open on W. Sharp break of slope at top and base. Sub-circular and flat base.60
  • 71. Ballinglanna north 1-E2414 http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/e2414-ballinglanna-north1-co-cork/Context Context Fill of Strat Strat Short Description Dimensions (m)# Type Above Below 234 Posthole 233 243, 233 Fill of posthole. Dark greyish black stony 0.46 x 0.29 x 0.33 Fill 245, silt, soft in compaction. Moderate sub- 247 angular coarse pebbles and small stones. Occasional flecks of charcoal. 235 VOID 236 VOID 237 Ditch Fill 202 206, 238 Fill of ditch. Dark brownish black silty clay, ? x 2.9 x 0.16 207 friable in compaction. Occasional small sub-angular stones. Frequent small pieces of charcoal. 238 Ditch Fill 202 237 203 Fill of ditch. Dark brown sandy silt. Oc- ? x 2.0 x 0.3 casional sub-angular and sub-rounded fine and medium pebbles. 239 Ditch Fill 202 203 202 Fill of ditch. Mid greyish brown stony ? x 0.98 x 0.08 sand, strongly cemented in compaction. Moderate sub-angular medium pebbles. Moderate sub-rounded coarse pebbles and small stones. Occasional sub-rounded medium stones. 240 VOID 241 Linear 242 167 Cut of linear. Sides: gentle and smooth 1.3 x 0.35 x 0.2 Cut on N and S; steep and convex on E; steep and concave on W. Gradual break of slope at top on N and S; sharp on E and W. Gradual break of slope base. Base oval in plan, concave in profile. 242 Linear 241 2 241 Fill of linear. Mid orangish brown silty 1.3 x 0.35 x 0.2 Fill sand, compact. Occasional sub-angular small stones. Moderate sub-angular me- dium stones. Occasional flecks of charcoal. 243 Stakehole 244 234 Cut of stakehole. Circular in shape. Verti- 0.05 x 0.04 x Cut cal and undercut to N and E; vertical and 0.25 irregular to S; open to W. Sharp break of slope at top and base. Irregular and concave at base. 244 Stakehole 243 163 243 Fill of stakehole. Dark greyish black stony 0.05 x 0.04 x Fill silt, soft in compaction. Occasional sub- 0.25 angular coarse pebbles and small stones. Moderate flecks of charcoal. 245 Stakehole 246 234 Cut of stakehole. Circular in shape. Sides: 0.07 x 0.05 x Cut vertical and smooth to N and E; vertical 0.27 and irregular to S; open to W. Sharp break of slope at top and base. Circular and flat at base. 246 Stakehole 245 163 245 Fill of stakehole. Dark greyish black stony 0.07 x 0.05 x Fill silt, soft in compaction. Occasional sub- 0.27 angular coarse pebbles and small and me- dium stones. Moderate flecks of charcoal. 247 Stakehole 248 234 Cut of stakehole. Circular in shape. Verti- 0.06 x 0.05 x Cut cal and smooth sides; open to W. Sharp 0.27 break of slope at top and base. Circular and concave at base. 248 Stakehole 247 163 247 Fill of stakehole. Dark greyish black 0.06 x 0.05 x Fill stony silt, soft in compaction. Occasional 0.27 sub-angular medium and coarse pebbles. Moderate flecks of charcoal. 61
  • 72. iSSUE 10: Eachtra JoUrnal - iSSn 2009-2237 archaEological Excavation rEport Context Context Fill of Strat Strat Short Description Dimensions (m) # Type Above Below 249 Stakehole 250 183 Cut of stakehole. Oval in shape. Vertical 0.10 x 0.07 x 0.11 Cut and smooth sides to N and W; steep and undercut to E; steep and smooth to S. Sharp break of slope at top and base. Oval and concave at base. 250 Stakehole 249 163 249 Fill of stakehole. Dark greyish black stony 0.10 x 0.07 x 0.11 Fill silt, soft in compaction. Occasional sub- angular and sub-rounded small stones. Occasional flecks of charcoal. 251 Stakehole 252 183 Cut of stakehole. Oval in shape. Steep and 0.09 x 0.08 x 0.14 Cut concave sides, except steep and smooth to N. Sharp break of slope at top and base. Oval and flat base. 252 Stakehole 251 163 251 Fill of stakehole. Dark brownish grey silt, 0.09 x 0.08 x 0.14 Fill soft in compaction. Occasional sub-angu- lar small and medium stones. 253 VOID 254 VOID 255 Pit Cut 256 167 Cut of pit. Sub-rectangular in shape. 0.49 x 0.27 x 0.24 Vertical and concave side to N; steep and smooth side to S; gentle and smooth side to E; steep and smooth side to W. Sharp break of slope top except gradual on E side. Gradual break of slope at base. Sub-rectan- gular and flat base. 256 Pit Fill 255 260 255 Fill of pit. Dark black silty sand, compact. 0.49 x 0.27 x 0.24 Occasional sub-angular small stones. Frequent small pieces of charcoal. 257 Pit Cut 199 163 Cut of pit. Sub-rectangular in shape. Gen- 3.0 x 1.0 x 0.8 tle and smooth sides to N and S; moderate to steep smooth side to W. Gradual break of slope at top. Sharp break of slope at base. Sub-rectangular and flat base. 258 Furrow 259 167 Cut of furrow. Linear in shape. Gentle and 2.07 x 0.31 x 0.12 Cut concave sides to N and S; steep and smooth side to W. Gradual break of slope top except on W side. Imperceptible break of slope at base. Irregular and concave at base. 259 Furrow 258 2 258 Fill of furrow. Mid brown sandy silt, soft 2.07 x 0.31 x 0.12 Fill in compaction. Moderate sub-angular and angular medium pebbles and small stones. 260 Linear 261 256 Cut of linear. Gentle and smooth side to S; 2.56 x 0.38 x 0.17 Cut steep and irregular sides to E and W. Break of slope top imperceptible to N; gradual to S; sharp to E and W. Break of slope base imperceptible to N; gradual to S, E and W. Base irregular and flat. 261 Linear 260 2 260 Fill of linear. Mid brownish orange silty 2.56 x 0.38 x 0.17 Fill sand, compact. Frequent sub-angular small and medium stones. Moderate flecks of charcoal. 262 VOID 263 VOID 264 Linear 265 167 Cut of linear. Gentle and concave sides 2.9 x 0.72 x 0.17 Cut to SE and NW; steep and smooth side to E. Sharp break of slope at top on E side; gradual break of slope top on SE and NW sides. Gradual break of slope at base on E side; imperceptible break of slope at base on SE and NW sides. Irregular and flat base.62
  • 73. Ballinglanna north 1-E2414 http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/e2414-ballinglanna-north1-co-cork/Context Context Fill of Strat Strat Short Description Dimensions (m)# Type Above Below 265 Linear 264 2 264 Fill of linear. Mid brown silty clay, soft in 2.9 x 0.72 x 0.17 Fill compaction. Moderate sub-angular and rounded fine pebbles. Moderate angular and sub-angular medium pebbles and small and medium stones. 266 Stakehole 267 167 Cut of stakehole. Sub-circular in shape. 0.17 x 0.13 x 0.07 Cut Gentle and irregular side to N; gentle and concave to E and S; gentle and smooth to W. Sharp break of slope top on N and W; gradual break of slope on S and E. Gradual break of slope at base. Base sub-circular in plan, tapered rounded point in profile. 267 Stakehole 266 2 266 Fill of stakehole. Mid orangish brown 0.17 x 0.13 x 0.07 Fill sandy silt, soft in compaction. Occasional flecks of charcoal. 268 Pit Cut 269 167 Cut of possible fire pit. Irregular in shape. 2.42 x 1.4 x 1.22 Vertical and undercut on N and S sides. Vertical and irregular on E and W sides. Sharp break of slope at top. Gradual break of slope at base, except sharp on N side. Ir- regular and tapered rounded point at base. 269 Pit Fill 268 276 268 Fill of pit. Dark black sandy silt, friable 1.47 x 1.1 x 1.22 in compaction. Moderate angular and sub-angular small and medium stones. Frequent flecks, small and medium pieces and occasional large pieces of charcoal. 270 Posthole 271 167 Cut of posthole. Oval in shape. Vertical 0.32 x 0.17 x 0.32 Cut and smooth on N side; vertical and concave on S and W sides; moderate and concave on E side. Sharp break of slope top on W, N and S sides; gradual on E side. Sharp break of slope at base. Sub-circular and flat base. 271 Posthole 270 2 270 Fill of posthole. Dark greyish black silt, soft 0.32 x 0.17 x 0.32 Fill in compaction. Occasional angular small and medium stones. Moderate flecks and small pieces of charcoal. 272 Cut 273 167 Cut of feature. Sub-rectangular in shape. 0.49 x 0.46 x 0.08 Gentle and smooth sides, except moderate and smooth on W. Imperceptible break of slope on N and E sides at top and base. Gradual break of slope on S side at top and base. Sharp break of slope on W side at top and base. Sub-rectangular and flat base. 273 Fill 272 2 272 Fill of feature. Dark black silt, firm in com- 0.49 x 0.46 x 0.08 paction. Frequent large pieces of charcoal. 274 Cut 291 163, Construction cut. Rectangular in shape. 12.0 x 0.46 x 0.5 286, N and W sides vertical and smooth. Sharp 289 break of slope at top. Orientation N-S then turns E-W. 275 Fill 274 310 291 Fill of construction cut. Mid orangish 12.0 x 0.46 x 0.5 brown silty sand, weakly cemented. Oc- casional sub-angular medium pebbles. Moderate sub-rounded small stones. Frequent sub-rounded large stones (0.25m diameter) = wall. 276 Pit Fill 268 277 269 Fill of pit. Mid greyish brown silty sand, 2.42 x 1.2 x 0.35 compact. Moderate angular and sub-angu- lar small and medium stones. Occasional flecks of charcoal. 63
  • 74. iSSUE 10: Eachtra JoUrnal - iSSn 2009-2237 archaEological Excavation rEport Context Context Fill of Strat Strat Short Description Dimensions (m) # Type Above Below 277 Pit Fill 268 2 276 Fill of pit. Mid orangish brown sandy silt, 2.42 x 1.4 x 0.35 firm in compaction. Moderate sub-angular small and medium stones. Occasional small pieces of charcoal. 278 Ditch Fill 376 222 374 Fill of ditch. Dark greyish brown silt, soft ? x 2.13 x 0.18 - Slot 8 in compaction. Occasional sub-angular and sub-rounded coarse pebbles. Oc- casional sub-rounded small and medium stones. Moderate flecks and small pieces and occasional medium pieces of slag. 279 Field 281 167 Cut of field drain. Linear in shape. Moder- ? x 1.6 x 0.45 Drain ate and concave on N and S sides. Gradual Cut break of slope at top and base. Linear and concave at base. 280 Field 279 302 281 Fill of field drain. Dark greyish brown silt, ? x 1.6 x 0.45 Drain soft in compaction. No inclusions. Fill 281 Field 279 280 279 Fill of field drain. Mid greyish stone ? x 1.6 x 0.45 Drain deposit. Frequent sub-angular medium Fill stones. 282 VOID 283 Fill 284 2 284 Fill of natural feature. Light brownish 0.68 x 0.48 x 0.12 grey sandy silt, compact. Occasional sub- rounded small stones. Frequent small pieces of charcoal. 284 Cut 283 167 Cut of natural feature. Sub-circular in 0.68 x 0.48 x 0.12 shape. Gentle and smooth on all sides. Sharp break of slope top on N and S sides. Imperceptible break of slope top on E and W sides. Sub-circular and flat base. 285 Layer 312 297 Layer associated with structure. Dark 4.8 x 3.0 x 0.25 brown clayey silt, soft in compaction. Mod- erate sub-angular and sub-rounded small stones. Occasional flecks of charcoal. 286 Layer 296 / Layer associated with structure. Light or- 2.8 x 2.7 x ? (289) 288, angish brown silty sand, weakly cemented. 295, Moderate sub-angular medium and coarse 305 / pebbles. Occasional sub-rounded small 274 and medium stones. Occasional flecks of charcoal. 287 VOID 288 Layer 310 286, Layer associated with structure. Mid 2.4 x 1.75 x 0.15 289 brownish black pebbly silt, firm in compac- tion. Moderate sub-angular coarse pebbles and small and medium stones. Moderate flecks of charcoal. 289 Layer 296 / Layer associated with structure. Light or- 0.4 x 0.25 x 0.08 (286) 288/ angish brown pebbly silt, weakly cemented. 295, Moderate sub-angular coarse pebbles. Oc- 305 / casional sub-rounded small and medium 274 stones. Occasional flecks of charcoal. 290 Deposit 274 310 291 Deposit associated with structure. Dark 0.3 x 0.2 x 0.05 brownish black clayey silt, soft in compac- tion. Frequent flecks, small and medium pieces of charcoal. 291 Wall 274 275 274 Walls defining structure. Vertical and 12.0 x 0.46 x 0.5 smooth sides to N and W. Sharp break of slope top on N and W sides. Orientated N to S then turning E to W.64
  • 75. Ballinglanna north 1-E2414 http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/e2414-ballinglanna-north1-co-cork/Context Context Fill of Strat Strat Short Description Dimensions (m)# Type Above Below 292 Pit Cut 298 167 Cut of pit. Sub-circular in shape. Steep and 1.77 x 1.56 x 0.76 smooth for all sides. Sharp break of slope at top and base. Sub-circular and flat base. 293 Pit Fill 292 294 300 Fill of pit. Dark greyish brown silty clay, ? x 1.4 x 0.55 soft in compaction. Frequent angular and sub-angular medium stones. Frequent flecks, small and medium pieces of char- coal. Occasional flecks of burnt bone. 294 Pit Fill 292 2 293 Fill of pit. Dark greyish brown silty clay, ? x 1.4 x 0.05 soft in compaction. Moderate flecks and small pieces of charcoal. Occasional flecks and small pieces of wood. 295 Layer 310 286, Layer associated with structure. Light yel- 0.6 x 0.5 x 0.1 289 lowish brown silt, soft in compaction. 296 Linear 297 286, Cut of linear. Moderate and smooth sides 4.1 x 0.74 x 0.1 Cut 289 to N and S. Gradual break of slope at top and base. Base sub-rectangular and flat. 297 Linear 296 285 296 Fill of linear. Dark brown silty clay, soft in 4.1 x 0.74 x 0.1 Fill compaction. Occasional sub-angular small and medium stones. 298 Pit Fill 292 299 292 Fill of pit. Mid pinkish brown silty clay, ? x 0.9 x 0.1 soft in compaction. Frequent small and medium pieces of charcoal. Frequent small and medium pieces of wood. 299 Pit Fill 292 300 298 Fill of pit. Dark black clayey silt, soft in ? x 1.1 x 0.04 compaction. Frequent medium and large pieces of charcoal. 300 Pit Fill 292 293 299 Fill of pit. Light orangish brown silty clay, ? x 0.3 x 0.35 soft in compaction. Moderate flecks and small pieces of charcoal. 301 Pit Cut 307 59 Cut of pit. Sub-rectangular in shape. Steep 2.2 x 1.5 x 0.74 and convex side to N; vertical and smooth sides to S and E; steep and smooth side to W. Sharp break of slope at top and base. Sub-rectangular and flat base. 302 Layer 2 280 Layer associated with structure. Light ? x 1.1 x 0.29 yellowish brown silty clay, firm in compac- tion. Moderate angular and sub-angular medium and coarse pebbles. 303 Pit Cut 304 286, Cut of pit. Oval in shape. Gentle and 1.1 x 0.68 x 0.25 289 smooth side to N; steep and smooth sides to S and W; moderate and smooth side to E. Imperceptible break of slope at top and base on N. Sharp break of slope at top and base on E and S. Gradual break of slope at top and base on W. Oval and flat base. 304 Pit Fill 303 310 303 Fill of pit. Dark brown silty clay, soft in 1.1 x 0.68 x 0.25 compaction. Occasional sub-angular, sub-rounded and rounded small, medium and coarse pebbles. Frequent sub-angular, sub-rounded and rounded medium stones. Frequent flecks and moderate small pieces of charcoal. Occasional flecks of burnt bone. 65
  • 76. iSSUE 10: Eachtra JoUrnal - iSSn 2009-2237 archaEological Excavation rEport Context Context Fill of Strat Strat Short Description Dimensions (m) # Type Above Below 305 Pit Cut 306 286, Cut of pit. Irregular in shape. Steep and 0.39 x 0.36 x 0.11 289 irregular sides to N and W; moderate and smooth side to E; gentle and irregular side to S. Sharp break of slope top and base on N and W. Imperceptible break of slope at top and base on S. Gradual break of slope at top and base on E. Irregular and flat at base. 306 Pit Fill 305 296 305 Fill of pit. Dark brownish grey/black silt, 0.39 x 0.36 x 0.11 firm in compaction. Occasional sub- angular small stones. Occasional flecks and moderate small pieces of charcoal. 307 Pit Fill 301 2 301 Fill of pit. Mid orangish brown sandy silt, 2.2 x 1.5 x 0.74 firm in compaction. Moderate sub-angular and sub-rounded small and medium stones. Occasional large stones (0.65m diameter). Occasional small pieces of char- coal. Included articulated horse skeleton. 308 VOID 309 VOID 310 Layer 311 288, Layer associated with structure. Mid grey- ? x 1.0 x 0.2 295, ish brown silty clay, firm in compaction. 304, Moderate angular and sub-angular small 275 and medium stones. 311 Layer 297 310 Layer associated with structure. Mid ? x 0.9 x 0.18 pinkish/yellowish brown sandy silt, soft in compaction. Occasional sub-angular small and medium stones. 312 Layer 279 285 Layer associated with structure. Mid grey- ? x 2.2 x 0.23 ish brown silty clay, firm in compaction. Occasional sub-angular fine, medium and coarse pebbles and small stones. Occasional flecks of charcoal. 313 VOID 314 VOID 315 Posthole 316 59 Cut of posthole. Sub-circular in plan. Steep 0.15 x 0.14 x 0.08 Cut and smooth sides. Sharp break of slope at top and base. Sub-circular and flat base. 316 Posthole 315 2 315 Fill of posthole. Mid brownish grey silty 0.15 x 0.14 x 0.08 Fill sand, soft in compaction. Occasional sub- angular small stones. 317 VOID 318 Posthole 319 59 Cut of pit. Steep and undercut on all sides. 0.57 x 0.34 x 0.2 Cut Irregular in shape. Sharp break of slope at top and base. Irregular and flat at base. 319 Posthole 318 2 318 Fill of pit. Dark brownish/greyish black silt, 0.57 x 0.34 x 0.2 Fill firm in compaction. Occasional rounded coarse pebbles. Moderate rounded and sub-angular small stones. Occasional sub- angular and sub-rounded medium stones. Occasional sub-rounded large stones (0.3m diameter). 320 Pit Cut 321 59 Cut of pit. Irregular in shape. Steep and 2.0 x 1.2 x 0.5 smooth side to N; moderate and smooth side to S; vertical and smooth side to E; steep and irregular side to W. Sharp break of slope at top and base. Irregular and flat base.66
  • 77. Ballinglanna north 1-E2414 http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/e2414-ballinglanna-north1-co-cork/Context Context Fill of Strat Strat Short Description Dimensions (m)# Type Above Below 321 Pit Fill 320 2 320 Fill of pit. Dark orangish brown sandy 2.0 x 1.2 x 0.5 silt, firm in compaction. Occasional sub- angular and sub-rounded fine pebbles and small stones. Occasional flecks of charcoal. Included articulated calf skeleton. 322 Wall 48 50 Wall canalising Glencora River. Vertical 1.33 x 1.0 x 0.23 and concave on E side. Sub-rectangular and flat base. Linear in shape. 323 Linear 327 59 Cut of linear. Moderate and smooth sides. 2.35 x 0.45 x 0.12 Cut Gradual break of slope at top and base. Sub-rectangular and flat base. 324 Layer 2 355 Layer at S end of Area 1. Dark brownish 1.5 x 0.9 x 0.01 black silty sand, loose in compaction. Mod- erate angular and sub-angular small stones. Moderate flecks of charcoal. 325 Cut 326 59 Cut of natural feature. Sub-rectangular in 0.41 x 0.28 x 0.19 shape. Steep and concave sides to N and W; moderate and concave side to S; vertical and irregular side to E. Sharp break of slope at top and base. Oval and flat base. 326 Fill 325 2 325 Fill of natural feature. Mid greyish brown 0.41 x 0.28 x 0.19 silty sand, soft in compaction. 327 Linear 323 2 323 Fill of linear. Mid greyish brown silty 2.35 x 0.45 x 0.12 Fill clay, soft in compaction. Occasional sub- angular small stones. Occasional flecks of charcoal. 328 Pit Cut 330 59 Cut of pit. Sub-rectangular in shape. Verti- 1.5 x 0.95 x 0.35 cal and irregular to NW side; moderate and smooth sides to NE and SE. Gradual break of slope at top and base. Sub-rectangular and concave base. 329 Pit Fill 328 2 330 Fill of pit. Mid brownish orange sandy 1.25 x 0.45 x 0.25 silt, firm in compaction. Occasional sub- angular and sub-rounded small stones. Occasional large pieces of slag material. 330 Pit Fill 328 329 328 Fill of pit. Dark greyish brown sandy silt, 1.5 x 0.5 x 0.12 firm in compaction. Moderate sub-angular and sub-rounded small and medium stones. 331 Cut 332 59 Cut of feature. Sub-circular in shape. 0.8 x 0.62 x 0.08 Gentle and smooth sides to N, E and W; moderate and smooth side to S. Gradual break of slope top. Gradual break of slope base, except sharp on S side. Sub-circular and flat base. 332 Fill 331 2 331 Fill of feature. Dark greyish brown silty 0.8 x 0.62 x 0.08 clay, firm in compaction. Moderate sub- angular and sub-rounded medium pebbles and small and medium stones. Frequent sub-angular and sub-rounded coarse peb- bles. Frequent flecks and small pieces of charcoal. Moderate flecks and small pieces of burnt bone. 333 Linear 334 59 Cut of linear. Gentle and smooth sides to 0.89 x 0.38 x Cut N and E; moderate and smooth sides to 0.06 S and W. Imperceptible break of slope at top and base on N side. Gradual break of slope at top and base on S, E and W sides. Irregular and flat base. 67
  • 78. iSSUE 10: Eachtra JoUrnal - iSSn 2009-2237 archaEological Excavation rEport Context Context Fill of Strat Strat Short Description Dimensions (m) # Type Above Below 334 Linear 333 2 333 Fill of linear. Mid brownish grey sandy silt, 0.89 x 0.38 x Fill soft in compaction. Occasional flecks and 0.06 moderate small pieces of charcoal. 335 VOID 336 VOID 337 Ditch Fill 382 383 339 Fill of ditch. Mid orangish brown sand, ? x 7.2 x 0.38 - Slot 6 compact. Occasional sub-rounded medium stones. 338 Ditch Fill 382 384 382 Fill of ditch. Dark black silty clay, firm in ? x 3.38 x 0.44 - Slot 6 compaction. Sub-angular medium stones. 339 Ditch Fill 382 337 385 Fill of ditch. Mid greyish brown clayey ? x 5.2 x 0.3 - Slot 6 sand, weakly cemented. Moderate sub- angular and sub-rounded medium pebbles. Frequent sub-angular and sub-rounded medium stones. 340 Linear 341 59 Cut of linear. Gentle and irregular sides. 5.3 x 0.7 x 0.17 Cut Gradual break of slope at top and base. Ir- regular and flat at base. Same cut as linear [351]. 341 Linear 340 2 340 Fill of linear. Mid greyish black silt, soft in 5.3 x 0.7 x 0.17 Fill compaction. Occasional sub-angular small and medium stones. Occasional flecks of charcoal. 342 Posthole 343 59 Cut of posthole. Circular in shape. Steep 0.12 x 0.12 x 0.08 Cut and smooth sides to S, E and W; vertical and smooth side to N. Sharp break of slope at top and base. Circular and concave base. 343 Posthole 342 2 342 Fill of posthole. Mid greyish brown sandy 0.12 x 0.12 x 0.08 Fill silt, firm in compaction. Occasional sub- rounded medium pebbles. 344 Posthole 345 59 Cut of posthole. Circular in shape. Vertical 0.16 x 0.15 x 0.12 Cut and smooth sides to N and E; steep and smooth sides to S and W. Sharp break of slope at top and base. Circular and concave at base. 345 Posthole 344 2 344 Fill of posthole. Mid greyish brown sandy 0.16 x 0.15 x 0.12 Fill silt, firm in compaction. Moderate sub- angular small stones. 346 VOID 347 Linear 372 368 359 Fill of linear. Dark black clayey sand, com- 10.64 x 1.13 x 0.1 Fill pact. Occasional angular and sub-angular small stones. Occasional flecks of charcoal. 348 VOID 349 VOID 350 Layer 372 356 Layer of natural material. Light yellowish ? x ? x 0.12 brown stony sand, loose in compaction. Frequent angular and sub-angular small stones. 351 VOID 352 VOID 353 Pit Cut 360 363, Cut of pit. Linear in shape. Moderate and 2.07 x 1.4 x 0.24 365 smooth sides to NE and SE; vertical and smooth side to SW; steep and smooth side to NW. Gradual break of slope at top and base, except sharp on SW side. Square and flat base.68
  • 79. Ballinglanna north 1-E2414 http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/e2414-ballinglanna-north1-co-cork/Context Context Fill of Strat Strat Short Description Dimensions (m)# Type Above Below 354 Linear 365 355 Cut of linear. Steep and smooth sides. 9.25 x 1.0 x 0.28 Cut Gradual break of slope at top and base on E side. Imperceptible break of slope at top and base on SW side. Sharp break of slope at top and base on SE and NW sides. Sub- rectangular and flat base. 355 Layer 356 / Layer of natural material. Light orangish ? x ? x 0.19 369/ brown pebbly sand, loose in compaction. 354 / Frequent sub-angular and sub-rounded 370, fine and medium pebbles. 324 356 Layer 350 355 Layer of natural material. Mid brown silty ? x ? x 0.3 sand, compact. Moderate sub-angular small and medium stones. 357 Pit Fill 375 358 361 Fill of pit. Light brown silty clay, firm in 4.05 x 1.5 x 0.2 compaction. Occasional small pieces of charcoal. Occasional sub-angular fine pebbles. Occasional sub-angular and sub- rounded medium pebbles. 358 Pit Fill 375 2 357 Fill of pit. Dark greyish brown silty clay, 2.4 x 0.8 x 0.3 friable in compaction. Occasional angular, sub-angular and sub-rounded medium and coarse pebbles. Occasional sub-angular small stones. Moderate flecks and occasion- al small and medium pieces of charcoal. 359 Linear 372 347 372 Fill of linear. Light pinkish grey silty clay, ? x 0.85 x 0.18 Fill soft in compaction. Occasional sub- rounded fine pebbles and small stones. Occasional flecks of charcoal. 360 Pit Fill 353 2 353 Fill of pit. Mid brown silty clay, firm in 2.07 x 1.4 x 0.24 compaction. Occasional sub-angular and sub-rounded fine, medium and coarse peb- bles. Occasional sub-rounded small stones. 361 Pit Fill 375 357 375 Fill of pit. Light brownish yellow sandy silt, 4.64 x 1.35 x 0.10 firm in compaction. Occasional angular and sub-angular coarse pebbles. Occasional sub-angular small and medium stones. Oc- casional flecks of charcoal. 362 VOID 363 VOID 364 VOID 365 Linear 354 353 354 Fill of linear. Mid greyish brown silty 9.25 x 1.04 x 0.3 Fill pebbly clay, firm in compaction. Moderate sub-angular and sub-rounded medium and coarse pebbles and small stones. Moder- ate flecks and occasional small pieces of charcoal. 366 VOID 367 VOID 368 Layer 2 347 Layer of subsoil material. Mid greyish 6.0 x 6.0 x 0.3 brown sandy silt, weakly cemented. Oc- casional sub-angular medium pebbles and medium stones. 369 VOID 370 Linear 371 355 Cut of linear. Gentle and smooth side to 4.37 x 0.94 x 0.26 Cut N; moderate and smooth sides to E and W; steep and smooth side to S. Gradual break of slope at top and base, except sharp on S side. Sub-rectangular and flat base. 69
  • 80. iSSUE 10: Eachtra JoUrnal - iSSn 2009-2237 archaEological Excavation rEport Context Context Fill of Strat Strat Short Description Dimensions (m) # Type Above Below 371 Linear 370 2 370 Fill of linear. Dark brownish/greyish black 4.37 x 0.94 x 0.26 Fill clayey silt, soft in compaction. Occasional sub-angular small and medium stones. Oc- casional flecks and small pieces of charcoal. 372 Linear 346, 350 Cut of linear. Steep and smooth side to W; 9.7 x 1.72 x 0.3 Cut 359 gentle and smooth to E. Sharp break of slope at top. Gradual break of slope at base. Linear and flat to concave base. 373 Ditch Fill 376 386 222 Fill of ditch. Light pinkish brown sandy ? x 1.75 x 0.05 - Slot 8 silt, soft in compaction. 374 Ditch Fill 376 278 376 Fill of ditch. Mid reddish brown pebbly/ ? x 2.0 x 0.45 - Slot 8 stony sand, loose in compaction. Frequent sub-angular and sub-rounded fine, me- dium and coarse pebbles and small stones. 375 Pit Cut 361 167 Cut of pit. Linear in shape. Steep and 4.64 x 1.9 x 0.6 smooth sides to N and W; steep and ir- regular side to E; moderate and smooth to S. Gradual break of slope at top to S; sharp to N, E and W. Gradual break of slope base except sharp on E. Sub-rectangular and concave base. 376 Ditch 374 167 Cut of ditch. Linear in shape. Moderate ? x 2.4 x 0.55 Cut - Slot and smooth sides to E and W. Gradual 8 break of slope at top and base. Linear and concave base. 377 Deposit 310 286, Deposit associated with structure. Dark 0.82 x 0.45 x 0.04 289 greyish black stony sand, strongly cemented in compaction. Moderate sub-angular medium and coarse pebbles. Moderate sub-angular and sub-rounded small and medium stones. Frequent flecks, moderate small and occasional medium pieces of charcoal. 378 Ditch 389, 167 Cut of ditch (Slot 7). Linear in shape. ? x 8.2 x 1.25 Cut - Slot 388 Gentle and smooth side to E; moderate and 7 smooth/stepped side to W. Gradual break of slope top on E; sharp on W. Sharp break of slope at base. Linear and flat base. 379 Ditch Fill 378 386 389 Fill of ditch. Dark black stony sand, com- ? x 2.2 x 0.66 - Slot 7 pact. Frequent angular and sub-angular small and medium stones. Frequent flecks of charcoal. 380 Ditch Fill 378 2 386 Fill of ditch. Mid reddish brown silty sand, ? x 7.6 x 0.45 - Slot 7 compact. Moderate angular, sub-angular and sub-rounded medium stones and mod- erate angular large stones (0.29m diameter). 381 Ditch Fill 378 387 388 Fill of ditch. Mid greyish brown sandy ? x 2.76 x 0.64 - Slot 7 silt, soft in compaction. Occasional sub- angular medium stones. Occasional flecks of charcoal. 382 Ditch 338 167 Cut of ditch. Linear in shape. Gentle and ? x 7.95 x 1.40 Cut - Slot irregular side to E; moderate and concave 6 side to W. Gradual break of slope at top and base. Linear and concave base. 383 Ditch Fill 382 2 337 Fill of ditch. Mid reddish brown clayey ? x 7.3 x 0.36 - Slot 6 sand, weakly cemented. Moderate sub- angular and sub-rounded medium pebbles. Occasional sub-angular and sub-rounded small stones.70
  • 81. Ballinglanna north 1-E2414 http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/e2414-ballinglanna-north1-co-cork/Context Context Fill of Strat Strat Short Description Dimensions (m)# Type Above Below 384 Ditch Fill 382 385 338 Fill of ditch. Mid yellowish brown silty ? x 3.5 x 0.4 - Slot 6 sand, weakly cemented. Moderate sub- angular and sub-rounded medium pebbles. Occasional angular and sub-angular medium and large stones. 385 Ditch Fill 382 339 384 Fill of ditch. Dark brown clayey sand. ? x 2.0 x 0.44 - Slot 6 Moderate sub-angular and sub-rounded medium stones. Occasional sub-angular and sub-rounded large stones. 386 Ditch Fill 378 380 379, Fill of ditch. Mid brown sandy silt, firm in ? x 2.3 x 0.26 - Slot 7 387 compaction. Occasional sub-angular and sub-rounded small and medium stones. 387 Ditch Fill 378 386 381 Fill of ditch. Light yellowish brown sandy ? x 2.44 x 0.18 - Slot 7 silt, firm in compaction. 388 Ditch Fill 378 381 378 Fill of ditch. Light orangish brown silty ? x 2.78 x 0.46 - Slot 7 sand, compact. Frequent sub-angular and sub-rounded medium pebbles. Moder- ate sub-angular and sub-rounded coarse pebbles. Occasional sub-angular and sub- rounded small stones. 389 Ditch Fill 378 379 378 Fill of ditch. Light yellowish brown silt, soft ? x 2.0 x 0.24 - Slot 7 in compaction. 390 Field 391 Cut of field drain. Linear in shape. Steep 14.2 x 1.2 x 0.6 Drain and smooth sides to E and W. Sharp break Cut of slope at top. Imperceptible break of slope at base. Linear and flat base. 391 Field 390 2 390 Fill of field drain. Mid reddish brown 14.2 x 1.2 x 0.6 Drain clayey silt, firm in compaction. Moderate Fill sub-angular medium and coarse pebbles. Frequent sub-angular and sub-rounded medium stones. Frequent angular and sub- rounded large stones. 71
  • 82. iSSUE 10: Eachtra JoUrnal - iSSn 2009-2237 archaEological Excavation rEportAppendix 2 Site matrix72
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  • 88. iSSUE 10: Eachtra JoUrnal - iSSn 2009-2237 archaEological Excavation rEport Appendix 3 Groups and subgroups Group 1 Natural Deposits This group describes the natural geological deposits identified across the area of excavation. Subgroup 1 Natural Subsoils List of Contexts; C. 1, 2, 206, 207, 368 Description This subgroup describes the natural sub-soils that have formed across the area of excava- tion. They are in general a mid brown clayey silt. Post-medieval finds including ceramics, glass and clay pipes were recovered from layer (2). Subgroup 2 Natural Gravels List of Contexts; C. 53, 54, 55, 56, 59, 65, 66, 67, 68, 200, 201, 208, 350, 355, 356. Description This subgroup describes the natural gravels, most probably associated with alluvial depo- sition, located to the eastern half of the site. They are in general a light orangish brown pebbley silt or stony sand. Subgroup 3 Natural layers associated with ditch List of Contexts; C. 136, 141, 143, 145, 146, 148, 150, 155, 156, 157, 158, 159, 160, 161, 162. Description This subgroup describes the natural layers associated with the cut of the ditch. They are in general a light grey to a mid reddish brown in colour, and stony sand to silty clay in composition. Subgroup 4 Natural deposit List of Contexts; C. 167. Description This subgroup describes the natural deposit to the western side of the site. It is a light orangish brown sandy clay. Group 2 Fulacht Fiadh This group describes a fulacht fiadh, including all associated features and modern distur- bances, located to the west of the area of excavation. Subgroup 1 Burnt Mound material and associated layers Plates: 334, 335, 336, 337, 338, 339, 340, 341, 342, 343, 344, 176, 177, 178, 171, 172. List of Contexts; C.163, 164, 165, 16778
  • 89. Ballinglanna north 1-E2414 http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/e2414-ballinglanna-north1-co-cork/DescriptionThis subgroup describes the burnt mound material covering the features described insubgroups {2002} to {2006}. It also describes the associated layers uncovered during exca-vation of the mound. Burnt mound material (163) measured 15.6 m in length, 7.75 m in width and 0.4 m indepth. It was a dark black stony silt with moderate flecks and occasional small pieces ofcharcoal inclusions. One worked flint flake was also recovered from this deposit. Layers (164) and (166) overlay burnt mound material (163) and lay underneath sub-soil layer (002). Layer (164) measured 0.45 m in width and 0.1 m in depth. It was a midbrownish orange stony sand. Layer (166) measured 5 m in width and 0.1 m in depth. Itwas a mid brown silty stony clay. Layer (165) overlay the natural in this area and lay underneath the burnt mound mate-rial (163). It measured 0.9 m in width and 0.07 m in depth. It was a mid greyish brownsandy pebbley clay.InterpretationThese layers represent a sequence of stratigraphy from the occupation of the fulacht fiadhto long after its abandonment. Layer (165) appears to be a transference layer betweenthe burnt mound material and the natural layer, possibly a layer of occupation while themound was in use. Layer (163) represents the waste material produced from the use ofthe fulacht while it was occupied. This may have originally been located further up theslope to the west and may have slipped over time due to colluvium activity. Layers (164)and (166) represent naturally deposited layers of material long after the abandonment ofthe fulacht. They may have been deposited through colluvium action or possibly naturalsilting.Subgroup 2 Trough and associated structural featuresPlates: 352, 353, 354, 355, 356, 357, 358, 359, 360, 361, 362, 363, 364, 261, 262, 263, 264,204, 205, 206, 207, 208, 272, 273, 274, 275, 276, 277, 278, 279, 280, 283, 284, 285, 286,287, 290, 291.List of Contexts; C. [183], [225], 226, [231], 232, [243], 244, [245], 246, [247], 248, [249],250, [251], 252, [233], 234.DescriptionThis subgroup describes the trough of the fulacht fiadh, in which the main activity tookplace, as well as related structural elements. The trough [183] measured 2.2 m in length, 1.8 m in width and was 0.8 m indepth. It was aligned east to west It was rectangular in shape, with generally steep andsmooth sides. The sides of the trough to the north and south of the feature appear to havebeen stepped. The base was rectangular in shape and flat in profile. Some large flat stoneswere uncovered in the base of the trough. It was filled by burnt mound material (163) asdescribed in subgroup {2001}. Posthole [225] was located in the north west corner of the trough [183]. It meas-ured 0.33 m in diameter and was 0.22 m in depth. It was sub-circular in shape and had 79
  • 90. iSSUE 10: Eachtra JoUrnal - iSSn 2009-2237 archaEological Excavation rEport steep and undercut sides except to the south east which was open to the interior of the trough. Its base was flat in profile. It was filled by a dark greyish black stony silt (226) with occasional flecks of charcoal inclusions. Posthole [231] was located in the north east corner of the trough. It measured 0.5 m in diameter and 0.35 m in depth. It was sub-circular in shape and had steep and un- dercut sides except to the south west which was also open to the interior of the trough. Its base was flat in profile. It was filled by a dark greyish black stony silt (232) with occasional flecks of charcoal inclusions. Posthole [233] was located in the south east corner of the trough. It measured 0.46 m in diameter and 0.33 m in depth. It was sub-circular in shape and had steep and ir- regular sides except to the north west which was also open to the interior of the trough. Its base was flat in profile. It was filled by a dark greyish black stony silt (234) with occasional flecks of charcoal inclusions. Three stakeholes [243], [245] and [247] appeared to truncate the edge of posthole [233]. They were circular in shape with a diameter of approximately 0.06 m and a depth of 0.26 m. They had vertical and undercut sides and all three stakeholes had an open side to the interior of the posthole. They were filled by a dark greyish black stony silt, (244), (246) and (248) respectively. All contained occasional flecks of charcoal inclusions. Two stakeholes lay just outside of the trough to the east. Stakehole [249] is located 0.06 m to the east of posthole [231]. It measured 0.1 m in diameter and 0.11 m in depth. It was oval in shape with steep sides and a concave base. It was filled by a dark greyish black stony silt (250) with occasional flecks of charcoal inclusions. Stakehole [251] was located 0.12 m east of posthole [233]. It measured 0.09 m in diameter and 0.14 m in depth. It was oval in shape with steep sides and a flat base. It was filled by a dark greyish black stony silt (252) with occasional flecks of charcoal inclusions. Interpretation These features represent the main area of activity for the fulacht fiadh. The trough was large in size and included the possible remnants of a stone lining on the base. The post- holes are later additions as they truncate three of the corners of the trough however, to what extent they were later is difficult to determine. These postholes represent a structure that was probably constructed over the trough itself, possibly for shelter or as some enclos- ing element for the usage of the trough. The three postholes appear to have constructed so that part of the posts themselves were open to the interior of the trough. The stakeholes that truncate posthole [233] probably represent structural supports for that particular post, most likely also incorporating stakeholes [249] and [251] as well. While it appears the posts on the eastern end of the trough needed more support than those on the western end as shown by the stakeholes, truncation by later activity (see subgroup {2007}) may have removed any trace of structural support at the western end. The fills of all of these features appear to represent redeposited burnt mound ma- terial, probably originating from the main trough. The similarities of these fills tend to suggest that these features were contemporary not only in use but also in abandonment.80
  • 91. Ballinglanna north 1-E2414 http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/e2414-ballinglanna-north1-co-cork/Subgroup 3 Water Management SystemPlates: 214, 215, 216, 199, 200, 201, 202, 203, 250, 251, 252, 253, 254, 255, 256, 257, 258,259.List of Contexts; C.[229], 192, 193, 194, [230], 189, 190.DescriptionThis subgroup represents a water management system that is connected to the troughas described in subgroup {002}. Protruding from the south of the trough lay linear gully[229] leading onto the possible well [230]. Linear gully [229] measured 2.22 m in length, 1.46 m in width and 0.27 m indepth. The sides to the east and west were steep and smooth and the base was flat inprofile. It was filled primarily by a light reddish brownish orange silty sand (194). Thesecondary fills were both a dark black stony silt (193) and (194), with occasional flecks ofcharcoal inclusions. Possible well [230] was located to the south of gully [229] connecting it with thetrough [183]. It measured 2.16 m in length, 1.66 m in width and 0.51 m in depth. It wasoval in shape with steep and concave sides and a flat base. Its primary fill was a dark blacksilty sand (190) whiles its secondary fill was a mid greyish brown stony silt (189). Somewood material was recovered from fill (190).InterpretationThese features represent a water management system connected to the filling and usage ofthe trough described in subgroup {2002}. Linear gully [229] appears to have been the water delivery system, possibly inorder to keep the trough filled for its usage. While the later fills of this feature are redeop-sited burnt material from the use of the trough, the primary fill appears to be redepositednatural material. This may have originated from the erosion of the sides of the gully dueto water action while it was in use. The deposit of this fill possibly suggests a continuoususe of this feature over a lengthy period of time. Pit [230] may represent a possible well, used in connection with the gully [29] tosupply the trough with water for use. The feature was continuously full of water post-excavation and preserved wood recovered from the primary fill suggests that it had beena waterlogged deposit for a lengthy period of time. The secondary deposit appears to benatural silting of the feature, most probably once it had gone out use. This may suggestthat this feature had been out of use before the burnt mound was deposited in this area.Subgroup 4 Re-cutsPlates: 214, 215, 216, 199, 200, 201, 202, 203, 250, 251, 252, 253, 254, 255, 256, 257, 258,259.List of Contexts; C. [187], 188, [191], 195, 196, [219], 209.DescriptionThis subgroup represents three re-cuts associated with the trough and water managementsystem as described in subgroups {2002} and {2003}. 81
  • 92. iSSUE 10: Eachtra JoUrnal - iSSn 2009-2237 archaEological Excavation rEport Cut [191] was located directly over the linear gully [229]. It measured 0.9 m in length and 0.18 m in depth. It was sub-circular in shape with gently sloping sides and a concave profile. It was primarily filled by a mid brownish black stony silt (195) and later filled by a dark greyish black stony silt (196). Cut [187] truncated the linear gully [229] and possible well [230]. It was located just to the west of these two features. It measured 1.72 m in length, 1.05 m in width ad 0.28 m in depth. It was oval in shape with moderate to steeply sloping sides and flat profile. It was filled by a dark black stony silt (188) with occasional flecks of charcoal inclusions. Cut [219] was located just south of the trough [183]. It truncated the connection between the trough and the linear gully [229]. It measured 0.92 m in length, 0.56 m in width and 0.48 m in depth. It was oval in shape with moderately sloping sides and a flat profile. It was filled by a dark greyish black stony silt (209) with occasional flecks and small pieces of charcoal inclusions. Interpretation This sub-group represents a later phase of activity associated with the occupation of the fulacht fiadh. While cut [219] may have contemporary with the use of the linear gully [229] and may have represented a sump or drainage area for water being moved into the trough for use, the other cuts appear to have been excavated after the water management system had gone out of use. The water management system may have gone out of use eventually due to the close proximity of the fulacht fiadh to the Glencorra Stream. There- fore cuts [187] and [191] may just represent later waste pits for burnt mound material or otherwise, but probably were still used contemporarily with the main trough. Subgroup 5 Postholes Plates: 189, 193, 194, 197, 198, 209, 210, 211, 212, 213, 219, 220, 221, 222. List of Contexts; C. [174], 175, [176], 177, [185], 186. Description This subgroup describes three postholes that were located to the south west of the trough as described in subgroup {2002}. Posthole [176] was located 1.45 m south west of the trough [183]. It measured 0.4 m in diameter and 0.24 m in depth. It was sub-circular in shape with vertical sides and a flat base. It was filled by a dark greyish black silty clay (177). Posthole [174] was located 2.15 m south west of posthole [176]. It measured 0.32 m in diameter and 0.27 m in depth. It was circular in shape with steep sides and a flat base. It was filled by a dark brownish black stony silt (175) with occasional small pieces of char- coal inclusions. Posthole [185] was located 1.3 m south of posthole [176]. It measured 0.3 m in diam- eter and 0.2 m in depth. It was square in shape with vertical sides and a flat base. It was filled by a dark greyish black stony silt (186). Interpretation82
  • 93. Ballinglanna north 1-E2414 http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/e2414-ballinglanna-north1-co-cork/These three postholes located to the south east of the trough probably represent a struc-ture, either in connection to the structural elements surrounding the trough or a com-pletely separate entity. The fairly substantial diameter and depth of the postholes indicatethat this structure was most likely semi-permanent during the occupation of the fulachtfiadh. Further structural elements, probably in connection with these features, have mostprobably since been destroyed by the construction of the structure to the south.Subgroup 6 PitsPlates: 182, 183, 186, 191, 192, 217, 218.List of Contexts; C. [168], 169, [178], 179, [181], 182.DescriptionThus subgroup describes three pits that surround the location of the trough as describedin subgroup {2002}. Pit [168] was located 1.75 m to the south of the trough. It measured 1.07 m inlength, 0.2 m in width and 0.15 m in depth. It was irregular in shape, with gentle andconcave sides and a concave profile. It was filled by a light reddish brown silty sand (169). Pit [181] was located 1.85 m north of the trough. It measured 0.58 m in length,0.52 m in width and 0.34 m in depth. It was sub-circular in shape with vertical sides anda concave profile. It was filled by a mid brown silty clay (182). Pit [178] was located 3.5 m north east of pit [181]. It measured 1.3 m in length, 0.62 min width and 0.21 m in depth. It was sub-rectangular in shape with steep sides and a flatprofile. It was filled with a mid greyish brown silty clay (179).InterpretationThe function of these three pits is difficult to determine. Although fairly similar in shape,all three are filled with differing fills that do not correspond to the deposition of burntmound material. This tends to suggest that their used may have pre-dated the occupationof the fulacht fiadh, however, with no finds from the fills of these pits, this is impossibleto determine. While these pits are in close proximity to the trough and lay underneaththe burnt mound material (163) suggesting their association with the fulacht fiadh, theirfunction and therefore relationship is difficult to identify.Subgroup 7 Modern DisturbancePlates: 173, 174, 175, 185, 188, 236, 237, 238, 239, 240, 204, 205.List of Contexts; C. 218, [171], 172, 180, [211], 210, [257], 184, 189, 198, 199DescriptionThis subgroup describes the various later disturbances, which affected the fulacht fiadhand its associated features. Pit [257] was located directly on top of the location of the trough, truncating theburnt mound material which filled it, but not the cut of the trough. It measured approxi-mately 3 m in length, 1 m in width and 0.8 m in depth. It was sub-rectangular in shapewith gently sloping sides and a flat profile. It was filled by four deposits ranging in colour 83
  • 94. iSSUE 10: Eachtra JoUrnal - iSSn 2009-2237 archaEological Excavation rEport from light yellowish brown to mid greyish brown and ranging in composition from silty clay to sandy silt. No finds were recovered from these fills. Posthole [211] was located 0.05 m to the east of the trough. It truncated fills (184) and (198), the later deposits of pit [257]. It measured 0.36 m in diameter and 0.34 m in depth. It was circular in shape with steep sides and a concave profile. It was filled by a light brownish grey sand clay (210) with occasional flecks of charcoal inclusions. Pit [171] was located 0.4 m north of the trough. It measured 2.2 m in length, 1.25 m in width and 0.25 m in depth. It was oval in shape with gently sloping sides and a flat profile. Its primary fill was a mid brownish black silty clay (180) and its secondary fill was a dark black silty clay (172). No finds were recovered from these fills. Deposit (218) was located within the north to south running baulk across the fulacht fiadh. It was located just south of posthole [176]. It measured 0.6 m in width and 0.15 m in depth. It was a mid yellowish brown silty clay, very similar to natural material (167). Interpretation This subgroup represents a later phase of occupation in this area, truncating burnt mound material (163) and earlier features associated with the use of the fulacht fiadh. The pits, posthole and the deposit, which appears to be the remnants of a field drain, truncated the burnt mound material representing the abandonment of the fulacht fiadh and therefore must be later features. While no finds were recovered from the fills of any of these features they most likely relate to some agricultural use of this area much later than the occupa- tion of the fulacht fiadh. Group 3 Large Pits And Associated Stakehole This group describes two large pits, containing possible in-situ burning, and an associated stakehole and posthole located to the far west of the area of excavation. Subgroup 1 Large Pits Plates: 313, 318, 320, 321, 322, 323, 324, 325, 412, 413, 414, 415, 416, 457, 458, 459, 461 List of Contexts; C.[268], 269, 276, 277, [292], 293, 294, 298, 299, 300 Description This subgroup describes two large pits, one obscured by the far western baulk, located to the far south west corner of the area of excavation. Pit [268] measured 2.42 m in length, 1.4 m in width and 1.22 m in depth. It was irregular in shape with vertical and undercut sides and was tapered in profile. Its primary fill was a dark black sandy silt with moder- ate small and medium stone inclusions (269), its secondary fill was a mid greyish brown silty sand (276) and its tertiary fill was a mid orangish brown sandy silt (277). Charcoal was recovered from fill (269), slag material was recovered from fill (277), burnt clay was recovered from fill (276) and burnt bone was recovered from fills (269) and (277). Pit [292] was not fully excavated as it lay partially underneath the western baulk. It measured 1.56 m in length (as excavated), 1.77 m in width and 0.76 m in depth. It was84
  • 95. Ballinglanna north 1-E2414 http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/e2414-ballinglanna-north1-co-cork/sub-circular in shape with steep and smooth sides and a flat profile. Its primary fill wasa mid pinkish brown silty clay (298) while its secondary fill was a dark black clayey silt(299). Overlying fill (299) was a light orangish brown silty clay (300) which was in turnwas overlain by a dark greyish brown silty clay (293). The latest fill was dark greyish brownsilty clay (294). Wood was recovered from fills (293) and (298) while charcoal and burntbone was also recovered from fill (293).InterpretationThis subgroup represents two large pit features, which are similar in nature and in closeproximity to one another. Apart from probable natural silting or redeposition from ex-cavation represented by fill (298), the primary fills of these features were a dark black in-situ burning layer, represented by fills (269) and (299). Stone inclusions within fill (269)suggest that these features were used as hearths, however, the unusual depth and size ofthe cuts of these pits does not support this. Apart from a small quantity of burnt bonesuggesting a domestic use, the lack of finds in these layers makes their function difficultto determine. Slag material was recovered from the fill of pit [268], however, this wasfrom a later deposit and most probably originated from metal working activity occurringelsewhere in this area. This may indicate that these pits were constructed earlier than themetal working occurring to the east.Subgroup 2 Associated StakeholePlates: 307, 308, 309List of Contexts; C.[266], 267DescriptionThis subgroup describes a single stakehole located to the south of large pit [268] at a dis-tance of approximately 1.5 m. It measured 0.17 m in length, 0.13 m in width and 0.07m in depth. It was sub-circular in shape with gentle and concave sides and a taperedbase. The fill was a mid orangish brown sandy silt (267) containing occasional flecks ofcharcoal.InterpretationThis feature represents a possible structural element associated with the large pit [268]as described in subgroup {3001}. While this subgroup only describes a single stakeholewhich is quite ephemeral in nature, others may have existed but have been truncated ordestroyed by water action in this waterlogged area of the site. Charcoal within the fill ofthe feature indicates further evidence of occupation.Subgroup 3 PostholePlates: 314, 315.List of Contexts; C.[270], 271.DescriptionThis subgroup consists of a single posthole located along the western side of the area ofexcavation, approximately 1.8 m north east of pit [292]. It measured 0.32 m in length,0.17 m in width and 0.32 m in depth. It was oval in shape with vertical and concave sides 85
  • 96. iSSUE 10: Eachtra JoUrnal - iSSn 2009-2237 archaEological Excavation rEport and a flat profile. It was filled by a dark greyish black silt (271) with moderate flecks and occasional small pieces of charcoal inclusions. Interpretation This feature appears to represent a posthole along the western edge of the site. While it is close in proximity to the large pits no other structural features were located in this area. The dark fill and charcoal inclusions indicate that this feature is archaeological rather than natural in origin, however, without further information it is difficult to determine its significance. Group 4 Metal Working Area This group describes the possible metal working activity located to the east of the post- medieval structure in the southern end of the site. Subgroup 1 Pits Plates: 260, 288, 576, 577, 265, 266, 269, 267, 268, 271, 281, 282, 289, 292, 293, 302 List of Contexts; C.[213], 214, 217, [215], 216, [220], 221, [241], 242, [255], 256. Description The pits listed above were all located within a 6 m diameter of one another as well as the linear features described in subgroup {4002}. The pits varied widely in length, width and depth. Lengths varied from 0.49 m to 1.87 m, widths varied from 0.27 m to 0.61 m and depths varied from 0.15 m to 0.24 m. The pits were in general sub-rectangular in shape but varied from flat to concave in profile. The sides varied from gentle to vertical in gradi- ent. The fills of these pits varied from a mid yellowish brown to a dark black in colour and from a sandy silt to a clayey sand in composition. Charcoal was recovered from two of the six pits. Iron objects were found in fills (214), (217), (242) and (256). An iron nail was found in fill (221). Slag material was recovered from fills (214), (217), (221) and (256). Flint flakes were found in fills (214) and (217), both fills of pit [213]. Pit [255] was truncated by later linear [260] as described in subgroup {4002}. Interpretation These pits represent features that are associated with metal working in this area. Evidence of metal working can be seen in metal objects, charcoal and slag material recovered from the fills of the majority of these features. The flint debitage recovered from pit [213] may be redeposited activity rather than indication of date. However, while there is evidence of metal working, there is no in-situ burning present to suggest that primary metal-working activities took place in this area. This indicates that these pits were most probably dump- ing or rubbish pits associated with this industrial activity. Subgroup 2 Linear features Plates: 295, 303, 301, 302, 304, 305, 306. 310, 311, 312 List of Contexts; C.[260], 261, [264], 265. Description86
  • 97. Ballinglanna north 1-E2414 http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/e2414-ballinglanna-north1-co-cork/The two linear features listed above were located in the immediate area around the pitsdescribed in subgroup {4001). Both features were aligned in an east to west direction andlay parallel to each other at a distance of approximately 3 m. Linear [260] measured 2.56m in length, 0.38 m in width and 0.17 m in depth. The sides were steep and irregularin gradient and it had a flat base. This linear truncated an earlier pit [255] as describedin subgroup {4001}. The fill of this linear was a mid brownish orange silty sand (261).Charcoal flecks and slag material were recovered from this fill. Linear [264] measured 2.9m in length, 0.72 m in width and 0.17 m in depth. The sides were gentle and concave ingradient and it had a flat base. The fill of this linear was a mid brown silty clay (265). Slagmaterial, an iron object and a clay pipe were recovered from this fill.InterpretationThese two linear features represent a later phase of activity in the metal working area. Thetruncation of pit [255] by linear [260] supports this interpretation. The inclusions of slagmaterial and metal objects indicate that these features have a relationship to the metalworking in this area. However, due to their shape and location they are more likely unre-lated plough furrows containing redeposited metal working material, possibly originatingfrom the pits in subgroup {4001}.Group 5 Linear DitchThis group describes a ditch running in a north east to south west direction across thearea of excavation. During the excavation 5 sections of varying widths were excavatedacross the line of the ditch.Plates: 494, 495, 496, 497, 498, 759, 760, 761, 762, 763, 764, 797, 798, 799, 800, 801, 802,803, 804, 805, 806, 807, 808, 809, 810, 811, 745, 746, 747, 748, 749, 750, 751, 752, 753,754, 755, 756, 757, 758, 778, 779, 780, 781, 782, 783, 784, 785, 786, 787, 788, 789, 790,791, 792, 793, 794, 795, 796, 772, 773, 774, 775, 776, 777.Subgroup 1 ditch cutList of Contexts; C. [92], [126], [382], [378], [376].DescriptionThe linear ditch was sizeable in length and generally concave in profile. Along the lengthof the ditch the sides were stepped outwards towards the top of the cut, creating a steppedprofile. The ditch measures approximately 60 m in length and disappeared underneaththe edge of excavation to both the north and south limits of the area of excavation. Theditch was approximately 1.5 m wide and ranged in depth from 0.55 m to 1.4 m. It wasdeepest to the north of site, shallowing out as it approached to the south. The ditch wascut into the underlying natural clay and river gravel depositsInterpretationThe varying depth of the ditch is connected to the topography of the landscape; higherto the north of the site than the south. The ditch is large in nature suggesting its functionwas to enclose an area, however, no evidence of the ditch curving to suggest an interior 87
  • 98. iSSUE 10: Eachtra JoUrnal - iSSn 2009-2237 archaEological Excavation rEport was observed. Despite its size, its linear form suggests a boundary, possibly significant in nature considering the effort that would be required to construct a ditch of this size. The evidence from the ditch fills, as described in subgroups {5002} to {5009}, suggests occu- pation of the area, most likely to the east of the ditch on the flatter terrain, however, the relationship between this occupation and the ditch is difficult to determine. Subgroup 2 Early activity deposit List of Contexts; C.93 Description The deposit listed above was a dark brownish grey silty clay with moderate flecks and occasional small pieces of charcoal inclusions. This deposit was located within slot 3, the most northern section excavated through the ditch. Interpretation This fill appears to represent a very early area of activity to the north of the excavated ditch. It pre-dates the slippage of the edges of the ditch as described in subgroup {5003}. It is a thin layer of material, abundant in charcoal suggesting activity, possibly deposited within the ditch cut shortly after its excavation. Subgroup 3 slippage material List of Contexts; C. 94, 135, 388, 389, 374. Description The deposits listed above are generally all light brown silty clays or sands with moderate amounts of fine pebble inclusions. They were located within the ditch either at the base or along the eastern edge of the cut. No archaeological finds were recovered from any of these fills. Interpretation The fills formed during the primary silting of the ditch. Due to their position at the base of the ditch or along the eastern edge they may represent slippage of the material excavated from the ditch when it was first constructed. This is supported by the lack of archaeological material from these fills compared to the abundant material recovered from later deposits. Subgroup 4 Redeposited fulacht material List of Contexts; C.379 Description The deposit listed above was a dark black stony sand with frequent angular and sub- angular small and medium stones and frequent flecks of charcoal inclusions. This deposit was located in slot 7 along the western edge of the cut of the ditch at the location of the truncation of the fulacht fiadh. Interpretation This deposit represents redeposited burnt mound material originating from the fulacht fiadh to the west of ditch slot 7. This material was most probably excavated during the88
  • 99. Ballinglanna north 1-E2414 http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/e2414-ballinglanna-north1-co-cork/construction of the ditch and may have been mounded to the west of the ditch cut, slip-ping into the cut after primary slippage material had formed (see subgroup {5003}).Subgroup 5 Primary dump of metal working residueList of Contexts; C.95, 338, 384, 381, 278.DescriptionThe deposits listed above were in general mid greyish brown in colour and silty clay incomposition. Flecks of charcoal inclusions were recovered from fills (95) and (381). Slagmaterial was recovered from all of the fills listed above except for fill (95). They were lo-cated within the cut of the ditch along its entire length.InterpretationThese contexts represent a primary dump of material associated with metal working origi-nating in close proximity. With the majority of the fills containing a fair quantity of slagmaterial, the ditch must have been close to primary metal working features and used as adumping area for the residues produced from the manufacture of metal (probably iron)..Subgroup 6 Large deposit of metal working residueList of Contexts; C.222DescriptionThe deposit listed above was a dark brownish black clayey silt with occasional sub-angularsmall and medium stones. Frequent flecks, small, medium and large pieces of slag mate-rial were recovered from this fill. This deposit was contained within ditch slot 8 to thesouth end of the ditch, however it also extended out of the cut to the eastern side. This wasin close proximity to the metal working area as described in group 4. In plan this depositmeasured approximately 4 m in length and 2 m in width.InterpretationThis deposit represents a intense area of metal working residue associated with nearbyindustrial activities. Stratigraphically later than the deposits listed in subgroup {5005}this material may have originating due to an increase production of iron in the immedi-ate area. The fact that this deposit stretches beyond the confines of the cut and is heavilydumped in one area indicates that not only was there an abundance of metal workingactivity but that also the primary focus of the metal working must have been in closeproximity to this deposit.Subgroup 7 SiltingList of Contexts; C.96, 133, 134, 139, 140, 385, 387, 373.DescriptionThe deposits listed above were all in general a sandy or stony silt composition and variedin colour from a light yellowish brown to a dark brown. They were located along thelength of the ditch, generally along the sides of the ditch cut from both the eastern andwestern sides. They varied in thickness from 0.05 m to 0.58 m. No archaeological findswere recovered from these ditch fills. 89
  • 100. iSSUE 10: Eachtra JoUrnal - iSSn 2009-2237 archaEological Excavation rEport Interpretation These deposits indicate a period of natural silting within the ditch cut. Present along the entirety of the ditch and located on either side of the cut, these deposits most probably originated from natural processes through possible weather action. The sterile nature of the deposits supports this interpretation and indicates a lengthy period of the halting of dumping of material occurring in connection with the ditch. Subgroup 8 Secondary dump of metal working residue List of Contexts; C.97, 130, 131, 132, 138, 337, 339, 386 Description The deposits listed above were all generally silty clay in composition and varied in colour from light pinkish brown to dark greyish black. They were located in the upper fills of the ditch along its length. Slag material was recovered from six of the eight deposits listed including possible bronze slag from the fill of slot 4, excavated across the centre of the ditch within the area of excavation. Interpretation These deposits represent a second phase of metal working processes close to the location of the ditch. The abundance of slag material within the fills indicates another phase of dumping after the natural silting within the ditch represented by subgroup {5007}. This indicates a halt and resumption of metal working activities in this location. Subgroup 9 Culluvial deposits List of Contexts; C.98, 128, 129, 137, 383, 380. Description The deposits listed were all mid reddish brown in colour and silty sand in composition. They were located along within the length of the ditch as the latest fills of the ditch cut. No archaeological finds were recovered from these fills. Interpretation These deposits represent culluvial action masking the top of the ditch. They all lay as the last fill of the ditch and are sterile of any archaeological material. They represent a period of culluvial action originating from the topography of the river valley covering and mask- ing the top of the ditch after it went out of use. Group 6 Stream Cannalisation This group represents the features associated with the canalisation of the Glencorra Stream in association with the construction of the Glencorra Bridge. Subgroup 1 Linear Features Plates: 683, 684, 706, 707, 708, 709, 710, 711, 712, 713, 714, 715, 716, 717, 718, 719, 720, 721, 723, 724, 725, 726, 727, 728, 729, 730, 731, 732, 733, 734, 735, 736, 737, 738, 739, 743, 744, 115, 116, 117, 118, 119, 120, 121.90
  • 101. Ballinglanna north 1-E2414 http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/e2414-ballinglanna-north1-co-cork/List of Contexts; C. [354], 365, [370], 371, [372], 359, 347, [202], 239, 203, 238, 205, 237.DescriptionThis subgroup describes three linears, all orientated north-east to south-west that werelocated to the far south east corner of the site. Linear [354] measured 9.25 m in length, 1m in width and 0.28 m in depth. It had steeply sloping sides and a flat base. It was filledby a mid greyish brown silty pebbley clay (365) with moderate flecks and small pieces ofcharcoal inclusions. This linear was truncated by later pit [353] as described in group 12. Linear [370] was located 0.5 m south east of linear [354]. It measured 4.37 m inlength, 0.94 m in width and 0.26 m in depth. It had moderately sloping sides and a flatbase. It was filled by a dark greyish brown/black clayey silt (371). Slag material and a pieceof post-medieval glass was recovered from this fill. Linear [372] was located 2.1 m south east of linear [370]. Cut [202] and associatedfills represent the same linear feature as seen through the excavation of slot 9. It measured9.7 m in length, 1.13 m in width and 0.3 m in depth. It had moderately steep sloping sidesand a flat to concave base. Its primary fill was a light pinkish grey silty clay (359) withoccasional flecks of charcoal inclusions. A clay pipe was also recovered from this fill. Itssecondary fill was a dark black clayey sand (247) with occasional flecks of charcoal inclu-sions, comparable to layer (324) as described in subgroup {6005}.InterpretationThese linears represent drainage channels in connection with the linears described in sub-group {002} and {003}. They appear to be parallel in nature and run from higher groundto the north east to the lower more waterlogged area to the south west next to the Glen-corra Bridge. They are possibly associated with the canalisation of the Glencorra stream,used as a method to relocate it from its original course to the course that it runs presently.The post-medieval finds recovered from the fills of these channels possibly relate thesefeatures to the construction of the Glencorra bridge.Subgroup 2 Linear feature and associated stakeholesPlates: 630, 631, 632, 633, 640, 641, 642, 644, 645, 646, 647, 648, 691, 692, 693, 694, 695,696, 697, 698, 677, 678, 679, 680.List of Contexts; C.[328], 329, 330, [340], 341, [342], 343, [344], 345.DescriptionThis subgroup describes a linear feature and associated stakeholes located to the north ofthe linears described in subgroup {6001}. Linear [340] was orientated north-east to south-west and measured 5.3 m in length, 0.7 m in width and 0.17 m in depth. It has gentlysloping sides and a flat profile. It was filled by a mid greyish black silt (341) with occa-sional flecks of charcoal inclusions. Slag material was recovered from this fill. This linearwas truncated by animal burial [301] as described in group 9. On the northern side of[301] lay pit [328] which represents the northern termius of this linear. Pit [328] measured1.5 m in length, 0.95 m in width and 0.35 m in depth. It had moderately sloping sides anda concave base. The primary fill was a dark greyish brown sandy silt (330) comparable to 91
  • 102. iSSUE 10: Eachtra JoUrnal - iSSn 2009-2237 archaEological Excavation rEport fill (341). The secondary fill was a mid brownish orange sandy silt (329). A large piece of slag material was recovered from this fill. Two postholes were located on the northern edge of this cut. Posthole [342] meas- ured 0.12 m in diameter and 0.08 m in depth. It was circular in shape with steeply sloping sides and a concave base. It was filled by a mid greyish brown sandy silt (343). Posthole [344] was located 1.35 m to the south west. It measured 0.16 m in diameter and 0.12 m in depth. It had vertical sloping sides and a concave base. It was filled by a mid greyish brown sandy silt (345). Interpretation These features represent a drainage linear closely related to those described in subgroup {001}. This linear is similar in size and shape and appears to be aligned along the same orientation as those described above. Postholes [342] and [344] may then represent a structural element to this drainage channel, however, to what function is unknown. The fill of these features represents possible metal working residues, in this case charcoal and slag material, dumped into this linear once it went out of use. Subgroup 3 Stone Lined Linear Plates: 812, 813, 814, 815, 816, 817, 818, 819, 820, 821, 822, 823, 824. List of Contexts; C. [390], 391 Description This subgroup describes a linear feature lying along the far eastern edge of excavation of the area. Linear [390] measured 14.2 m in length, 1.2 m in width and 0.6 m in depth. It had steep and smooth sides with a flat base. It was filled by a mid reddish brown clayey silt (391). Post-medieval pottery and clay pipe fragments were recovered from this fill. At the base of the cut a number of large stones were placed on end along the length of the linear. This linear was later truncated by construction cut [50] as described in subgroup {6004}. Interpretation This feature represents another drainage channel in the series as described in subgroups {001} and {002}. It appears to run parallel to the Glencorra stream and may represent drainage in connection with the straightening of the stream possibly in relation to the construction of the Glencorra bridge. The stone lined aspect of this channel suggest a semi-permanent nature to this feature and the fact that it was truncated by later construc- tion cut [50] indicates that it pre-dated the final placement of the stream. Subgroup 4 Wall Plates: 12, 13, 14, 39, 40, 559, 560, 569, 570, 571, 572, 573, 578. List of Contexts; C. [50], 49, 48, 322 Description This subgroup describes the construction cut for, and the remains of, a wall that runs along the length of the Glencorra stream. The construction cut [50] was approximately 2.5 m in width and 0.55 m in depth. It was linear in shape with moderately steep sides and a flat base. It was primarily filled by wall (322). This was a mortared stone wall ap-92
  • 103. Ballinglanna north 1-E2414 http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/e2414-ballinglanna-north1-co-cork/proximately 1.3 m in width which ran the length of the Glencorra stream in this area.Post-medieval pottery came from in between the courses of this wall. Construction cut[50] was also filled by a mid pinkish brown clayey sand (49). Both the wall (322) and fill(49) were overlain by a mid brown stony clay (48).InterpretationThis feature represents a wall that lies along the length of the Glencorra stream on bothbanks. This feature must have been used in order to straighten and maintain the courseof the stream after its re-channelling into this new location. The post-medieval potteryrecovered from the wall as well as the mortared construction of the wall itself indicates apost-medieval date for this feature. This coincides with the construction of the Glencorrabridge in the mid 19th century.Subgroup 5 LayerPlates: 742.List of Contexts; C. 324DescriptionThis subgroup describes a layer of material that was located 0.5 m north of linear feature[372]. It measured 1.5 m in length, 0.9 m in width and 0.01 m in depth. It was a darkbrownish black silty sand with moderate flecks of charcoal inclusions.InterpretationThis layer represents the remains of an area of burning possibly associated with occupa-tion of the immediate area around the drainage channels as described in subgroups {001}and {002}. This deposit may have a connection with the movement of the Glencorrastream of the construction of the Glencorra bridge, however, with so little informationavailable this is difficult to determine.Group 7 Habitation AreaThis group describes the elements of a possible area of habitation on a raised plateau to theeast of the site. The elements of this habitation are divided into four categories; postholes,stakeholes, pits and natural features.Subgroup 1 PostholesPlates: 1, 10, 7, 9, 11, 17, 24, 35, 34, 36, 37, 38, 18, 41, 49, 53, 80, 50, 56, 57, 58, 81, 99,105, 77, 86, 95, 508, 509, 511, 554, 574.List of Contexts; C.[10], 11, 12, 13, [14], 15, [17], 18, 26, [30], 31, [33], 34, [35], 36, [39],40, [64], 76, 71, [72], 84, [315], 316, [318], 319.Context Grid E Grid N Dimensions (m)10 137.7 127.25 0.37 x 0.25 x 0.2314 135.5 126.45 0.26 x 0.24 x 0.0617 133.04 119.72 0.36 x 0.30 x 0.2330 137.4 124.65 0.18 x 0.15 x 0.06 93
  • 104. iSSUE 10: Eachtra JoUrnal - iSSn 2009-2237 archaEological Excavation rEport Context Grid E Grid N Dimensions (m) 33 134.32 120.24 0.26 x 0.20 x 0.18 35 134.58 120.36 0.40 x 0.30 x 0.30 39 132.66 120.75 0.30 x 0.26 x 0.28 64 133.7 121.32 0.31 x 0.25 x 0.2 72 132.1 122.04 0.42 x 0.31 x 0.25 315 135.92 104.3 0.15 x 0.14 x 0.08 318 134.36 116.4 0.57 x 0.34 x 0.2 Table 1 - Posthole dimensions – Subgroup 1 Description The eleven postholes listed above were all located to the east of the site on the raised plat- form immediately next to the Glencorra Stream. They were all located within a 10 metre diameter of one another, in close proximity to the stakeholes in subgroup {7002}. The postholes differed in length, width and depth as seen in the above table. The shapes of the postholes varied from sub-circular to oval while their bases varied from concave to flat in profile and the sides were in general all sharp and steep. The fills of the postholes were mid orangish brown to dark greyish black in colour and sandy silt to silty clay in composition. Charcoal flecking was a common inclusion in the fills of the majority of these postholes, while burnt bone was recovered from the fills of six of the eleven. Posthole [33] truncates posthole [35] possibly representing a re-cut of this feature. Interpretation These features, in connection with the stakeholes described in subgroup {7002}, represent the remains of a structure or series of structures in this area, however, no discernable pat- tern could be recognised. The evidence of a re-cut represented by posthole [33] indicates a lengthier period of occupation, however the lack of depth of the majority of these post- holes suggest a temporary structure. This is supported by the occasional charcoal flecking and occasional inclusions of burnt bone which suggests only a short period of occupation. No datable evidence was recovered to isolate these features to a specific time period. Subgroup 2 Stakeholes Plates:2, 4, 3, 5, 6, 8, 15, 19, 22, 29, 30, 31, 32, 29, 33, 48, 44, 46, 51, 45, 47, 52, 60, 61, 65, 69, 72, 76, 70, 74, 78, 79, 88, 90, 92, 94, 83, 87, 106, 107, 108, 109. List of Contexts; C.[4], 5, [6], 7, [8], 9, 16, [22], 23, [27], 28, [29], 32, [41], 46, [42], 47, 62, [63], [74], 77, [75], 80, [78], 79, [82], 91, [83], 85, [144], 153. Context # Grid E Grid N Dimensions (m) 4 133.7 119 0.18 x 0.14 x 0.21 6 135.15 126.6 0.17 x 0.16 x 0.03 8 134.28 118.4 0.20 x 0.20 x 0.11 22 136.2 126.85 0.15 x 0.14 x 0.06 27 138.5 125.75 0.12 x 0.09 x 0.07 29 136.6 126.85 0.2 x 0.19 x 0.14 41 135.04 104.5 0.15 x 0.12 x 0.16 42 135.3 104.38 0.18 x 0.16 x 0.14 63 135 125 0.14 x 0.10 x 0.0594
  • 105. Ballinglanna north 1-E2414 http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/e2414-ballinglanna-north1-co-cork/ Context # Grid E Grid N Dimensions (m) 74 135.2 108.42 0.12 x 0.08 x 0.13 75 137.04 108.28 0.15 x 0.13 x 0.27 78 132.3 142.4 0.15 x 0.14 x 0.12 82 139.1 111.96 0.08 x 0.07 x 0.13 83 136.93 108.13 0.15 x 0.10 x 0.17 144 137.26 126 1.12 x 0.26 x 0.1Table 2 - Stakehole dimensions – Subgroup 2DescriptionThe 14 stakeholes listed above were all located within a 10 metre diameter of one anotherand close in proximity to the postholes described in subgroup {7001}. The stakeholes dif-fered in length, width and depth as shown in the table above but in general were circularto oval in shape. Their sides varied from gradual to vertical in gradient while their basesvaried from tapered to concave in profile. The fills of the stakeholes varied from a midorangish brown to a mid greyish brown in colour and from a silty clay to a sandy silt incomposition. Six of the 14 contained charcoal flecking within their fills. Cut [144] describes a linear feature that is irregular in shape with steep and smoothsides and a linear base. Several possible circular cuts appeared in the base of this feature.The fill of this feature was a mid orangish brown silty clay (153) with occasional flecks ofcharcoal. Cut [331] was located in close proximity to the habitation features described in group7. It measured 0.8 m in length, 0.62 m in width and 0.08 m in depth. It was sub-circularin shape, had gently sloping sides and a flat base. It was filled by a dark greyish brownsilty clay (332) with frequent flecks and small pieces of charcoal inclusions. An iron nailwas also recovered from this fill. Cut [333] was located just to the north of the habitation features as described in group7. It measured 0.89 m in length, 0.38 m in width and 0.06 m in depth. It was irregular inshape with gently sloping sides and a flat base. It was filled by a mid brownish grey sandysilt (334) with occasional flecks and moderate small pieces of charcoal inclusions.InterpretationThese stakeholes represent a structure or series of structures, probably related to the post-holes in subgroup {7001}. Again no discernable pattern for a structure could be identified,however, occasional charcoal flecking within the fills of the stakeholes suggest a period ofoccupation in this area. Linear features [144, 331 and 333] probably represent small slottrenches, again related to a possible structure.Subgroup 3 PitsPlates: 18, 49, 53, 80.List of Contexts; C.[37], 38, [43], 44.DescriptionThe two pits listed above were located to the east of the site on a raised plateau imme-diately to the west of the Glencorra stream. They lay in close proximity to the postholeswithin subgroup {7001} and the stakeholes within subgroup {7002}. Pit [37] measured 0.6 95
  • 106. iSSUE 10: Eachtra JoUrnal - iSSn 2009-2237 archaEological Excavation rEport m in length, 0.3 m in width and 0.25 m in depth. It was sub-circular in shape, concave in profile with vertical and smooth sides. Its fill was a dark brownish black silty sand (34) with moderate flecks of burnt bone. Pit [43] measured 0.45 m in length, 0.35 m in width and 0.2 m in depth. It was sub-circular in shape, concave in profile with gentle and con- cave sides. Its fill was a light orangish brown silty sand (44) with occasional flecks of burnt bone. Both of these pits truncates earlier posthole [35] from subgroup {7001}. Interpretation These pits represent possible rubbish pits associated with the structure or series of struc- tures as defined by the postholes and stakeholes from subgroup {7001} and {7002} re- spectively. This is supported by the burnt bone recovered from the fills of these pits. Both pits also truncate earlier posthole [35] and therefore indicate a later date and possible continual occupation of this area. Subgroup 4 Natural features This group describes seven features located in the habitation area of the area as described in group 7. These features are likely to have a natural origin. Plates: 16, 20, 21, 26, 27, 28, 59, 62, 63, 64, 73, 75, 740, 741, 367, 368, 369, 370, 620. List of Contexts; C. [20], 21, [24], 25, [61], 60, [70], 69, [88], 89, [284], 283, [325], 326. Context # Grid_E Grid_N Dimensions (m) 20 135 125 0.30 x 0.29 x 0.06 24 138.85 125.8 0.30 x 0.15 x 0.06 61 135 125 0.12 x 0.13 x 0.03 70 138.45 123 0.21 x 0.18 x 0.05 88 132.3 117.4 0.32 x 0.19 x 0.12 284 115.38 111.27 0.68 x 0.48 x 0.12 325 137.94 118.12 0.41 x 0.28 x 0.19 Table 3 - Natural features dimensions Description The seven features listed above were all located to the east of the site in the same location as the habitation features as described in group 7. The features differed in length, width and depth as seen in the above table. Their shapes varied from irregular to oval in shape while their bases varied from irregular to flat in profile. The sides of the features varied in gradient from gradual to steep. The fills of the features varied from light brownish grey to dark orangish brown in colour and were in general sandy silt in composition. The major- ity of these features were void of archaeological finds, however, some charcoal flecking and burnt bone were recovered from three of the fills of these features. Interpretation The irregularity and lack of depth within the features suggests that they are natural. The sterile fills also suggest a natural origin within the majority of these features, while the charcoal and burnt bone inclusions in a minority of the fills probably originated from the occupation of this area.96
  • 107. Ballinglanna north 1-E2414 http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/e2414-ballinglanna-north1-co-cork/Group 8 StructureThis group describes the structure, including the construction features, depositional lay-ers and associated features located to the south west corner of the excavation area.Subgroup 1 Construction featuresPlates: 386, 387, 388, 389, 390, 391, 392, 393, 394, 395, 396, 397, 401, 402, 403, 404, 405,406, 407, 482, 483, 484, 485, 486, 487, 488, 489, 490, 491, 492, 493, 384, 385, 417, 418,419, 420, 421, 422.List of Contexts; C.[274], 275, 290, 291, [296], 297DescriptionThis subgroup describes the buildings main structural elements including the construc-tion cuts and fills, the walls and any associated deposits. Construction cut [274] measured 12 m in length, 0.46 m in width and 0.5 m indepth. It was rectangular in shape with vertical and smooth sides. The cut extends northto south for 4.6 m before turning sharply to extend east to west for 7.7 m. A dry stone wall(291) was constructed within this cut and backfilled by a mid orangish brown silty sand(275). Slag material was recovered from this fill. A dark brownish black clayey silt deposit(290) with frequent flecks and small and medium pieces of charcoal also filled cut [274]. The wall (291) was of a fairly rough dry-stone construction, surviving to a heightof three courses on the northern and western extents. The stones used in the construc-tion of the wall were sub-angular in shape and varied in diameter from 0.25 m to 0.6 m.This wall only survived as foundations to the eastern extent, observed only as frequentamounts of small and medium sub-angular stones in a linear alignment. The wall ap-peared to be faced to the interior of the structure. Linear [296] measured 4.9 m in length, 0.74 m in width and 0.1 m in depth. Thelinear was aligned in an east to west direction. It had moderate and smooth sides witha flat base. Its fill was a dark brown silty clay (297), which included a pottery sherd andfaunal remains.InterpretationThis subgroup represents the main construction features in the building of the structureto the south west of the site. Construction cut [274] truncates burnt mound material (163), in which the drys-tone wall (291) was built and backfilled by fill (275). The stones appear to be faced tothe interior of the building suggesting a slightly sunken building. While the walls of thebuilding survive to the northern and western extents, their absence from the southern andeastern extents suggest they were robbed out or destroyed by later action, possibly agri-cultural. The linear [296] probably represents the remains of the construction cut to thesouth and the absence of any stones probably indicates robbing out of the wall in this partof the structure. This is backed up by the continuation of apparent foundation materialto the west, connecting with the standing wall in the south west corner of the building. 97
  • 108. iSSUE 10: Eachtra JoUrnal - iSSn 2009-2237 archaEological Excavation rEport Deposit (290) appears to be further back filled material into construction cut [275], pos- sibly originating from the burnt mound and redeposited during building. Subgroup 2 Layers Plates: 401, 402, 403, 404, 405, 406, 407, 579, 580, 581, 582, 583, 584, 585, 586, 587, 588, 589, 590, 591, 592, 593, 594, 595, 596, 597, 598, 599, 600, 601, 602, 603, 604, 605, 606, 607, 608, 609, 610, 611, 612, 613, 614, 615, 616, 617, 618, 619, 549, 550, 551, 552, 553, 485, 486, 487, 490, 551, 552, 553. List of Contexts; C.285, 286, 288, 289, 295, 302, 310, 311, 312, 377. Description This subgroup describes the layers located within the walls of the structure. Layers (286) and (289) represent natural gravels located underneath the structure. Layer (286) was located to the eastern end of the structure and measured 2.8 m in length and 2.7 m in width. Layer (289) was located to the western end of the structure and meas- ured 0.4 m in length and 0.25 m in width. They are light orangish brown silty sand layers with occasional charcoal inclusions. Layer (295) was a small patch of redeposited natural material located to the western end of the structure. It measured 0.6 m in length, 0.5 m in width and 0.1 m in depth. It was a light yellowish brown silt. Layers (288) and (377) represent possible redeposited burnt mound material. Layer (288) measured 2.4 m in length, 1.75 m in width and 0.15 m in depth. It was a mid brownish black pebbley silt with moderate flecks of charcoal inclusions. Layer (377) measured 0.82 m in length, 0.45 m in width and 0.04 n in depth. It was a dark greyish black stony sand with frequent flecks and moderate small and medium pieces of charcoal inclusions. Deposit (310) was located against the base of the standing wall to the northern side. It measured 1.3 m in width and 0.16 m in depth. It was a mid greyish brown silty clay. Layer (311) was located along the inside edge of the northern line of the wall. It measured 0.9 m in width and 0.18 m in depth. It was a mid yellowish brown sandy silt. Layer (285) represented the main bulk of material located within the walls of the structure. It measured 4.8 m in length, 3 m in width and 0.25 m in depth. It was a dark brown clayey silt with occasional flecks of charcoal inclusions. Finds including nails, pot- tery, glass, clay pipe, flints, animal bone and slag material were all recovered from this fill. Layers (302) and (312) represent natural silting over the layers already described. Layer (312) was a mid greyish brown silty clay with occasional flecks of charcoal inclu- sions, while layer (302) was a light yellowish brown silty clay. Interpretation This subgroup describes a series of layers of material which account for phases of the structure in three distinct groups; pre-construction, occupation and abandonment. Layers (286) and (289) account for the pre-construction phase of the structure. They represent a layer of natural gravels that underlies the structure and was used as a base for98
  • 109. Ballinglanna north 1-E2414 http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/e2414-ballinglanna-north1-co-cork/its construction. The occasional flecks of charcoal indicate archaeological activity overthese deposits possibly during the building of the structure. The construction phase of the structure incorporated layers (295), (288), (377) and(310). Layer (295) appeared to be redeposited natural material, while layers (288) and(377) were redeposited fulacht material, probably originating from the excavation of theconstruction cut. This is supported by the fact that layers (288) and (377) were located tothe west end of the structure in the area where cut [374] had truncated the burnt moundmaterial (163). Layer (310) may represent backfill of the construction cut to the interior of thestructure. The abandonment phase of the structure incorporates layers (311), (285), (312) and(302). Layer (311) probably represents silting of material on the inside edge of the wall,while layer (285) represents the main baulk of material deposited within the structure,which may represent a culluvial deposit or possibly purposeful backfilling of material.The varied post-medieval finds in this deposit gives a relatively recent date for the fillingof the structure. Layers (312) and (302) probably represent further silting of material overthis back fill, as limited archaeological inclusions are present.Subgroup 3 PitsPlates: 423, 427, 453, 454, 424, 428.List of Contexts; C. [303], 304, [305], 306.DescriptionThis subgroup describes two pits located underneath the layers described in subgroup{8002}. Pit [303] measured 1.1 m in length, 0.68 m in width and 0.25 m in depth. It wasoval in shape with moderate to steep sides and a flat profile. Its fill was a dark brown siltyclay (304) with frequent flecks and moderate small pieces of charcoal inclusions. Burntbone was also recovered from this fill. Pit [305] measured 0.39 m in length, 0.36 m in width and 0.11 m in depth. It wasirregular in shape with moderate to steep sides and a flat profile. Its fill was a dark brown-ish grey/black silt (306) with occasional flecks and moderate small pieces of charcoalinclusions.InterpretationThese pits seem to represent features that pre-date the construction of the building asdescribed in subgroup {8001}. Pit [305] is truncated by the linear [279] which representsthe foundation trench for the robbed out wall of the structure on the southern side. Bothpits seem to share similar fills including flecks of charcoal suggesting a close relationship,however, there is little evidence to suggest their function or period of use.Group 9 Animal BurialsThis group describes two animal burials, including articulated remains, located to thesouth end of the area of excavation. 99
  • 110. iSSUE 10: Eachtra JoUrnal - iSSn 2009-2237 archaEological Excavation rEport Plates: 408, 409, 410, 411, 429, 430, 431, 432, 433, 434, 435, 436, 437, 438, 439, 440, 441, 442, 443, 444, 445, 446, 447, 448, 449, 450, 451, 452, 462, 463, 464, 466, 467, 510, 555, 556, 557, 558, 584, 622, 623, 624. List of Contexts; C. [301], 307, [320], 321. Description Burial [301] was located to the south of the excavation area, truncating linear feature [340] as described in group 6. It measured 2.2 m in length, 1.5 m in width and 0.74 m in depth. It was sub-rectangular in shape with steep and smooth sides and a flat profile. It was filled by a mid orangish brown sandy silt (307) with occasional small pieces of char- coal inclusions. An articulated horse skeleton was recovered from the fill including horse shoes still attached to the front legs and associated nails. Post-medieval pottery was also recovered from this fill. Burial [320] was located 7.2 m to the north east of burial [301]. It measured 2 m in length, 1.2 m in width and 0.5 m in depth. It was irregular in shape with steep and smooth sides and a flat profile. It was filled by a dark orangish brown sandy silt (321) with occasional flecks of charcoal inclusions. An articulated bovine skeleton, probably a calf due to its size and minimal tooth wear, was also recovered from the fill. Interpretation These features represent the burial of the remains of agricultural animals, most probably due to the steep gradient of the river valley in which they were situated. A post-medieval date can be established for these burials due to the pottery recovered from fill (307) as well as the good condition of the bones and the close relationship between the two. This sug- gests a possible connection between these features and the construction of the Glencorra Bridge. Animals would have been essential in the building of the bridge and would have been easier to bury than to attempt to remove the remains from the steep sided valley. Group 10 Cultivation Furrows This group describes two linear features, representing cultivation furrows, located to the southern half of the area of excavation, most probably excavated by plough due to their regular shape. They are parallel to one another at a distance of 8.6 m, suggesting that other furrows would have been present in the area also, however, due to the natural to- pography of the area an intensive area of cultivation is unlikely most probably excavated by plough due to their regular shape. They are parallel to one another at a distance of 8.6 m, suggesting that other furrows would have been present in the area also, however, due to the natural topography of the area an intensive area of cultivation is unlikely. The pot- tery finds from the fill (327) suggests a post-medieval date. Plates: 294, 296, 575, 621. List of Contexts; C.[258], 259, [323], 327 Description This group describes the remains of two furrows both orientated in a north-west to south- east direction. Furrow [258] measured 2.07 m in length, 0.31 m in width and 0.12 m in100
  • 111. Ballinglanna north 1-E2414 http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/e2414-ballinglanna-north1-co-cork/depth. It was linear in shape with gentle and concave sides and a concave profile. It wasfilled by a mid brown sandy silt (259). Furrow [323] measured 2.35 m in length, 0.45 m inwidth and 0.12 m in depth. It was linear in shape with moderate and smooth sides anda flat profile. It was filled by a mid greyish brown silty clay (327) with occasional flecksof charcoal inclusions. A sherd of post-medieval pottery was also recovered from this fill.InterpretationThese features represent the remains of a set of agricultural furrows, most probably exca-vated by plough due to their regular shape. They are parallel to one another at a distanceof 8.6 m, suggesting that other furrows would have been present in the area also, however,due to the natural topography of the area an intensive area of cultivation is unlikely. Thepottery finds from the fill (327) suggests a post-medieval date.Group 11 Miscellaneous FeaturesThis group is composed of eight features located across the excavation area. A field drainwas located to the south west corner of the site, a pit was located to the far north of the siteto the west of ditch slot 3, a pit was located to the south east corner of the site. Four areasof burning were also located across the area of excavation. Due to the lack of informationthat could be gathered from these features and due to their isolated locations they couldnot be grouped with any of the other features on site.Subgroup 1 Field DrainPlates: 326, 327, 328, 385, 398.List of Contexts; C.[279], 280, 281.DescriptionThis subgroup consists of a field drain that truncated the south east corner of the struc-ture towards the south west corner of the area of excavation. It measured 1.6 m in widthand 0.45 m in depth. It was linear in shape with moderately steep sides and a concavebase. Its primary fill was a layer of frequent sub-angular stones (281) while its secondaryfill was a dark greyish brown silt (280).InterpretationThis field drain truncates the wall of the post-medieval structure to the south west corner.It appears that it may have continued to the interior of the structure but was not observedduring excavation. This feature must relate to a fairly modern agricultural feature in thisarea, most probably abandoned due to rearrangement of the field system.Subgroup 2 PitsPlates: 681, 682, 686, 690, 722, 765, 768, 769, 770, 771.List of Contexts; C.[353], 360, [375], 361, 357, 358DescriptionThis subgroup describes two pits, [353] which were located to the south east corner of theexcavation area, and [375] which was located to the north of the excavation area. 101
  • 112. iSSUE 10: Eachtra JoUrnal - iSSn 2009-2237 archaEological Excavation rEport Pit [353] was located to the south east of the excavation area, truncating drainage feature [354], as described in group 6. It measured 2.07 m in length, 1.4 m in width and 0.24 m in depth. It was sub-rectangular in shape with moderately steep sides and a flat profile. It was filled by a mid brown silty clay (360). Pit [375] was located to the north of the excavation area immediately to the north of slot 3 excavated through the linear ditch as described in group 5. It measured 4.64 m in length, 1.9 m in width and 0.6 m in depth. It was sub-rectangular in shape with steeply sloping sides and a concave profile. It was filled by three deposits. The primary deposit was a light burnish yellow sandy silt (361) with occasional flecks of charcoal inclusions. The secondary deposit was a light brown silty clay (357) with occasional small pieces of char- coal inclusions. The final deposit was a dark greyish brown silty clay (358) with moderate flecks and occasional small and medium pieces of charcoal inclusions. Interpretation Both of these pits represent a modern phase of activity in this area. Pit [353] truncates the drainage feature as described in group 6, which was modern in date. Pit [375] may also be modern. Subgroup 3 Areas of Burning Plates: 766, 767, 316, 317, 319, 625, 627, 628, 626. List of Contexts; C.3, [272], 273, [331], 332, [333], 334. Description This subgroup describes two features and a deposit located in close proximity to the habi- tation area features described in group 3 as well as one feature located to the far west of the excavation area. Deposit (003) was located to the far eastern area of the site. It measured 1.68 m in length, 1.41 m in width and 0.05 m in depth. It was a mid orangish brown pebbely sand with moderate flecks and small pieces of charcoal inclusions. Cut [272] was located on the far west of the site, approximately 13 m north of large pit [292] as described in group 3. It measured 0.49 m in length, 0.46 m in width and 0.08 m in depth. It was sub-rectangular in shape, had gently sloping sides and a flat base. It was filled by a dark black silt (273) with frequent amounts of large pieces of charcoal inclusions. An unidentified object, possibly ceramic, was recovered from this fill. Cut [331] was located in close proximity to the habitation features described in group 7. It measured 0.8 m in length, 0.62 m in width and 0.08 m in depth. It was sub- circular in shape, had gently sloping sides and a flat base. It was filled by a dark greyish brown silty clay (332) with frequent flecks and small pieces of charcoal inclusions. An iron nail was also recovered from this fill. Cut [333] was located just to the north of the habitation features as described in group 7. It measured 0.89 m in length, 0.38 m in width and 0.06 m in depth. It was irreg- ular in shape with gently sloping sides and a flat base. It was filled by a mid brownish grey sandy silt (334) with occasional flecks and moderate small pieces of charcoal inclusions.102
  • 113. Ballinglanna north 1-E2414 http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/e2414-ballinglanna-north1-co-cork/InterpretationThese features represent areas of single activity fires across the area of excavation. Theabundance of burnt material in the form of charcoal indicate human interaction, how-ever, the irregular and shallow nature of these deposits suggest that they were temporaryareas of burning rather than those for multiple re-use. They may have been burnt outvegetation as some sort of field clearance, however, the finds within the fills possibly sug-gest single areas of burning associated with occupation. Without further information itis difficult to determine the function of these features and their relationship to the rest ofthe archaeology in this area. 103
  • 114. iSSUE 10: Eachtra JoUrnal - iSSn 2009-2237 archaEological Excavation rEport Appendix 4 Finds Register Artefact type NMI Find # Comments Context # Category Initials Find # Fabric Date 16 1 1 Glass Bottle Fragment Post-Medieval 08/11/2006 NG 9 1 2 Ceramic Clay Pipe Stem fragment 07/11/2006 NG 9 1 3 Ceramic Clay Pipe Stem fragment 07/11/2006 NG 10 1 4 Ceramic Pottery Sherd Post-Medieval 07/11/2006 NG sherds (x7) - Glazed red earthen- ware (x4), Transfer printed ware (x3) 11 1 5 Metal Iron Lump Lumps of possible 07/11/2006 NG iron (x3) 13 1 6 Metal Iron Ring Iron ring object - 07/11/2006 NG heavily corroded 17 1 7 Metal Iron Nails Iron nail fragments 08/11/2006 NG (x2) 8 2 1 Glass Bottle Fragment Post-Medieval 02/11/2006 NG 70 2 2 Glass Bottle Fragment Post-Medieval 24/01/2007 NG 31 2 3 Glass Bottle Fragment Post-Medival bot- 08/12/2006 RW tle neck glass from cleaning over ditch 23 2 4 Ceramic Clay Pipe Stem fragment 17/11/2006 NG 29 2 5 Ceramic Clay Pipe Stem fragment 04/12/2006 NG 29 2 6 Ceramic Clay Pipe Stem fragment 04/12/2006 NG 29 2 7 Ceramic Clay Pipe Bowl fragment 04/12/2006 NG 7 2 8 Ceramic Clay Pipe Stem fragment 01/11/2006 NG 7 2 9 Ceramic Clay Pipe Stem fragment 01/11/2006 NG 86 2 10 Ceramic Clay Brick Fragment of brick 06/03/2007 EMC from east side of Area 2 69 2 11 Ceramic Pottery Sherd Post-Medieval 24/01/2007 NG sherds (x2) - Glazed red earthenware 32 2 12 Ceramic Pottery Sherd Post-Medieval 14/12/2006 NG sherds - Pearlware (x1), Decorated slipware (x1) 18 2 13 Metal Iron Object Iron lump 15/11/2006 NG 1 2 14 Metal Iron Nail Broken in2pieces, 02/11/2006 AMB badly corroded - recovered from SW part of Area 1 33 2 15 Metal Iron Objects Iron nail 14/12/2006 NG 33 2 16 Metal Iron Lumps Iron lumps (x2) 14/12/2006 NG 2 2 17 Metal Iron Possible slag - 02/11/2006 AMB recovered from SW part of Area 1 27 2 18 Metal Iron Object Two pieces of iron 24/11/2006 JAC104
  • 115. Ballinglanna north 1-E2414 http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/e2414-ballinglanna-north1-co-cork/ Artefact type NMI Find # Comments Context # Category InitialsFind # Fabric Date5 2 19 Stone Sand- Fragment Stone fragment 01/11/2006 NG stone? with possible scouring marks4 48 1 Ceramic Clay Pipe Fragment of bowl 02/11/2006 LG recovered from poss ditch in slot 113 48 2 Metal Iron Nail Very corroded - 02/11/2006 LG Recovered from poss ditch in slot 1119 132 1 Metal Bronze? Object Possible bronze 13/11/2006 JM/JA lump25 132 2 Metal Bronze? Object Two pieces of pos- 22/11/2006 IM sible bronze (cast off slag??)22 132 3 Metal Bronze? Object Possible bronze 14/11/2006 IM mold casting (x2pieces)24 162 1 Ceramic Pottery Sherd Post-Medieval 21/11/2006 AMB/JC sherds (x2) - Glazed red earthenware26 162 2 Metal Iron Object Probable agricul- 21/11/2006 AMB/JC tural tool fragment26 162 3 Metal Iron Nails Iron nails (x3) 21/11/2006 JCAMB28 163 1 Stone Flint Worked One piuece of 29/11/2006 JAC flake worked flint - recovered from fulacht material34 214 1 Stone Flint Flake Flint debitage from 20/12/1006 NG fill of possible metal working feature [213]35 214 2 Stone Flint Flake Flint debitage from 20/12/2006 NG fill of possible metal working feature [213]40 214 3 Metal Iron Knife Iron knife 05/01/2007 AMB41 217 1 Stone Flint Flake One piece of flint 05/01/2007 AMB (possibly part of scraper) from fill of possible metal working pit [213]42 217 2 Metal Iron Nail Iron nail from fill 08/01/2007 AMB of possible metal working pit [213]36 221 1 Metal Iron Nail Iron nail from fill 05/01/2007 AMB of possible metal working feature [220]49 222 1 Metal Iron Wedge Iron tool 16/01/2007 RW39 242 1 Metal Iron Lump iron lump 05/01/2007 JAC 105
  • 116. iSSUE 10: Eachtra JoUrnal - iSSn 2009-2237 archaEological Excavation rEport Artefact type NMI Find # Comments Context # Category Initials Find # Fabric Date 47 263 1 Ceramic Pottery Body Post-Medieval 25/01/2007 RW Sherd sherd - Glazed red earthenware 45 265 1 Ceramic Clay Pipe Stem fragment 11/01/2007 JA 44 265 2 Metal Iron Object Possible blade from 09/01/2007 AMB fill of linear feature [264] 85 278 Metal Iron Furnace Furance base from Base fill of ditch [376] - slot 8 61 285 1 Stone Flint Flake One small reduc- 18/01/2007 JL tion flake recov- ered from base of wall [291] in W half of structure 60 285 2 Stone Flint Flake One small pos- 18/01/2007 JL sible flint flake (debitage) 53 285 3 Glass Bottle? Fragment Post-Medieval 18/01/2007 JL 54 285 4 Ceramic Clay Pipe Stem fragment 18/01/2007 JL 57 285 5 Ceramic Clay Pipe Stem fragment 18/01/2007 JL 57 285 6 Ceramic Clay Pipe Stem fragment 18/01/2007 JL 57 285 7 Ceramic Clay Pipe Stem fragment 18/01/2007 JL 57 285 8 Ceramic Clay Pipe Stem fragment 18/01/2007 JL 57 285 9 Ceramic Clay Pipe Stem fragment 18/01/2007 JL 57 285 10 Ceramic Clay Pipe Stem fragment 18/01/2007 JL 57 285 11 Ceramic Clay Pipe Stem fragment 18/01/2007 JL 65 285 12 Ceramic Pottery Handle Post-Medieval 19/01/2007 sherds (x2) - Glazed red earthenware 56 285 13 Ceramic Pottery Sherd Post-Medieval 18/01/2007 JC sherds (6) - Transfer printed ware (x3), Deco- rated slipware (x1), Creamware (x1), Stoneware (x1) 64 285 14 Metal Iron Lump Iron lump 19/01/2007 JC 51 285 15 Metal Iron Nail Iron nail 18/01/2007 JC 51 285 16 Metal Iron Nail Iron nail 18/01/2007 JC 51 285 17 Metal Iron Object Possible blade 18/01/2007 JC fragment 58 285 18 Metal Iron Nails Iron nails frag- 18/01/2007 JC ments (x3) 58 285 19 Metal Iron Nails Iron nails (x3) 18/01/2007 JC 63 285 20 Metal Iron Object Possible blade 19/01/2007 JC fragment 50 285 21 Metal Iron Object Possible horseshoe 18/01/2007 JC fragment106
  • 117. Ballinglanna north 1-E2414 http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/e2414-ballinglanna-north1-co-cork/ Artefact type NMI Find # Comments Context # Category InitialsFind # Fabric Date62 285 22 Stone Lime- Fragment One possible cut 18/01/2007 JC stone? stone associated with construction of wall [291] 286 1 Metal Iron Blade Blade fragments (x3)68 296 1 Ceramic Pottery Sherd Post-Medieval 23/01/2007 AMB sherds (x2) - Glazed red earthenware (x1), Stoneware (x1)67 296 Bone Object Piece of animal tooth?76 297 1 Ceramic Clay Pipe Bowl fragment 06/02/2007 RWIM from linear feature [296]71 307 1 Ceramic Pottery Sherd Post-Medieval 29/01/2007 JC/JAC sherds (x4) - Trans- fer printed ware74 307 2 Metal Iron Nails Horseshoes nails 29/01/2007 JCJAC (x2) from right back leg of horse skeleton from cut [301]73 307 3 Metal Iron Horseshoe Horseshoe from 29/01/2007 JCJAC right front and back legs of horse skeleton from cut [301]73 307 4 Metal Iron Horseshoe Horseshoe from 29/01/2007 JCJAC right front and back legs of horse skeleton from cut [301] 314 1 Metal Iron Blade Iron tool77 322 1 Ceramic Pottery Sherd Post-Medieval 08/02/2007 JAC/DW sherds (x2) - Glazed red earthenware79 327 2 Ceramic Pottery Sherd Post-medieval 07/02/2007 RW sherd from linear feature [323] - Glazed red earthenware80 332 1 Metal Iron Nail Iron nail from 08/02/2007 RW feature [331]81 338 1 Metal Iron Nail Iron nail from fill 12/02/2007 RW of ditch [382] - slot 682 359 1 Ceramic Clay Pipe One fragment 21/02/2007 JWJC including part of stem and bowl 359 2 Metal Iron Iron Iron tool wedge 107
  • 118. iSSUE 10: Eachtra JoUrnal - iSSn 2009-2237 archaEological Excavation rEport Artefact type NMI Find # Comments Context # Category Initials Find # Fabric Date 84 361 1 Stone Flint Flake One annomolous 01/03/2007 IM flint fragment from fill at base of pit [375] 83 371 1 Glass Bottle Fragment Post-Medieval 22/02/2007 JA 87 391 1 Ceramic Clay Pipe Bowl fragment 06/03/2007 EMC 88 391 2 Ceramic Pottery Sherd Post-Medieval 06/03/2007 JAC sherds - Transfer printed ware (x1), Pearlware (x1) 37 U/S 1 Stone Flint Flake Flint debitage from 20/12/2006 LD vicinity of NW corner of main trough within full- acht fiadh [183] 38 U/S 2 Metal Lead Disc Disc of lead. From 20/12/2006 LD SE corner of site 12 U/S 3 Metal Iron Chain Iron chain -re- 07/11/2006 NG covered from trial trench 2 by bridge 14 1 DISCARDED 08/11/2006 NG 15 1 DISCARDED 08/11/2006 NG 6 2 DISCARDED 01/11/2006 NG 30 2 DISCARDED 04/12/2006 NG 75 2 DISCARDED 01/02/2007 JCJAC 21 130 CHANGED TO 16/11/2006 IM/JA SAMPLE # 294 20 131 CHANGED TO 16/11/2006 IM/JA SAMPLE # 295 43 256 DISCARDED 08/01/2007 JAC 66 256 DISCARDED 08/01/2007 JAC 46 273 DISCARDED 12/01/2006 JM 171 276 DISCARDED 15/01/2007 JAC 52 285 DISCARDED 18/01/2007 JL 55 285 DISCARDED 18/01/2007 JL 59 285 DISCARDED 18/01/2007 JL 72 307 DISCARDED 29/01/2007 JCJAC 78 322 DISCARDED 06/02/2007 DW/JAC 48 222 Metal Iron Furnace CHANGED TO Base SAMPLE # 296108
  • 119. Ballinglanna north 1-E2414 http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/e2414-ballinglanna-north1-co-cork/Appendix 5 Plant remainsBy Penny JohnstonIntroductionThis short report details the results of plant remains analysis from Ballinglanna North1, Co. Cork (E2414). The site comprised a post-medieval structure, a habitation area, adrainage system, a ditch a metal-working area, two large pits and a burnt mound/fulachtfiadh.MethodologyThe samples were collected on site as bulk soil and were processed using machine-as-sisted floatation (following guidelines in Pearsall 2000). The floating material (or ‘flot’)from each sample was collected in a stack of geological sieves (the smallest mesh size was250mm). When all the carbonised material was collected the flot was then air-dried inpaper-lined drying trays prior to storage in airtight plastic bags. The samples were scannedunder low-powered magnification (x 10 to x 40) using a binocular microscope. Nomen-clature and taxonomic order follows Stace (1997).ResultsThe results of preliminary scanning are presented in Table 1 at the end of this report. Atotal of 65 samples were scanned. Plant remains were present in 38 of the samples. The identifications are presented in Table 2. Plant remains were present in samplesfrom Groups 2, 3, 4, 5, 7, 8 and 11. They were most common in samples from Groups 2,3 and 4 and this analysis will concentrate on material from these groups.Group 2 (Fulacht fiadh/burnt mound)The burnt mound deposits and associated features at Ballinglanna North 1, containedcharred plant remains. These included the burnt mound deposit (C.163) and the fill ofa well (C.230) and a post-hole (C.225). This result is relatively unusual because charredseeds are not common finds in fulacht fiadh/burnt mound deposits. Studies of plantremains from 132 burnt mound sites indicate that cereal remains were recorded at lessthan 8% of examined sites. The remains were always preserved by charring and were re-corded in very small quantities (IADG 2007). At three burnt mound sites excavated alongthe route of the N8 Fermoy to Mitchelstown (Ballinglanna North 1, Kildrum 1 andKilshanny 3), charred seeds were recovered in small amounts. The charred remains fromBallinglanna North 1 were more frequent than at the other sites and included a moderateportion of charred cereal grains. The cereals were predominantly barley (83% of identifi-able grains), but a significant portion of rye (13%) was also found along with a small per-centage of wheat (2%) and oat (2%). The presence of oat and rye is surprising, as these twocereal types do not become common in archaeological deposits until the medieval period 109
  • 120. iSSUE 10: Eachtra JoUrnal - iSSn 2009-2237 archaEological Excavation rEport (Monk 1986, 34) and burnt mound deposits are usually considered to be Bronze Age in date. As the site at Ballinglanna North 1 was subject to quite a significant amount of later disturbance it is possible that these seeds are later and re-deposited. Group 2 Wheat 2% Oat Rye 2% 13% Oat Barley Rye Whe at Ba rley 83% Group 3 (Large pit to the west of the burnt mound) The material from Group 3 was primarily from a large pit C.268 to the west of the burnt mound contained a moderate quantity of cereal grains. Oat was the most common cereal type in these deposits, representing 55% of the identifiable cereal count. Rye was also present (26%), as was barley (19%). The recovery of small amounts of slag from the depos- its in these pits suggest that these were used as a repository for waste from metalworking (a metalworking area classified as Group 4 was located some metres to the east). It is pos- sible that the seeds from this deposit were also associated with metalworking. However, the assemblage from this part of the site was predominantly made up of oat, while the assemblages from the other areas of the site, including the metalworking features, were predominantly made up of barley. The percentage breakdown of the material from this pit therefore distinguishes it from the plant remains found in the other areas of the site.110
  • 121. Ballinglanna north 1-E2414 http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/e2414-ballinglanna-north1-co-cork/ Gr oup 3 Ry e 26% Oat Oa t Bar le y 55% Rye Bar le y 19%Group 4 (Metalworking area)The material from Group 4 was associated with an area of metalworking located to theeast of the burnt mound deposits. These were taken from contexts C.214, C.242, C.256and C.265, three pit fills and one fill of a linear feature. The plant remains from thesedeposits were primarily barley (97% of identifiable cereal grains), where identifiable theywere largely naked barley, and a small quantity of wheat (3%). Group 4 Wheat 3% Bar ley Wheat Bar ley 97 % It is often recognised by archaeobotanists that charred cereals make their way intoarchaeological deposits as a result of being burnt as fuel. For example, Monk and Kelleher(2005, 93) briefly discuss the likelihood that some cereals from grain drying kilns camefrom fuel. The most usual fuel-types discussed are crop processing residues (such as chaff,weed seeds and occasional cereal grains) which can be used as tinder. However, cereal 111
  • 122. iSSUE 10: Eachtra JoUrnal - iSSn 2009-2237 archaEological Excavation rEport grains themselves can provide a reliable, heat-efficient source of fuel: an early medieval metalworking furnace in Co. Kerry (Deerpark Lispole 05E1097) produced large quanti- ties of burnt oat grain from firing contexts (Johnston 2006). A large deposit of charred grain was also recovered from a site at Ahanaglogh in Co. Waterford (Brewer 2008, 146) and both sites demonstrate the possibility that surplus grain was used as a source of fuel. This may also be the case in the metalworking deposits found at Ballinglann North 1. Sample Context Charcoal Seeds % scanned 4 11 High Low 100 6 13 Medium Absent 100 7 15 Low Absent 100 15 18 Low Absent 100 18 26 Low Low 100 20 31 High Low 100 21 40 High Low 100 32 12 Low Low 100 38 76 Medium Absent 100 40 44 High Low 100 40 34 Medium Low 100 40 226 Low Low 100 47 71 Medium Low 100 48 84 Low Absent 100 50 93 High Low 100 51 94 Low Absent 100 52 95 High Low 100 53 96 Low Low 100 54 97 Low Low 100 55 75 Low Low 100 55 96 Low Low 100 58 137 Low Low 100 59 128 Low Absent 100 61 138 Low Low 100 63 131 Low Absent 100 64 132 Low Absent 100 65 139 High Medium 100 98 188 High Absent 100 102 175 Medium Absent 100 103 177 Low Absent 100 107 182 High Absent 100 110 190 High Absent 100 111 189 High Low 100 112 196 High Absent 100 115 192 High Absent 100 126 222 Medium Low 100 130 216 Low Absent 100 131 214 Medium Low 100 144 ? High Absent 100 145 242 Low Low 100 149 256 High Medium 100 154 261 Low Absent 100112
  • 123. Ballinglanna north 1-E2414 http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/e2414-ballinglanna-north1-co-cork/ Sample Context Charcoal Seeds % scanned 157 265 Medium Low 100 187 294 Low Medium 100 196 300 Medium Low 100 198 298 High High 100 217 132 Low Absent 100 225 339 Low Absent 100 234 352 Low Low 100 250 275 Medium Low 100 260 290 High Absent 100 261 377 High Absent 100 274 379 High Absent 100 275 380 Low Low 100 276 381 Low Low 100 277 386 Low Low 100 278 387 Low Absent 100 279 388 Low Absent 100 279 388 Low Low 100 281 337 Medium Low 100 283 339 Low Low 100 285 384 Low Absent 100 286 389 Low Absent 100 ? 163 High Medium 100 ? 134 Low Absent 100Table 1: Scanned samples from Ballinglanna North 1, Co� Cork (E2414) 113
  • 124. iSSUE 10: Eachtra JoUrnal - iSSn 2009-2237 archaEological Excavation rEport Group 7 7 11 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 5 5 Context 11 12 21 26 31 34 44 47 75 76 93 93 Sample 4 32 40 18 20 40 40 72 55 38 50 50 Hazelnut shell 46 23 4 6 6 1 1 2 fragments (Corylus avellana L.) Fat-hen (Chenopo- dium album L.) Indeterminate seeds from the goosefoot family (Chenopodiaceae) Black bindweed (Fallopia convolvulus (L.) Á. Löve) Probable Sheep’s 1 sorrel (Rumex cf acetosella L.) Indeterminate seeds 1 from the Knotgrass family (Polygonaceae) Wild radish (Rapha- nus raphanistrum L.) capsule Indeterminate seeds from the mint fam- ily (Lamiaceae) Plantain (Plantago Burnt mound, metal- L. species) working area and post- medieval settlement Indeterminate seeds from the sedge fam- ily (Cyperaceae) Oat grains (Avena L. 1 1 1 2 9 species) Possible oat grains 1 (cf Avena species) Barley grains (Hor- 3 3 2 deum vulgare L.) Naked barley grains (Hordeum vulgare L.) Rye grains (Secale 1 cereale) Possible rye grains (cf Secale cereale) Rye rachis inter- nodes (cf Secale cereale) Wheat grains (Triti- 1 2 cum L. species) Wheat/Rye grains (Triticum/Secale) Indeterminate cereal 1 1 1 1 7 6 1 2 3 grains Indeterminate grass seeds (Poaceae) Indeterminate weed 1 2 seeds Table 2: Identified seeds from Ballinglanna North 1, Co� Cork (E2414)114
  • 125. Ballinglanna north 1-E2414 http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/e2414-ballinglanna-north1-co-cork/Group 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 2 2 4 5 2 4Context 95 96 96 97 137 138 139 163 189 214 222 226 242Sample 52 52 55 54 58 61 65 ? 111 131 126 40 145Hazelnut shell 16fragments (Corylusavellana L.)Fat-hen (Chenopo- 1dium album L.)Indeterminateseeds from thegoosefoot family(Chenopodiaceae)Black bindweed 4(Fallopia convolvulus(L.) Á. Löve)Probable Sheep’ssorrel (Rumex cfacetosella L.)Indeterminate seeds 1 8from the Knotgrassfamily (Polygonaceae)Wild radish (Rapha- 1nus raphanistrum L.)capsuleIndeterminate seedsfrom the mint fam-ily (Lamiaceae)Plantain (PlantagoL. species)Indeterminate seeds 5from the sedge fam-ily (Cyperaceae)Oat grains (Avena L. 2 1 5 1species)Possible oat grains 1(cf Avena species)Barley grains (Hor- 2 1 4 2 1 38 3 1 1deum vulgare L.)Naked barley grains 1(Hordeum vulgare L.)Rye grains (Secale 5cereale)Possible rye grains 1 2(cf Secale cereale) Rye rachis inter- 3nodes (cf Secalecereale)Wheat grains (Triti- 1 1 1 1cum L. species)Wheat/Rye grains 1 2(Triticum/Secale)Indeterminate cereal 3 1 4 1 2 82 1 1grainsIndeterminate grassseeds (Poaceae)Indeterminate weed 1 1seedsTable 2: Identified seeds from Ballinglanna North 1, Co� Cork (E2414) continued 115
  • 126. iSSUE 10: Eachtra JoUrnal - iSSn 2009-2237 archaEological Excavation rEport Group 4 4 8 8 3 3 3 5 5 ? 5 5 5 Context 256 265 275 286 294 298 300 337 339 352 380 381 388 Sample 149 157 250 277 187 198 196 281 283 234 275 276 279 Hazelnut shell 1 5 5 1 2 fragments (Corylus avellana L.) Fat-hen (Chenopo- 1 dium album L.) Indeterminate 1 2 seeds from the goosefoot family (Chenopodiaceae) Black bindweed 2 5 1 (Fallopia convolvulus (L.) Á. Löve) Probable Sheep’s 7 sorrel (Rumex cf acetosella L.) Indeterminate seeds 5 22 6 3 from the Knotgrass family (Polygonaceae) Wild radish (Rapha- 1 2 nus raphanistrum L.) capsule Indeterminate seeds 1 from the mint fam- ily (Lamiaceae) Plantain (Plantago 1 L. species) Indeterminate seeds from the sedge fam- ily (Cyperaceae) Oat grains (Avena L. 2 4 16 9 1 2 species) Possible oat grains (cf Avena species) Barley grains (Hor- 1 3 1 6 4 1 deum vulgare L.) Naked barley grains 27 (Hordeum vulgare L.) Rye grains (Secale 9 5 cereale) Possible rye grains (cf Secale cereale) Rye rachis inter- nodes (cf Secale cereale) Wheat grains (Triti- cum L. species) Wheat/Rye grains 2 4 (Triticum/Secale) Indeterminate cereal 1 1 2 16 7 1 grains Indeterminate grass 2 2 seeds (Poaceae) Indeterminate weed 2 1 1 seeds Table 2: Identified seeds from Ballinglanna North 1, Co� Cork (E2414) continued116
  • 127. Ballinglanna north 1-E2414 http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/e2414-ballinglanna-north1-co-cork/ReferencesBrewer, A. Plant remains, pp.143 – 7 in Johnston, P., Kiely, J. and Tierney, J. Near the Bend in the River. Dublin, National Roads Authority.IADG (Irish Archaeobotanists Discussion Group) 2007. Brewing and fulachta fiadh, Archaeology Ireland 21 (7).Johnston, P. 2006 Analysis of Charred Plant Remains from Deerpark, Lispole, Co. Kerry (05E1097). Unpublished technical report for Eachtra Archaeological Projects.Pearsall, D. 2000 Paleoethnobotany: a Handbook of Procedures. New York, Academic Press.Stace, C.A. 1997 New Flora in the British Isles. (2nd edition) Cambridge, Cambridge University Press. 117
  • 128. iSSUE 10: Eachtra JoUrnal - iSSn 2009-2237 archaEological Excavation rEport Appendix 6 Lithics report by Dr. Farina Sternke Introduction Eight lithic finds from the archaeological excavations of a prehistoric site in the townland of Ballinglanna North 1, Co. Cork were presented for analysis (Table 1). The finds are associated with the remains of a possible fulacht fiadh and possibly associated pits. Thickn. (mm) Length (mm) Width (mm) Condition Complete Find No. Material Retouch Context Cortex Type E2414:163:1 163 Flint Retouched Artefact No Lustred 30 25 8 No right edge direct semiabrupt E2414:214:1 214 Flint Retouched Artefact? No Patinated 13 11 5 No distal direct semiabrupt E2414:214:2 214 Flint Retouched Artefact No Patinated 6 16 7 No distal direct abrupt E2414:217:1 217 Flint Natural Chunk E2414:285:1 285 Flint Debitage E2414:285:2 285 Flint Debitage E2414:361:1 361 Flint Debitage E2414:US:1 U/S Flint Blade Yes Burnt 27 10 3 No No Patinated Table 1: Composition of the lithic assemblage from Ballinglanna North 1 (E2414) Methodology All lithic artefacts were examined visually and catalogued using Microsoft Excel. The following details were recorded for each artefact which measured at least 2 cm in length or width: context information, raw material type, artefact type, the presence of cortex, artefact condition, length, with and thickness measurements, fragmentation and the type of retouch (where applicable). The technological criteria recorded are based on the termi- nology and technology presented in Inizan et al. 1999. The general typological and mor- phological classifications are based on Woodman et al. 2006. Struck lithics smaller than 2 cm were classed as debitage and were not analysed further. The same applies to natural chunks and pebbles. The condition of macro tools was not noted, as they are rarely af- fected by the elements due to their raw material composition.118
  • 129. Ballinglanna north 1-E2414 http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/e2414-ballinglanna-north1-co-cork/QuantificationThe lithics are seven flaked pieces of flint and one natural chunk of flint (Table 1). Fourartefacts are larger than 2 cm in length and width and were therefore recorded in detail.The natural chunk is misleading in it nature since it has been damaged by plough actionand looks like a flaked artefact; however, it is clearly not.ProvenanceThe artefacts were recovered from a layer associated with burnt mound material, three pitfills and a layer associated with a structure (Table 2).Find Number Context Description TypeE2414:163:1 163 Layer, Burnt mound material Retouched ArtefactE2414:214:1 214 Pit Fill Retouched Artefact?E2414:214:2 214 Pit Fill Retouched ArtefactE2414:217:1 217 Pit Fill Natural ChunkE2414:285:1 285 Layer associated with structure DebitageE2414:285:2 285 Layer associated with structure DebitageE2414:361:1 361 Pit Fill DebitageE2414:US:1 U/S Unknown BladeTable 2: Context Information for the Assemblage from Ballinglanna North 1 (E2414) Condition:The lithics survive in variable condition. None of the artefacts is complete. The lustre ob-served on 1 artefact (E2414:163:1) is a direct result of their exposure to heat, i.e. they didnot directly come into contact with fire, but where perhaps strewn around a hearth. Allartefacts are patinated and blade E2414:US:1 is burnt and bears the remnants of cortex.Technology/Morphology:The worked artefacts represent two types of flaking products, three retouched artefactsand one natural piece of flint (Table 3).Type AmountBlade 1Debitage 3Retouched Artefact 3Natural Chunk 1Total 673Table 3: Assemblage Composition from Ballinglanna North 1 (E2414) 119
  • 130. iSSUE 10: Eachtra JoUrnal - iSSn 2009-2237 archaEological Excavation rEport 30 25 20 Width 15 10 5 0 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 Length Blade Retouched Artefact Figure 1: Dimensions (mm) of the Blades, Flakes and Retouched Artefacts from Ballinglanna North 1 (E2414 Blades The blade (E2414:US:1) measures 27 mm long, 10 mm wide and 3 mm thick. It is burnt and heavily patinated and was produced using a direct single platform technology with a soft stone. It is a classic Early Mesolithic blade which may have been re-deposited and represents a residual Early Mesolithic component. Debitage The presence of three pieces of debitage suggests that a limited amount of knapping took place at the site. Retouched Artefacts: The three identified retouched artefacts (E2414:163:1, E2414:214:1 and E2414:214:2) are a fragment of a convex end scraper or micro disc scraper which was produced on a bipolar flake and two miscellaneous retouched artefacts, one of which (E2414:163:1) may have been used as a convex end scraper or side scraper. Dating: It can be divided into two groups: (1) one blade associated with the Early Mesolithic and (2) three retouched artefacts produced on bipolar flakes which date the Early Bronze Age. Conservation Lithics do not require specific conversation, but should be stored in a dry, stable environ- ment. Preferably, each lithic should be bagged separately and contact with other lithics120
  • 131. Ballinglanna north 1-E2414 http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/e2414-ballinglanna-north1-co-cork/should be avoided, so as to prevent damage and breakage, in particular edge damagewhich could later be misinterpreted as retouch. Larger and heavier items are best kept inindividual boxes to avoid crushing of smaller assemblage pieces.Comparative MaterialThe size and composition of the assemblage is typical for Irish burnt mounds. Recent ex-cavations in the south-east of Ireland revealed a similar pattern of very small assemblagesfound in associated fulachta fiadh, e.g. the N25 Waterford By-Pass (Woodman 2006).These assemblages are dominated by the use of beach pebble flint which is often workedusing the bipolar method or a very simple platform technology (see also O’Hare 2005). The Early Mesolithic is reminiscent of those recently recovered at Gortore (E2410),Co. Cork.DiscussionFlint is available in larger and smaller nodules along the Cork coast or in the glacial tills.The use of a limited single platform and bipolar technology on small to medium sizedpebbles is in parts the result of this availability. The majority of these flint nodules arerather small pebbles with an average dimension of 4-6 cm and often only permit the useof a bipolar or scalar technology to efficiently reduce the nodule achieving a maximumoutcome, i.e. the largest possible amount of suitable and usable blanks. The result is theregionally dominant split pebble scalar (Late Neolithic) and bipolar (Later Neolithic andBronze Age) character of the south-western lithic assemblages. Given the technologicalcomposition of the Late Neolithic/ Bronze Age component of the Ballinglanna North1 assemblage, i.e. predominantly production debris, it is safe to assume that they wereproduced at the site. Similarly, the Early Mesolithic blade was probably produced at or nearby the site.SummaryThe eight lithic finds from the archaeological excavation at Ballinglanna North 1 (E2414),Co. Cork are seven flaked pieces of flint and a natural chunk of flint. The flaked assemblage contains one blade, three retouched artefacts and three piecesof debitage. The assemblage is dominated by an Early Bronze Age typological and technologicalcomponent which includes the fragment of a possible micro disc scraper. In addition, a re-sidual Early Mesolithic element in the assemblage comprising of one blade was recovered,but may have been re-deposited. Together with the discarded retouched tools, the recovered debitage and blade repre-sent waste from lithic production and the immediate use of lithic tools at the site, possiblyin predominantly domestic activities connected with the possible fulacht fiadh. This site makes an important contribution to the evidence for prehistoric settlementand land use in the area between the Funchion and Awbeg rivers in north Co. Cork. 121
  • 132. iSSUE 10: Eachtra JoUrnal - iSSn 2009-2237 archaEological Excavation rEport References Inizan, M.-L., M. Reduron-Ballinger, H. Roche and J. Tixier 1999. Technology and Terminology of Knapped Stone 5. CREP, Nanterre. O’Hare, M. B., 2005. The Bronze Age Lithics of Ireland. Unpublished PhD Thesis. Queen’s University of Belfast. Woodman, P.C. 2006. The significance of the lithic assemblages from the archaeological excavations on the Waterford By-Pass. Unpublished Report for Headland. Woodman, P. C., Finlay, N. and E. Anderson, 2006. The Archaeology of a Collection: The Keiller-Knowles Collection of the National Museum of Ireland. National Museum of Ireland Monograph Series 2. Wordwell, Bray.122
  • 133. Ballinglanna north 1-E2414 http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/e2414-ballinglanna-north1-co-cork/Appendix 7 Archaeometallurgical residuesby Dr T.P. YoungAbstractThe assemblage from Ballinglanna North 1 is unusual in many respects and providesa unique insight into iron production on a large scale in early medieval times. Two 14Cdates are relevant to the iron working activity – both with calibrated ranges spanningthe late 7th to mid 9th centuries. The residues are almost entirely from the smithing ofiron. The smithing hearth cakes (SHCs) are large (the average weight for an SHC in theassemblage is the largest, 2854g, for any assemblage yet investigated by the author). TheSHCs are of very variable weights, with no strong clustering, and with weights rangingup to 9.3kg. The high weights strongly suggest that the site was a specialist bloomsmith-ing operation, and with 260kg of slag recovered from the fraction excavated, the activ-ity was clearly undertaken on a large scale. Although the weights of the SHCs werevery variable, the internal textures exhibited were rather constant. Coarse, equant grains,funnel- shaped vesicles and a rather diffuse-appearing upper margin to the crust of theSHC, which passes up into a “clotted” slag texture, were all common characteristics, therecognition of which was enhanced by the similarity in the preservation of much of theassemblage. Similar textures do occur on other sites, but it was the regularity of occur-rence of the texture which was unusual at Ballinglanna North. The residue assemblage isapparently homogeneous, creating an impression of a large volume of waste which endedup in various cut features. There were no certain features of metallurgical origin, whichmay indicate that the smithing was undertaken outside the excavated area, or just pos-sibly, that it was conducted on waist level hearths, not the usual floor-level hearths. The one exception to the homogeneous residue assemblage was the fill of pit [c255]which contained a small quantity of possible iron smelting slag. Much of the assemblage (90% by weight) was recovered from the fill of a ditch run-ning approximately parallel to the modern stream. The large quantity of large, similar,bloomsmithing slag cakes suggests a level of activity above that of typical early medievaliron production sites in Ireland, and is more reminiscent of sites in Britain some 600years younger than Ballinglanna, when bloomsmithies adopted water power. It is pos-sible the ditch represents a leat supplying power for water hammer (and even bellows). Insuch a model the slag in the ditch should be viewed as dump material entering the leaton its disuse. Unfortunately the slags on their own are not capable of distinguishing theharnessing of water power, which would require the recognition of actual structures. Nowater powered bloomsmithy of this period has been recognised in Ireland, but all the ma-jor components of the technology would have been available in contemporary corn mills. 123
  • 134. iSSUE 10: Eachtra JoUrnal - iSSn 2009-2237 archaEological Excavation rEport Methods All investigated materials were examined visually, using a low-powered binocular micro- scope where necessary. For microscopic residues a general statement of the nature of each assemblage was recorded (Table 1). As an evaluation, the materials were not subjected to any high-magnification optical inspection, nor to any other form of instrumental analy- sis. The identifications of materials in this report are therefore necessarily limited and must be regarded as provisional. Results Description of the dense smithing slags The most abundant components of the assemblage were smithing hearth cakes (SHCs), with a total weight of 235kg (of the total assemblage of approximately 260kg). The outline statistics of the weight-frequency distribution for those SHCs which were intact, or suf- ficiently intact for their original weight to be estimated, are given in Table 2. The mean weight, 2854g, is the highest mean weight for an Irish SHC assemblage to date. The larger SHCs were relatively plano-convex, but the upper surface often showed concentric rings and the friable upper slag may rise centrally above the bowl rim. The largest cakes were about 300mm in diameter, with thickness of up to 140mm (of which the bowl comprised 100mm). The development of the crust within the bowl was variable, generally it was thick, but typically the crusts appeared to show a rather moderate grain size, with apparently equant crystals, with a vesicular texture, including some large tubu- lar/conical vesicles. The crust typically graded into more open-textured slags above. Very few of the large SHCs showed evidence for a smooth, blown patch on the top, and shiny upper surfaces were only seen in fairly small cakes. These features were so common that those SHCs showing these features are indicated by a “t” (for typical) in the catalogue (Table 1) and the facies summary (Table 3). This type of SHC represented only 1 out of 20 SHCs below 1500g, but 20 out of 28 of those over 3000g. The 29 SHCs identified as having the “typical” texture had an average weight of 4.1kg. The 36 SHCs for which this texture was not identified (which may include examples with the texture but which was not identifiable in the particular state of preservation of the sample) had an average weight of 1.8kg. Thus smaller SHCs may show rather more conventional features. There is an occurrence throughout the assemblage of a small proportion of reddened material. Some of this is clearly from oxidation of the proximal lip of the SHC through impingement of the air blast on the top of the SHC. The reason for this is unclear – it may be because of upward growth of the slag accumulation, but equally the changing geom- etry of the blast produced by the erosion of the tuyère tip during use may also play a part. Some of the reddened material shows a red (haematised?) glaze on “normal” SHC material, in some cases covering fracture surfaces in the slags. This oxidation may be hap- pening at the extraction stage, rather than during normal use.124
  • 135. Ballinglanna north 1-E2414 http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/e2414-ballinglanna-north1-co-cork/ One slag facies which commonly shows haematisation are the dense slag flows whichare generated just below the tuyère. Not only are there flows alongside of the tuyère, butin some instances lobate flows on the proximal face of the SHC. One well preserved SHC shows a 40mm deep bowl (in the “t” fabric described above),with 15-20mm of more open-textured slag above. At the proximal end a raised slag masswith dense prilly slags rises 70mm above the bowl top. This presumably indicates that thebase of the tuyère lay at about 130mm above the base of the bowl. Isolated sub-tuyère flowed slags are grouped with hte “other smithing slags” in Table3, as are charcoal-rich masses attached to tuyère tips. One common feature of the SHCs at Ballinglanna is the occurrence of “tool-marks”.These are developed as ridges or flanges on the underside of the larger SHCs. They areinterpreted as the product of fluid slag settling into the holes created by the use of apoker, or similar tool, to lever the SHC out of the hearth while it is still hot. Where moststrongly developed, these ridges can extend beyond the limits of the main slag bowl, giv-ing the slag cake a palmated appearance in plan. Description of the tonguesThe assemblage contains several examples of slabby lining slags similar to material de-scribed elsewhere (e.g. Young 2009a) as pro-tuyère tongues. In this assemblage severalexamples show apparent attachment zones to tuyère faces. Of the 7 items listed in thedatabase as tongues (not including small fragments of probable tongues), there are just 4that mesh entirely with typical tongues (with weights of 116g ,120g, 158f and 160g), theother 4 are substantial larger (with weights of 368g, 438g and 456g). These larger massesmay perhaps be better considered as lining-rich SHCs. Description of tuyèresSmall fragments of tuyères occurred widely, but there were only a five fragments whichgave useful morphological data: [c278] 50mm wide flat base [c381] 200mm effective diameter over 60° segment [c381]110mm high? [c222] 160mm diameter based on 60° segment [c285] flat bottomed Plus part of a tuyère margin embedded in the proximal end of a slag block: [c222] 160 diameter based on margin in slag If all of these observations were taken from identical objects, then the best fit for theface of the tuyère would be transverse, approximately 120mm high, 170mm wide, witha flat (or very gently curved) central zone to the base and a gently-curved top. Alterna-tively, there may be a variety of tuyères present, with a more circular cross section, withdiameters between 110 and 200mm, Although this is a very small sample, it does appearmore likely from the material that the tuyères were quite small and the 200mm diameter 125
  • 136. iSSUE 10: Eachtra JoUrnal - iSSn 2009-2237 archaEological Excavation rEport reflects a less-strongly curved part of a small object rather than the general curvature of a large one. None of the tuyère sherds preserves information about the bore. Description of the indeterminate slag The indeterminate slag category embraces several distinct slag classes, all of which lack clear morphological criteria to all interpretation. In particular this category includes frag- ments of vesicular slag without morphological criteria which might have allowed them to be recognised as SHC fragments had they been larger. The category also includes most slag fragments smaller than 20mm diameter. Description of the iron ores A very small quantity of iron ore was recovered from the residues. Two pieces of botry- oidal goethite ore, with a brown dense ore with yellow cavity fills/coatings were probably fragments of bog ore. A single piece of red coloured ore appeared more homogeneous and may have been a similar material, or just possibly a claystone ironstone, that had been roasted. There was no evidence that these materials had been brought on to the site delib- erately, but it may be significant that all three fragments came from the same pit [c213], which lies very close to pit [c255] which yielded possible smelting residues. Description of the flow slags Items categorised as “flow slags” are those slags with evidence for lobate or prilly flow, but which cannot be recognised as being sub-tuyère flows (i.e. either the low flow lobes, often with a concave top to the aggregated lobes, that shows along the underside of the tuyère, or the stacked lobate slag that occurs down the proximal side of some SHCs). Rather this category includes flowed blebs and prills, particularly prills with a more circular cross section than the sub-tuyère flows, and prills which were clearly descending vertically. This type of flow slag is very rare at Ballinglanna North, with the only significant occurrence being in the fill [c256] of pit [c255]. Here the prills are delicate and a sieved sample contains both prills and “coffee bean spheroids”. The “coffee bean spheroids” are droplets of slag that have cooled against a fuel particle, creating a dimple in their surface. They are typical of, but not unique to, the basal pits of slagpit smelting furnaces. The same context contains a large block of internally prilly charcoal-rich slag. This assemblage could be generated in a smithing hearth, but there is a possibility that it represents a smelting assemblage from the basal pit of a slag pit smelting furnace. Distribution of the residues The residues occur mainly in the large ditch, with a concentration close to the area of the slag-filled features to its east. The ditch appeared to have received slag-rich deposits during two phases separated by almost sterile silts. There appeared to be no significant difference between the slag assemblage of the different phases of fill in the ditch.126
  • 137. Ballinglanna north 1-E2414 http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/e2414-ballinglanna-north1-co-cork/ The adjacent features, pits [c213] and [c255] contained slag. Neither feature was re-corded as showing evidence for in-situ burning, but the concentration of features in thisarea, close to the maximum quantity of slag within the adjacent ditch, raised the suspi-cion that this might be the focus of metallurgical activity. The fill of [c255] contained an assemblage of delicate flow slags that might possibly bea smelting assemblage. The pit was truncated by linear (furrow?) [c260] so its morphologywas unclear. The fill [c256] contained large stones, so clearly was not a primary in-situsmelting residue, but might conceivably have been a mixture of a stone-rich backfill withsome surviving residue. Nearby pit [c213] also shows a stone-rich upper fill [c214], but this overlies a darkerdeposit [c217] that might just possibly be an in-situ context. The residue assemblage fromthe upper fill [c214] contained mainly identifiable smithing slags, which are supplement-ed by the only smithing micro residue assemblage form the site. The lower fill [c217]contained a small assemblage of rather blebby slags of indeterminate origin, together witha single piece of flow slag. Pit [c220] was also recorded as containing slag, but none found in the collections. Other features in the SE part of the site are interpreted as significantly post-datingthe metalworking and in general contained small quantities of slag similar to that in theditch, as did a couple of contexts associated with the post-medieval building. In the SW of the site, west of the ditch, there were two large pits, apparently withindications of in-situ burning. A small quantity of slag was recovered from one of thesestructures [c268]. The undercut profile of the pit and the central pad of stones, moreclosely resembles a small well than any metallurgical feature (which are never so deep).It is suggested that the “in-situ” black deposit, may not have been from burning but mayperhaps have been either organic material or manganese wad associated with waterloggedconditions.InterpretationDating of this site hinges on two 14C dates (from the metallurgical phase), one from theprimary slag dump [c338] within the ditch and the other from a deposit [c299] low in oneof the SW pits (wells? – see above). The dates are very similar: [c338] = cal AD 684-784/ 787-827/839-864; [c299] = calAD 664-782/789-811/ 847-854. The slag from this site is dominated by SHCs of rather variable size, but of distinctiveand relatively constant texture. These SHCs are typically large – the assemblage of SHCsas a whole has an average weight of 2.8kg (the highest mean weight for an assemblage yetrecorded in Ireland), for those identified as having the distinctive texture the average risesto 4.1kg! SHCs of such large size have been associated with the processes of bloom consoli-dation (bloomsmithing; Young 2009). The raw bloom produced in a bloomery furnacerequires significant reworking in order to transform it into usable iron. Often the focus 127
  • 138. iSSUE 10: Eachtra JoUrnal - iSSn 2009-2237 archaEological Excavation rEport of that process is seen as closing of gaps in the bloom and the expulsion of excess slag and charcoal clasts – and indeed this is an important initial stage, but bloomsmithing also involves the reworking of the iron (typically be repeated heating and hammering to draw the iron out into bar, or more rarely, sheet form). This working of the iron not only works to clean the iron of major impurities, but also to draw-out and align the slag inclusions, which have such a strong influence on the mechanical and forming properties of the finished iron. There appear to be, very broadly, four styles of SHC assemblage from early medieval Irish sites (Table 2). There are those sites which appear to be concerned almost entirely with the end of use of iron (e.g. Coolamurry, Navan). Such assemblages are dominated by large numbers of small SHCs, particularly those of less than 600g and reflected by weight-frequency distributions with around 90% of the SHCs with weights below 1000g. The inclusion, even within these assemblages of a small proportion of SHCs with weights above 2000g (typically interpreted as from bloomsmithing) has been proposed (Young 2009) as representing the frequent distribution of iron to smiths in the form of unfinished iron – requiring further working before use. A second group of sites have evidence for iron smelting as well as smithing (e.g. Gort- nahown 2, Carrigoran, possibly Parknahown 5, Clonmacnoise WWS and Woodstown 6). These sites show a decrease in the proportion of SHCs at the small end of the distri- bution, with both more large cakes and an increase in size of the largest. The maximum SHC size varies from 3.5kgs at Gortnahown 2 up to 6.3kg at Woodstown. A related group of sites shows no indication of the presence of iron smelting, but has evidence for a wide range of activity, suggesting that iron was processed on the site from raw bloom through to final artefact. This group includes Clonmacnoise NG and Clonfad. At Clonmacnoise smelting was demonstrably undertaken in the area (e.g.at the Clonmac- noise WWS site) and it is assumed that primary smelting took place at Clonfad, or in an adjacent area of the monastic estate. The fourth group of sites (e.g. Borris, Lismore/Bushfield 1 and Ballinglanna North 1) shows little or no sign for the end-use of iron, such that the proportion of SHCs below 500g falls below 20%. They show a very high proportion of SHCs above 1000g – typi- cally 60% or more. These sites appear to have been specialist bloomsmithing sites. The sites show little similarity in terms of what is known of the context of the metalworking, although the residues at Borris also occurred mainly in a large ditch (which gave a 14C date on animal bone from its lower fills of 7-8th century and 9-10th century for a bone from its upper fill). Lismore/Bushfield 1 yielded most of its SHCs from a single undated pit as- sociated with a ringfort containing a 6th-7th century cemetery. Of the three sites, not only are the SHCs larger at Ballinglanna, but there also appears to be much more slag in total. At Borris, although multiple smithing hearths were located close to a major linear ditch, the slag recovered amounted to approximately 200kg from 100% excavation of 105m of the ditch, compared with the approximately 15% excavation of the 65m length of ditch at Ballinglanna which yielded 235kg.128
  • 139. Ballinglanna north 1-E2414 http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/e2414-ballinglanna-north1-co-cork/ Despite their differences, these sites indicate a degree of specialisation within thechaîne operatoire of iron production. The geographical segregation of bloomsmithing fromboth smelting and the end use of the iron is something which is seen not uncommonly.Various factors may drive the segregation: in some instances it may be a need to spread theload of charcoal production across the countryside, in some instances (particularly in thelater medieval period) it may reflect the adoption of new technologies for the hammers,either olivers (mechanical treadle hammers) or water-powered hammers, but it may fre-quently reflect the use of a fixed permanent forge, often near habitation, for the smithing,while the smelting moved through the woodlands, following the charcoal production. In this instance, the reasons behind the focusing of bloomsmithing on this one local-ity are unknown. However, it may be significant that the segregation appears more ex-treme in this case than elsewhere. The large size of the SHCs suggests that large blooms,or pieces of blooms, were being worked on a regular basis. The possibility that the ditchwas associated with a water-powered hammer should be considered. No other site in Ire-land (or probably in western Europe) has evidence of such technology at this period, butthat does not mean it did not exist. The early adoption of water power for corn mills inIreland means that the major components of the technology were well-established. If the ditch is functionally related to the metalworking, then he filling of the ditch byslag is unlikely to be contemporary. Slag-rich fills might indicate primary dumping into adisused ditch, secondary clearance involving the levelling of slag dumps into the ditch onthe abandonment of the site or possibly collapse of slag into the ditch. The latter interpre-tation was adopted by the author for a medieval water- powered bloomery in the EnglishWest Midlands (Cinder Mill, Chorley, Shropshire), where it is believed that decomposi-tion of a timber lining to the tail-race allowed collapse of the adjacent slag dumps intothe watercourse (author’s unpublished data). On the other hand there are examples wheremetalworking has taken place within a ditch (e.g. Navan, Woodstown 6). At Woodstowniron smelting was undertaken within the butt-end of one of the segments of one of themajor enclosure ditches and the ditch was rapidly filled with smithing waste, possibly fol-lowing clearance of an adjacent smithy. The detailed interpretation of the features to the east of the ditch is not possible at thecurrent level of information. There is a slight hint that [c255] might have been a smeltingfurnace, but the lack of smelting slags from the other features might imply that if it isa furnace it is not coeval with the other features on the site. The pit [c213] might be anelongate smithing hearth, but the evidence is far from clear. The large pits to the west of the ditch are more likely to have been wells than to havebeen directly associated with the metalworking.Evaluation of potentialThe slags from Ballinglanna are of enormous significance, representing largest scale spe-cialist early medieval bloomsmithing operation yet found. The similarity of texture ofa large proportion of the material has the potential to allow recognition of slag from a 129
  • 140. iSSUE 10: Eachtra JoUrnal - iSSn 2009-2237 archaEological Excavation rEport particular process technology, which can feed back into recognising that process at other sites. The apparent level of homogeneity in the assemblage is remarkable, and will allow closer interpretation than for more mixed assemblages. It is recommended that a full analysis of a suite of SHCs is undertaken, to character- ise the large “typical” bloomsmithing slags and establish their genetic relationship to the smaller SHCs. Whether the bloomsmithing operation was entirely manual, or whether it had a com- ponent of water power is not known. The answer to that fundamental question must come, if possible, from the interpretation of the archaeological features. If water-powered, the site would be unique in Ireland at the current level of understanding.130
  • 141. Ballinglanna north 1-E2414 http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/e2414-ballinglanna-north1-co-cork/ReferencesYOUNG, T.P. 2005. Metallurgical Residues from Clonmacnoise, Part 1: Evaluation of material from the waste water treatment works (02E1407). GeoArch Report 2005/08. 29pp.YOUNG, T.P. 2006. Evaluation of archaeometallurgical residues from Carrigoran, Co. Clare (98E0338). GeoArch Report 2005/18. 12pp.YOUNG, T.P. 2007. Evaluation of metallurgical residues from the Navan Inner Relief Road project, Site 1 (06E274), Co. Meath. GeoArch Report 2007/09. 10pp.YOUNG, T.P. 2008a. Archaeometallurgical residues from Coolamurry 7, 04E0323. GeoArch Report 2006/10. 46pp.YOUNG, T.P. 2008b. Evaluation of archaeometallurgical residues from Moneygall, Co. Offaly, 06E0321. GeoArch Report 2008/10. 15pp.YOUNG, T.P. 2008c. Evaluation of Archaeometallurgical residues from the M7/M8 Contract 2: Lismore-Bushfield 1 (E2220). GeoArch Report 2008/27.YOUNG, T.P. 2008d. Evaluation of Archaeometallurgical residues from the M7/M8 Contract 3: Trumra 4 (E2281). GeoArch Report 2008/33.YOUNG, T.P. 2009a. Archaeometallurgical residues from Clonfad 3, Co. Westmeath (A001: 036 E2723). GeoArch Report 2008/17. 173pp.YOUNG, T.P. 2009b. Archaeometallurgical residues from Ballykilmore, Co. Westmeath, E2798, GeoArch Report 2009/16, 81 pp.YOUNG, T.P. 2009c. Evaluation of Archaeometallurgical residues from the M7/M8 Contract 1: Parknahown 5 (E2170). GeoArch report 2009/21. 21pp.YOUNG, T.P. 2009d, Ferrous archaeometallurgical residues from Woodstown 6. GeoArch report 2009/22. 66pp.YOUNG, T.P. 2009e. Evaluation of Archaeometallurgical Residues from the M8/N8 Cullahill-Cashel: AR36 (E2941), GeoArch Report 2009/31, 17 pp.YOUNG, T.P. 2009f. Evaluation of archaeometallurgical residues from the N8 Fermoy- Mitchelstown, Gortnahown 2, Co. Cork, (E2426). GeoArch Report 2009/41, 41YOUNG, T.P. (forthcoming) . Chapter 6. Exploiting the bog: iron production and metalworking in: N6-N52 NRA Monograph. 131
  • 142. 132 sample context feature weight no notes propn orig 37 1 topsoil 184 3 indeterminate dense slags 57 2 transference layer 28 1 small scrap of blebby slag 78 2 transference layer 180 2 dense dimpled slags in rounded masses iSSUE 10: Eachtra JoUrnal - iSSn 2009-2237 6 1 lobe of glassy slag 242 2 lobate prilly dense slag masses from tuyère area 123 2 transference layer 140 6 slag scraps 173 2 transference layer t 436 1 thick crust SHC fragment 344 17 slag scraps of all types 124 6 cleaning over slot 6 116 1 slightly gravelly small tongue, dark top 12 19 cleaning of patch of 1425 13 SHC fragments burning 288 15 dense flows and blebs and accumulations of lobed material 86 1 possible tiny SHC 65x50x15mm 100 86 160 1 75x70x40mm tongue (most of thickness is a raised lump on top) 270 11 slag fragments 294 129/130 ditch c126, slot 4 t 5560 1 SHC, (200)x(250)x140mm, with bowl 80mm, with up to 60mm thick crust in 60 9267 centre, upper layers concentrically-ridged, piled high near centre. Proportion is approximate - a maximum value t 324 1 “coralline” upper part of SHC 322 6 slag fragments archaEological Excavation rEport 294 130 ditch c126, slot 4 1065 block from slightly deformed thick thin crust SHC
  • 143. 133 sample context feature weight no notes propn orig 158 1 60x100x40mm, small tongue, dark glassy top with gravelly material stuck on (most of thickness), dense, dimpled below t 486 1 block from centre of medium-sized thick crust SHC 30? 1620 122 1 dense vesicular slag 198 1 charcoal-rich slag fragment 102 1 slag sheet with dimples on top and pendent prills below - too dense for a tongue fragment? iSSUE 10: Eachtra JoUrnal - iSSn 2009-2237 100 1 vesicular slag t 962 1 block from moderate crust SHC 295 131 ditch c126, slot 4 186 17 vesicular, open-textured, rusty weathered slag fragments 28 1 dense slag nub 56 1 thinnish SHC crust fragment 272 1 piece from proximal side of fairly thin crust SHC sample context feature weight no notes propn orig ? 134 silting in ditch between 170 12 dense flow slags dumps 72 6 tuyère sherds 92 1 elongate dense flow? 20 3 lining-influenced blebby slags 506 1 large slag block with smoothish top and irregular below - possibly from area in front of tuyère? 522 6 SHC fragments 408 13 other slag fragments 79 162 modern layer c162 46 1 vitrified tuyère sherd 232 5 slag pieces 196 1 finely prilly brown slag lump archaEological Excavation rEport 131 214 pit c213 assm slag flats, spheroidal and flake hammerscale, slag debris, tuyère sherd
  • 144. 134 sample context feature weight no notes propn orig 133 214 pit c213 294 2 heavily slagged tuyère tips 274 5 pieces of tongue material, glassy blebby mainly dark 692 5 dense rusty slag fragments - probably all SHC 10 1 iron ore fragment - possibly a roasted claystone 34 3 dense flowed maroon horizontal prills 36 2 low density impressed slags iSSUE 10: Eachtra JoUrnal - iSSn 2009-2237 12 1 rusty slag fragment 148 214 pit c213 46 2 iron ore pieces, brown goethite, botryoidal with yellow filled voids 428 1 possible small, almost spherical SHC, 70x70x60 100 428 498 4 SHC fragments, all may be from small examples 108 4 slag scraps 48 2 poor blebby prills 150 214 pit c213 1040 1 100x120x110mm mass with charcoal-rich sides and slightly prilly top, has stone embedded into upper? surface 592 1 dense highly rusted slag - probably a thick crust SHC fragment 100 1 dense maroon-surfaced blown bowl lip 20 1 slag bleb 147 217 pit c213 32 1 corrosion around iron nail 4 1 neat flow lobe 192 25 irregular rusty slag blebs 151 217 pit c213 348 14 small slag pieces with heavy sandy accretion sample context feature weight no notes propn orig archaEological Excavation rEport
  • 145. 135 sample context feature weight no notes propn orig 134 222 ditch 376 t 3140 15 thick crust SHC fragments 166 3 deeply vitrified tuyère sherds 1680 23 pieces of vesicular slag from the upper part of SHCs 164 3 low density glassy maroon lobate material 20 1 sherd from side of tuyère 94 5 dense dark maroon slag flows 426 14 slag scraps iSSUE 10: Eachtra JoUrnal - iSSn 2009-2237 143 222 ditch 376 1570 1 SHC with tool marks on base, deformed, has softer base, then crust, then more 60 2617 porous upper, possibly c60% 812 1 piece from medium-sized dense SHC with tubular vesicles in thick crust, 70? 1160 strongly deformed 256 1 conventional SHC fragment 1180 1 fragment of large conventional SHC, with upstanding lining slag on top 424 1 flange from margin of a thin crust SHC - original must have been large 1240 1 part of moderately thick crust SHC 1085 16 +bits SHC fragments 162 2 dense flow slag sheets 143 222 ditch 376 t 748 1 fragment from centre of SHC with 70mm deep bowl, all crust, but slightly more vesicular than typical t 1430 1 120x110x80mm large slag block with enormous tool marks in vesicular slag, edge of bowl shows on one margin, but not clear if this is going into or out of the piece-so maybe almost entire SHC, or maybe tool marks were external to the main bowl t 818 1 block from centre of thick crust SHC - crust to 50mm vesicular slag on top t 530 1 block from margin of thick crust SHC 674 1 piece shows bowl-like material 30mm deep with 65mm of more open slag on top, including lots of red tuyère fragments, this is just the high-piled edge of much larger SHC archaEological Excavation rEport
  • 146. 136 sample context feature weight no notes propn orig 156 1 part of probably fractured and failed tuyère tip. Like others has coarse white in- clusions of tabular shape, mainly white quartz but some other siliceous materials too, set in a very sandy fabric 66 1 rounded ball with “wasps nest” texture (cf Ballykilmore) t 1215 6 thick crust SHC sherds 80 1 dense flow slag 604 10 various slag fragments iSSUE 10: Eachtra JoUrnal - iSSn 2009-2237 96 2 fragments of strongly-lobate lining-influenced slag 143 222 ditch 376 t 2780 1 (140)x(140)x100mm small, but deep thick crust SHC , slightly concentric top 50 5560 gradational fill to bowl, t 1390 1 thick crust SHC fragment , slightly more vesicular than typical, crust to 40mm with up to 45mm of material on the top t 1085 1 thick crust SHC fragment broken and rejoined during extraction t 1165 1 thick crust SHC fragment crust to 45mm 116 1 SHC fragment sample context feature weight no notes propn orig 143 222 ditch 376 t 1050 1 thick crust SHC fragment, crust piled high with irregular slags 1990 1 large block from rather thin slag bowl with horizontal flow lobes extending out near rim, inside rough t 620 1 thick crust SHC fragment 126 2 tuyère fragments 64 5 dense flow prills t 403 4 thick crust fragments 150 1 possible small SHC 70x60x25mm 100 150 92 1 possible fragment of similar dense SHC - but these may just be small flow puddles 302 23 indeterminate slag fragments archaEological Excavation rEport
  • 147. 137 sample context feature weight no notes propn orig 143 222 ditch 376 t 2950 1 200x(150)x100mm (of which bowl 50mm) part of large SHC with hollow blown 60 4933 smooth glassy centre and strongly raised lip, maximum of 60% probably less t 1650 1 block from centre of very thick crust SHC 973 1 edge of deeply hollow-topped SHC, dense shiny (unusual for this site) with large blade-like tool mark extending 100mm outside SHC t 354 1 pair of tool marks from edge of SHC t 332 5 SHC fragments iSSUE 10: Eachtra JoUrnal - iSSn 2009-2237 159 222 ditch 376 t 1465 6 SHC fragments with thick crust 836 5 other SHC fragments 76 6 tuyère sherds 452 17 small slag pieces - mainly rounded blebs 54 3 blebs of dimpled lining slag 186 3 dense slag in lobate flows - 1 set shows curve of tuyère base on the top 368 1 lump of charcoal-rich slag with impressions on surface, lining slag influenced on surface - probably large tongue 60x60x90mm 112 1 fragment of charcoal-rich slag with very slightly flowed base - probably from below the tuyère 159 222 ditch 376 716 22 slag fragments t 1010 9 fragments of thick crust SHCs 22 2 tuyère sherds t 996 1 part of thick crust cake (110)x(120)x60mm (of which bowl 30mm) very little 30 3320 slag on top of crust in depressed bowl, base smooth 324 1 95x75x40mm (of which bowl 30mm) possible small SHC with edges missing 60 540 (though could be smaller part of irregular larger one) tool marks on base 438 1 dense prilly mass with sheet of glass through centre - probably a dense form of tongue 70x90x70mm 244 3 dense slag fragments with rounded maroon blown surfaces - probably from blowing lip of dense SHCs 346 1 SHC fragment archaEological Excavation rEport 146 1 porous slag with one smooth blown surface
  • 148. 138 sample context feature weight no notes propn orig 314 6 rounded dense slag blebs, probably flow lobes from below tuyère sample context feature weight no notes propn orig 70 4 low density flow lobes from tuyère area 134 1 60x60x20mm dense sheet of slag with smooth top and impressions on base, one 100 134 broken end, could be a dense tongue or could be a small SHC in its own right iSSUE 10: Eachtra JoUrnal - iSSn 2009-2237 159 222 ditch 376 t 2025 1 (160)x(100)x100mm SHC with thin (5mm) distinct outer crust, entire bowl 40 5063 filled with quite vesicular slag becoming more vesicular up, culminating in cor- alline top, no more than 40% - this could be related to thin crust types t 688 1 SHC fragment t 1335 1 (150)x(130)x80mm (of which bowl 70mm) crust to 40mm. Concavo-convex, variable amount of rough slag in bowl, small tool marks on base 208 1 irregular lump of SHC material, has flown lobate edges to lower “crust” - so could be entire small SHC, but could be lump from margin of a larger cake 159 222 ditch 376 740 1 semi-conical slag attached to skim of tuyère front. Top concentric, clinkery, base a series of crude flow lobes directed horizontally back under tuyère - neatness increasing to top, tuyère probably c 160mm diameter. Mass 75x120x80mm, top probably tipped 45 degrees into hearth, tuyère face inclined forward 70 degrees to horizontal 120 1 small tongue - lining slag sheet dimpled glassy top, lobes on base, 80x50x35mm t 1565 5 SHC fragments - all fairly deep bowl t 470 2 SHC fragments - probably similar but not so much seen 666 5 slag lumps with dimpled surfaces - some may be SHC fragments, but others seem to be nubs t 236 1 twisted margin of small SHC with smooth top 159 222 ditch 376 1985 1 dense crust to 60mm with tubular vesicles in lower part, more granular slag to 60? 3308 60mm on top, (110)x(140) 1230 1 block of wide SHC with dense crust to 45mm, overlain by thin layer with elon- archaEological Excavation rEport gate unroofed voids (lobes?)
  • 149. 139 sample context feature weight no notes propn orig 682 1 dense crust to 35mm with open textured slag on top 654 1 dense crust to 35mm 268 2 SHC fragments 136 1 maroon surfaced slag with very variable density, hanging from margin of tuyère 174 222 ditch 376 22 1 perfectly flown, mirror-finish slag sheet iSSUE 10: Eachtra JoUrnal - iSSn 2009-2237 174 222 ditch 376 368 1 100x100x20mm plano-convex SHC with glassy top and gravel - could be 100 368 classed as a flat tongue, base slightly lobate but neat t 1020 1 110x130x80mm (of which bowl 60mm) slightly incomplete SHC with moder- 100 1020 ately thick crust and porous upper 250 11 tuyère sherds 100 300 300 1 90x95x30mm conventional dense SHC with smooth dimpled top and rough 100 300 base 442 11 slag fragments probably from SHC 298 6 smooth skinned dense slags, 1 good lip, others parts of flows 4 1 delicate descending prill of dense reddish slag 60 2 complex dimpled and lobate maroon dense slag sheets sample context feature weight no notes propn orig 238 13 high- to low-density blebs and flowed sheets with dimples 174 222 ditch 376 246 1 tuyère sherd c 160mm diameter from 60° slice t 3460 2 broken proximal end of large thick crust cake (proportion is maximum) 60 5767 t 782 1 thick crust SHC fragment 226 4 SHC fragment 296 222 ditch 376 t 8085 1 335x280x80mm SHC has slightly depressed top becoming more marked to 100 8085 proximal end, triangular in plan widest near proximal end, upper surface slightly concentrically ringed, with very thin layer on top of crust, base has slight hint of multiple low points along axis archaEological Excavation rEport
  • 150. 140 sample context feature weight no notes propn orig 129 256 pit c255 156 assm. fine-scale flow slag assemblage - could be smelting but these are very fine films, prills and coffee beans 152 256 pit c255 478 1 block of charcoal-rich slag with lobes and prills on base 152 256 pit c255 328 63 small pieces of dense, brittle, flow slags in delicate arrangements iSSUE 10: Eachtra JoUrnal - iSSn 2009-2237 155 261 linear c260 182 1 SHC fragment 26 4 slag scraps 158 265 linear c264 28 3 slag scraps 160 265 linear c264 26 1 tuyère sherd 24 1 indeterminate slag fragment 251 275 fill of slot trench c274 t 1570 1 140x140x80mm (of which bowl 60mm) SHC, bowl deepens to proximal side as 100 1570 top lifts likewise 170 277 possible firepit c268 78 2 lobate glassy material like tongue but in small pieces 56 2 slag scraps 310 64 dense flow slags in blebs. Prills and flows 710 c150 slag scraps 122 2 dense lobate slags 532 6 open textured slags, some show hints of flow lobes t 812 6 SHC fragments 44 1 tuyère sherd 85 278 ditch 376 1st dump 5430 1 large thinnish crust SHC, slightly twisted and with upper parts corroded, but 100 5430 otherwise intact 180x280x140mm archaEological Excavation rEport
  • 151. 141 sample context feature weight no notes propn orig 287 278 ditch 376 slot 8, 1st dump 200 1 forward inclined tuyère fragment with flat base over 50mm t 3205 1 large wide SHC with coralline top and two separate lobes to bowl, 100 3205 250x200x60mm sample context feature weight no notes propn orig t 2245 1 large piece of thick crust bowl, crust to 40mm, coralline on top 568 2 SHC fragments iSSUE 10: Eachtra JoUrnal - iSSn 2009-2237 287 278 ditch 376 slot 8, 1st dump t 2830 1 190x140x90, pc cake top possibly lobed, crust 35, lumpy base 75% 3773 3720 1 large SHC strongly deformed on extraction, multiple tool marks on base - looks 65 5723 like 65% of large SHC with open bowl with partial coralline fill. But could be laterally compressed, 290x160x140mm 534 1 block from somewhat thin crust SHC 64 1 SHC fragment 287 278 ditch 376 slot 8, 1st dump t 1205 1 margin of a typical SHC with large tubular vesicles in lower half of 40mm crust. Strongly raised rim of coralline slag to cake with two very large tool marks exit- ing under distal edge t 1830 1 160x(160)x100mm dense SHC with thick crust to 50mm, open crystalline slag 85 2153 on top 644 1 deformed granular slag mass - upper part of an SHC 280 1 irregular slag lump containing piece of tuyère t 2320 1 large block of SHC with very thick crust (80mm) irregular micro-blebby top, 60? 3867 base smooth on side to dimpled at bottom, (130)x(150)x100mm proportion dif- ficult to assess 90 1 rounded slag nub with gravel 302 1 part of slag mass from tuyère tip 181 285 layer (W of ditch) 456 1 flat bottom tuyère face with large tongue attached, 110x90x50mm tongue ap- pears very oblique to tuyère t 390 1 thick crust SHC fragment archaEological Excavation rEport 58 4 slag scraps
  • 152. 142 sample context feature weight no notes propn orig 366 2 SHC fragments 28 4 corroded and fragmented piece of sheet iron 202 309 void 1315 1 SHC, basal 25mm has tubular vesicles, upper 60mm of bowl fill is more irregu- 70 1879 lar, both both layers characterised by very coarse crystals - top slightly lobate iSSUE 10: Eachtra JoUrnal - iSSn 2009-2237 218 309 void (top layers of ditch?) t 1020 2 large piece of broken SHC 52 4 tuyère sherd 1035 9 SHC fragments 205 314 cut c313 676 1 very weathered slag block 534 1 SHC crust that seems to have been fractured and blasted, 120 (80)x35mm slightly dish-topped, base microprilly, crust to 30mm, remelted crust flown down sides in places 206 1 dense with reddish flow lobes 100 1 dense with reddish flow lobes 216 1 dense with reddish flow lobes 8 1 vitrified ceramic sample context feature weight no notes propn orig t 592 1 probable proximal end of SHC with thick crust t 498 3 SHC fragments with fairly thick crust 492 1 probable open-textured SHC fragment 818 22 assorted slag fragments 205 314 cut c313 400 1 very fine grained thick crust SHC fragment with smooth blown top t 2230 9 thick crust SHC fragments 233 1 thin crust SHC fragment - thin crust, then coralline interior 116 1 dense SHC fragment with smooth blown maroon top archaEological Excavation rEport 274 1 90x65x40mm, possible small dense SHC 100 274
  • 153. 143 sample context feature weight no notes propn orig 164 4 indeterminate slag fragments 219 329 pit c328 1840 1 (180)x(110)x60mm thick crust SHC irregular on top, bowl 45mm 50 3680 220 337 ditch c382, slot 6, 2nd 1505 1 SHC, rather weathered so probably light, 190x180x100mm (of which bowl 100 1505 dump 50mm) slightly dished top with charcoal holes, base irregular, raised on proxi- mal side with even slope into bowl iSSUE 10: Eachtra JoUrnal - iSSn 2009-2237 222 338 ditch c382, slot 6, 1st dump 1285 1 130x160x65mm slightly dished-topped very neat SHC, top smooth, base 100 1285 smooth, both with some organics 648 1 block from thin crust SHC 259 338 ditch c382, slot 6, 1st dump t 7425 1 (230)x(230)x140mm (of which bowl 90mm) very large SHC with thick crust, 90 8250 (underwater) possibly concentrically-structured on top 1140 1 fairly conventional SHC with deeply dimpled material on bowl, rising to include 70 1629 small 45° angled crust fragment within raised proximal area t 1055 1 140mm thick SHC, bowl 55mm, above is open crystalline material, thick crust SHC centre 224 2 twisted dimpled slag sheet fragments 174 bits 273 338 ditch c382, slot 6, 1st dump 3660 1 dense bowl to 60mm, 40 mm charcoal rich slag, 30mm rusty slab with dimples 75 4880 (underwater) and green glass on top (170)x170x130mm 2050 1 170x140x70mm SHC with conventional crust 20mm thick, overlain by 100 2050 charcoal-rich material with rusty, ashy dimpled top with green glass at proximal end - a really good double layer cake 273 338 ditch c382, slot 6, 1st dump 4490 1 very thick crust SHC with crudely and coarsely lobate top (to judge by raised 75 5987 (underwater) dividers?) 190x210mm fragment 100mm thick, plano-convex 273 338 ditch c382, slot 6, 1st dump t 1075 1 (130)x(120)x90mm (of which bowl 60mm) SHC with deep bowl and raised 40 2688 (underwater) proximal side archaEological Excavation rEport t 554 1 SHC fragment
  • 154. 144 sample context feature weight no notes propn orig 132 1 curved block of lining slag with large inclusions 54 7 dense flow slags sample context feature weight no notes propn orig 252 12 tuyère sherds, vitrified and some heavily slagged - one appears to show flow slags below 28 1 low density maroon slag lobe iSSUE 10: Eachtra JoUrnal - iSSn 2009-2237 328 6 SHC fragments 594 37 indeterminate slag fragments 223 339 ditch c382, slot 6, 2nd t 998 1 70mm deep plano-convex cake - all crust of typical type, top has wispy raised 40 2495 dump hollow lobes and charcoal impressions, base rough 896 1 rounded end of incredibly dense slag with large rounded voids, top dimpled and possible dimples on end too. Reminiscent of the really dense blocks at Clonfad 846 1 slab from centre of cake with thinnish crust and high-piled dense slag - total 60mm thick t 912 3 SHC fragments with fairly thick crusts 172 2 lining slag in prilly dimpled blocks - probably tongue fragments 58 1 dimpled slag lump - probably SHC fragment 578 19 open-textured coarsely crystalline slag fragments - probably upper parts of SHCs 265 339 ditch c382, slot 6, 2nd t 2055 1 looks like half a biconvex SHC, base is normal tubular-vesicular crust to 50mm, 40 5138 dump upper is strongly inclined slab of rough material - may have stopped there not arched over, leaving rest of bowl open? 40% is maximum 142 1 fragment from crust of small SHC with very large bladed olivine in crust 70 4 slag scraps 230 341 linear c340 630 1 10mm crust with 60mm irregular slag on top - probably from near the margin of a large SHC, planar dimpled base, internally the upper layers are prilly - so may be from just below tuyère? t 342 1 fragment from end of fairly conventional cake, could be from small cake archaEological Excavation rEport 82 1 lobate dense slag from near tuyère
  • 155. 145 sample context feature weight no notes propn orig 256 359 linear c372 t 684 1 edge of thick crust SHC (110)x(90)x55mm 40 1710 102 1 dense lobate slag attached to tuyère margin 22 1 slag fragment 86 1 concretion around iron 254 371 linear c370 t 1375 1 thick crust SHC fragment , crust to 40mm, but deformed so proportion not iSSUE 10: Eachtra JoUrnal - iSSn 2009-2237 clear 398 1 20mm bowl overlain by 50mm of porous slag, possibly just proximal end of SHC 622 1 possible double layer SHC, but very weathered 263 381 ditch c382, slot 6, 1st dump 2855 1 large block of vesicular slag, no real features - possibly a hot deformed SHC? t 2790 1 SHC with medium thickness crust grading up into large thickness of “coralline 80 3488 material”, top of cake missing, 180x190x80mm looks a bit deformed 110 1 vesicular slag lump 106 1 vesicular slag lump 178 1 vesicular slag lump sample context feature weight no notes propn orig 22 2 vesicular slag lump 263 381 ditch c382, slot 6, 1st dump 1935 1 140x140x80mm (of which bowl 30mm) thick crust cake with irregular crust, 50? 3870 crystal terminations on upper surface, tool mark on base 816 1 140x110x70mm (of which bowl 40mm) transverse SHC with smooth top in 100 816 strange folds to create flat hollow - very fluid, almost like tap slag on top, con- ventional below, microdimpled base 730 1 block from centre of fairly thick crust SHC, microdimpled base, coralline top, proportion unknown 858 1 folded block of grey homogeneously vesicular and coarsely crystalline slag 302 1 centre of small dense SHC with blown top archaEological Excavation rEport 372 1 thin crust fragment
  • 156. 146 sample context feature weight no notes propn orig 286 1 grey vesicular slag 14 1 grey vesicular slag 263 381 ditch c382, slot 6, 1st dump 1915 1 150x110x100mm (of which bowl 50mm) biconvex cake with slag piled high. 80 2394 Bowl has coarse crystalline top, plano-convex form, probably some deformation 812 1 block from centre of large thick crust cake 302 1 nub, half prilly slag, half porous iSSUE 10: Eachtra JoUrnal - iSSn 2009-2237 468 1 deformed SHC with very coarse grained thick crust with porous slag above 382 1 block from small thickish crust SHC 370 1 vesicular grey slag 1065 1 130x100x70mm probably complete SHC, but deformed 100 1065 788 1 block with lobate top above crust which rest on more charcoal rich material 42 1 oxidised fired ceramic 263 381 ditch c382, slot 6, 1st dump 608 1 slag attached to lower face of 200mm diameter tuyère (to judge by 60 degree part here). All oxidised fired, just turns pale in outer layer on the side, blow- hole not preserved, some appearance of curving out to bulbous tip, but may be artefact 352 1 SHC fragment 132 1 65x80x20mm, small SHC or dense tongue, plano-convex, glass lobed black top 100 132 t 1425 1 very deep SHC, 160 diameter originally, 120mm deep, 60mm bowl, flat pad of 45? 3167 lining slag on proximal side hints at contact with stone? t 3095 1 SHC with thick dense plano-convex bowl, with hollow raised lobes on top. 75? 4127 180x160mm fragment, bowl 50mm thick with up to 40mm thick pile of slag on top at proximal end and up to 10mm locally on base. Tubular vesicles, smooth blown top to lobes where seen 263 381 ditch c382, slot 6, 1st dump t 1390 1 thick crust SHC, base rather diffuse into crust (50mm?) top of crust planar with 70? 1986 crystal terminations, raised slag on one side but top of cake not seen t 446 1 crust to 35mm, piled high on top, deformed 1300 1 170x120x100mm (of which bowl 50mm) apparently biconvex SHC with slightly lobate base and charcoal rich top archaEological Excavation rEport
  • 157. 147 sample context feature weight no notes propn orig 368 1 fragment from the base of charcoal-rich slag cake, base strongly prilly 344 1 110x80x30mm small SHC with dished smooth top partly infilled proximally, 100 344 microprilly base, maroon sample context feature weight no notes propn orig 136 1 SHC margin fragment iSSUE 10: Eachtra JoUrnal - iSSn 2009-2237 t 504 1 thick crust SHC with slightly lobate top, also has extra thin crust adhering to part of base t 636 1 medium sized cake fragment with tubular vesicles 194 1 intensely blown lip to bowl - maroon surface, surface curves somewhat around edge of piece hinting it may not have been part of main bowl? 263 381 ditch c382, slot 6, 1st dump t 2685 6 fragments of typical type of thick crust SHCs, crusts variable up to 60mm 578 1 fragment of thick crust SHC showing dense flow-lobed upper layer - possibly from near tuyère or may be remelted? 2400 8 open textured slag fragments - most probably either top or edge of larger SHCs 472 1 rounded dense lump of slag 140 6 slag fragments 263 381 ditch c382, slot 6, 1st dump 3685 3 SHC broken into 3 pieces, 230x230x75mm, slightly irregular crust to about 100 3685 25mm with rather little fill in most of the big bowl, rise of charcoal-rich slag on one margin provides hint of blowing direction 90 3 scraps of slag 263 381 ditch c382, slot 6, 1st dump t 714 1 thick crust SHC lump t 1385 1 large lump from centre of thick crust SHC, crust to 50mm 304 1 irregular lump, partly prilly t 800 1 thick crust SHC fragment, crust to 60mm 1900 1 160x170x70mm, slightly palmate slag because of large underside tool-marks. 100 1900 Probably a standard SHC but blown hard and covered over most of upper sur- archaEological Excavation rEport face in very unusual maroon glaze
  • 158. 148 sample context feature weight no notes propn orig t 954 5 fragments of thick crust SHCs 263 381 ditch c382, slot 6, 1st dump t 2100 1 (160)x(150)x85mm, thick crust plano-convex base 50mm thick with tool marks 70 3000 on base, little on top 1205 2 (100)x160x50mm small SHC with fracture surface suggesting very coarse bladed 70 2008 crystals 302 1 lip from large SHC iSSUE 10: Eachtra JoUrnal - iSSn 2009-2237 224 1 dense slag lump 1105 1 120x120x70mm very irregular SHC, maybe deformed 100 1105 458 1 SHC fragment 10 1 slag scrap 263 381 ditch c382, slot 6, 1st dump t 1260 1 130x140x70mm fragment, crust 30mm , tool-marks on base, some raised lumps 40 3125 on top, flat wide SHC, proportion difficult to assess t 2040 1 thick crust (to 60mm) raised rubbly lip around SHC, rough base with large tool 50 4080 marks (130)x(120)x90mm t 694 1 cake margin fragment, top with “blisters”, thick crust below t 428 1 margin of cake, rather similar to item below, but probably deformed t 670 1 part of SHC margin, crust thins from 25mm to 0 towards edge, lip is gently dimpled, top missing internally but shows coarse coralline with large equant olivine crystals sample context feature weight no notes propn orig t 670 1 part of SHC margin, crust thins from 25mm to 0 towards edge, lip is gently dimpled, top missing internally but shows coarse coralline with large equant olivine crystals 402 1 block with10mm thick tubular-vesicular crust overlain by 60mm of more ir- regularly textured slag 263 381 ditch c382, slot 6, 1st dump 2955 1 curious block with very thick crust 60mm, with overlying rubbly open-textured slag possibly pushed off and to one side during extraction, proportion not archaEological Excavation rEport determinable
  • 159. 149 sample context feature weight no notes propn orig 764 1 slab with proximal margin of moderately dense SHC, with this continuation of main crust continuing up towards tuyère attachment. 1315 3 open-textured SHC material, two probably broken margins, from centre of SHC 263 381 ditch c382, slot 6, 1st dump t 2530 1 massive block from centre of thick crust SHC 470 1 irregular 5mm crust around bowl with highly vesicular material inside t 680 1 thick crust cake fragment iSSUE 10: Eachtra JoUrnal - iSSn 2009-2237 98 1 prilly slags attached to base of tuyère, descending to flat surface t 750 1 fragment of thick crust SHC, broken and reheated and covered in maroon glaze t 996 4 thick crust SHC fragments 246 1 rounded brown slag lump 434 11 slag fragments 263 381 ditch c382, slot 6, 1st dump t 5035 1 crust to 40mm with very large tubular vesicles, bowl fairly open, large quantity 70 7193 of material on proximal side rising 70mm above bowl top, this area has hori- zontal layers of rather prilly slag, upper surface of bowl with irregular smooth depressions and blisters in the superficial slag layer, with a top layer of 15-20 mm, base finely microdimpled - a very instructive piece t 2025 1 160x(120)x100mm (of which bowl 70mm) thick crust SHC with irregular mate- 80 2531 rial in lumps on smoothish top 263 381 ditch c382, slot 6, 1st dump t 3485 1 (170)x(150)x140mm (of which bowl 110m) SHC with incredibly thick crust 50 6972 which appears to have been two, roughly equal usage cycles, proportion difficult to assess - 50% is probably a maximum figure. Top rough. 550 8 SHC fragments 276 381 ditch c378 slot 7 assm. some magnetic slag fragments but no hammerscale 272 384 ditch c382, slot 6, 1st dump 258 1 slagged side of large tuyère with part of face, suggests 110mm height for tuyère (underwater) 1000 1 block from centre of large SHC with multi-focus crust to 20mm overlain by 50mm of porous open charcoal-rich slag archaEological Excavation rEport
  • 160. 150 sample context feature weight no notes propn orig 884 1 saucepan-shaped slag block, possibly whole squeezed SHC 100 884 706 1 worn block from centre of thick crust SHC, tool marks on base 346 1 (60)x(90)x35mm probably 70% of small conventional SHC 70 494 156 1 fragment from small conventional SHC 130 1 rounded slag lump - possibly tip of conical SHC? sample context feature weight no notes propn orig iSSUE 10: Eachtra JoUrnal - iSSn 2009-2237 266 6 dense slag with flow lobes and dimples in various shapes 142 4 slag fragments 272 384 ditch c382, slot 6, 1st dump 528 1 proximal end of very thin crust SHC, crust to 5mm, overlain by deep layer (underwater) with platy olivine crystals exposed, proximal end rusty with concentric rings of smooth blebby slag t 1365 1 large block from SHC with crust to 40mm overlain by 50mm open slag, bro- kenn in hearth and upper slag moved on extraction, proportion not identifiable 1055 1 100x120x70mm, steep-sided SHC with charcoal-rich body and slightly lobate 100 1065 top Table 1: summary catalogue by context and sample� “t” = typical SHC texture, assm = microresidue assemblage from sieving archaEological Excavation rEport
  • 161. 151 Coola- Na- Gort- Money- Carrig- Parkna- Trumra Clonmacnoise Woods- Clon- Clonfad Borris Lismore/ Ballin- murry van na- gall oran hown 5 4 (NG) town 6 macnoise (AR36) Bush- glanna hown (WWS) field 1 North 1 2 SHC count 41 17 90 22 18 89 57 258 140 38 381 88 23 65 SHC min. 60 78 114 86 92 54 68 60 154 426 86 wt iSSUE 10: Eachtra JoUrnal - iSSn 2009-2237 SHC max. 2588 2990 3450 1800 3866 2898 3163 7815 6310 5540 11000 7440 4390 9267 wt SHC mean 386 507 519 527 553 567 727 762 1060 1087 1302 1618 1737 2854 wt % 500g 83% 82% 67% 55% 72% 70% 47% 52% 40% 39% 30% 22% 4% 17% % 1000g 95% 88% 91% 95% 89% 84% 75% 78% 71% 68% 61% 41% 39% 22% % 1000g 5% 12% 9% 5% 11% 16% 25% 22% 29% 32% 39% 59% 61% 78% % 3000g 0% 0% 2% 0% 6% 0% 2% 3% 7% 8% 9% 16% 13% 42% Modal 100g 100- 100- 100- 200- 100- 400- 100- 200- 200- 300- 300- 200- 500- 300- interval 200 200 200 300 200 500 300 300 300 400 400 300 600 400 Table 2� Comparison of SHC assemblages, ordered by mean SHC weight� Assemblages ordered by mean SHC weight� Coolamurry from Young, 2008a; Navan Site 1 from Young 2007; Gortnahown 2 from Young 2009f; Moneygall from Young 2008b; Carrigoran from Young 2006; Parknahown 5 from Young 2009c; Trumra 4 from Young 2008d, Clonmacnoise New Graveyard site from the author’s work in progress; Woodstown from Young 2009d; Clonmacnoise Waste Water Scheme from Young 2005; Clonfad from Young 2009a; Borris (AR36) from Young 2009e, Lismore/Bushfield 1 from Young 2008c, Ballinglanna North 1 this study� The assemblages from Coolamurry, Navan, Moneygall, Carrigoran and Parknahown are interpreted as being dominantly blacksmithing residues� The assemblages from Gortnahown, Carrigoran, Trumra, Clonmacnoise, Woodstown, Clonfad, Borris, Lismore/Bushfield and Ballinglanna North are interpreted as including bloomsmithing residues� archaEological Excavation rEport
  • 162. iSSUE 10: Eachtra JoUrnal - iSSn 2009-2237 archaEological Excavation rEport SHC t SHC tongue lining smith indet. tuyère flow total slag slag slag 278 13635 10960 0 0 582 90 200 0 25467 338 10109 13601 0 132 0 992 252 82 25168 381 39653 34077 0 0 400 3006 650 0 77786 384 1365 4805 0 0 0 0 666 0 6836 {5005} primary 64762 63443 0 132 982 4088 1768 82 135257 dump total {5006} large dump 46782 18504 926 150 2224 2898 1062 1000 73546 [c222] {5007} intermediate 0 1028 0 20 0 408 72 262 1790 silting [c134] 129/130 5884 0 0 0 0 322 0 0 6206 130 486 2027 158 0 0 522 0 0 3193 131 0 328 0 0 0 214 0 0 542 337 0 1505 0 0 0 0 0 0 1505 339 3965 2520 172 0 0 70 0 0 6727 {5008} secondary 10335 6380 330 0 0 1128 0 0 18173 dump total Ditch context void 3320 2867 0 0 0 840 8 522 7557 314 214 (pit [c213]) 0 3350 274 0 0 176 294 82 4176 217 (pit [c213]) 0 0 0 0 0 540 0 4 544 256 ([pit [c255]) 0 0 0 0 0 634 0 328 962 {4001} metallurgical 0 3350 274 0 0 1350 294 414 5682 pits total 261 (linear [c260]) 0 182 0 0 0 26 0 0 208 265 (linear [c264]) 0 0 0 0 0 52 26 0 78 {4002}?plough fur- 0 182 0 0 0 50 26 0 258 rows total 230 (linear [c340]) 342 630 0 0 82 0 0 0 1054 254 (linear [c370]) 1375 1020 0 0 0 0 0 0 2395 256 (linear [c372]) 684 0 0 0 102 22 0 0 808 329 (pit [c328]) 0 1840 0 0 0 0 0 0 1840 {6001} {6002} 2401 3490 0 0 184 22 0 0 6097 drainage total 275 1570 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1570 285 390 366 456 0 0 58 0 0 1270 structure total 1960 366 456 0 0 58 0 0 2840152
  • 163. Ballinglanna north 1-E2414 http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/e2414-ballinglanna-north1-co-cork/ SHC t SHC tongue lining smith indet. tuyère flow total slag slag slag {3001} pits ([c277] 812 0 0 78 0 1298 44 432 2664 pit c268) 1 0 0 0 0 0 184 0 0 184 2 436 0 0 0 242 698 0 0 1376 6 0 0 116 0 0 0 0 0 116 19 0 1511 160 0 0 558 0 0 2229 162 0 0 0 46 0 232 0 196 474 309 1020 2350 0 0 0 0 52 0 3422 unstratified misc. 1456 3861 276 46 242 1672 0 196 7801 total overall totals 131828 103471 2262 426 3632 13812 3326 2908 261665Table 3: distribution of residue classes by context and context groups/subgroups� Possible fragments of iron ore and iron metal are excluded from this summary� SHC t = SHC with “typical” texture 153
  • 164. iSSUE 10: Eachtra JoUrnal - iSSn 2009-2237 archaEological Excavation rEport Appendix 8 Animal remains report by Margaret McCarthy Introduction Archaeological investigation at Ballinglanna North 1 revealed evidence of a range of features dating to the Late Bronze Age, a fulacht fiadh, the early medieval period, a sub- stantial ditch and associated metalworking area and a 19th century structure and a group of linear drainage features associated with the nearby Glencorra stream. The sample of recovered faunal material is small with the majority of the bones coming from a single pit (C331) although this collection consists entirely of indeterminate pieces of burnt bone. No animal bones were recovered from the fulacht fiadh deposits and two partial skeletons were found in pits associated with post-medieval pottery. Animal bones were found in negligible amounts in deposits within a 19th century stone structure and also in the linear drainage features. Sample sizes throughout are very small and the quantities involved do not allow for a detailed analysis of diet and economy during the late-medieval and post- medieval periods in this area of North Cork. The results are summarised below in Table 1 and are described by each context grouping identified by the excavators. Context Type No. Of Bones Medieval metalworking and ditch 83 Post-medieval animal burials 162 19th century stone structure 15 Linear features 7 Pit – C331 80 TOTAL 347 Table 1: Distribution of animal bones across the major feature groupings Medieval metalworking Three fills of the ditch extending north-south across the site and associated with medieval metalworking produced a total sample of 83 animal bones. These were mostly burnt with the largest individual sample (84%) coming from fill (C338). Identified bones from this deposit include sheep/goat, cow and domestic goose and all of the remains are totally calcined from being in contact with intense heat. Sheep/goat are represented by two lower teeth, the proximal portion of a humerus and a small piece of a scapula. The humerus is fused proximally indicating that this particular individual was at least three years of age at slaughter. There is one cattle tooth and the midshaft lateral portion of a tibio-tarsus is identified as goose, probably domestic. The remainder of the bones from this fill are not determinate to species and consist of 17 fragments from a medium-sized animal such as sheep, 18 fragments from a large-sized individual and 29 indeterminate bones. A total of 11 bones were recovered from ditch fill (C381) and all of these represent indeterminate154
  • 165. Ballinglanna north 1-E2414 http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/e2414-ballinglanna-north1-co-cork/burnt fragments. Just two weathered fragments of bone from a large-sized animal, prob-ably cow, were found in fill (C162).Animal burialsThe partial remains of an adult horse skeleton along with horseshoes and nails were re-covered from a pit (C357) that cut one of the linear features associated with the Glencorrastream. Post- medieval pottery from the fill of the burial provides possible dating evidencefor the skeleton but this may have been introduced during backfilling of the pit. The buri-al is more likely to be recent in date as it cuts one of the linear features associated with the19th century redirection of the Glencorra stream. A total of 112 bones were recovered fromthe burial pit including most of the major long bones, skull, verterbrae, ribs and periph-eral elements. The withers height of the individual was established from measurementstaken on complete long bones. A partial skeleton of a young calf was recovered fromanother pit (C320). No dating evidence was advanced for this feature though from thefresh condition of the bones, it would appear that the burial is recent in date. The remainspresumably represent a natural fatality with the calf being buried here in relatively recenttimes. A total of 50 bones were collected including loose teeth, fragmented skull, pelvesand most of the long bones and peripheral elements. None of the epiphyses have fused tothe long bones and from the size of the elements it is estimated that the individual wasless than six months of age at death.Structure 1 A small sample of just five animal bones was recovered from a modern occupation de-posit (C285) inside Structure 1. Two of these are identified as cattle long bone fragments,the remainder are not determinate to species. The foundation trench for this building alsocontained some poorly preserved fragments of bone, including a cattle tooth, the distalend of a cattle tibia, three large mammal fragments and 10 indeterminate fragments ofbone.Linear cuts – 19th century These 19th century linear trenches are interpreted as possible drainage features associ-ated with the re-direction and straightening of the Glencorra stream. A cow tooth wasrecovered from one of the linears (C354) and six eroded fragments of post-cranial bonefrom a large-sized mammal, probably cattle, were found in linear (C366/C372).Pit – C331 This pit produced one of the largest samples of animal bones from the site but the 80tiny fragments are totally calcined and none can be taken either to species level or classi-fied into a size-grouping. 155
  • 166. iSSUE 10: Eachtra JoUrnal - iSSn 2009-2237 archaEological Excavation rEport Appendix 9 Finds catalogue Clay Pipes Stems Stem (E2414:2:4) L. 18.1 mm, D. 9.4 mm. Incomplete. Stem (E2414:285:5) L. 20.07 mm, D. 6.6 mm. Incomplete. Stem (E2414:285:6) L. 23.2 mm, D. 9.3 mm. Incomplete. Stem (E2414:285:7) L. 23.5 mm, D. 7.9 mm. Incomplete. Stem (E2414:285:8) L. 21.5 mm, D. 8 mm. Incomplete. Stem (E2414:285:9) L. 24.5 mm, D. 6.7 mm. Incomplete. Stem (E2414:285:10) L. 35.7 mm, D. 9.3 mm. Incomplete. Stem (E2414:285:11) L. 41.1 mm, D. 7.9 mm. Incomplete. Stem (E2414:2:8) L. 51.6 mm, D. 9.1 mm. Incomplete. Stem (E2414:2:9) L. 27.2 mm, D. 8.1 mm. Incomplete. Stem (E2414:285:4) L. 24.2 mm, D. 10.1 mm. Incomplete. Stem (E2414:265:1) L. 27.7 mm, D. 8 mm. Incomplete. Stem (E2414:1:2) L. 42.5 mm, D. 8.5 mm. Incomplete. Stem (E2414:1:3) L. 67.5 mm, D. 10 mm. Incomplete. Flat spur present. Probable dating: 19th Century. Stem (E2414:2:5) L. 31.6 mm, D. 11.2 mm. Incomplete. Stem (E2414:2:6) L. 25.4 mm, D. 7.2 mm. Incomplete.156
  • 167. Ballinglanna north 1-E2414 http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/e2414-ballinglanna-north1-co-cork/Bowls*Bowl Fragment (E2414:48:1) L. 23.5 mm, W. 14 mm. Incomplete.Bowl Fragment (E2414:359:1) L. 37.8 mm, W. 14.6 mm, D. (of stem) 10 mm. Incom-plete. Final part of stem present. Part of the lip present. Dating: 19th Century. Cfr. Lane1997a, pag. 229.Bowl (E2414:2:7) L. 31.3 mm, W. 14.5 mm. Incomplete. Lip missing. Spur present. Itseems to be a large straight-sided spurred bowl. Probable dating: 19th Century.Bowl (E2414:297:1) L. 42.6 mm, W. 20.09 mm. Incomplete. Lip almost completely miss-ing. Flat spur present. Large bulbous bowl, trimmed on the rim. Probable dating: 19thCentury.Bowl (E2414:391:1) L. 38 mm, W. 19.1 mm. Incomplete. Lip missing. Small spur present.Large straight-sided bowl. Dating: Post-1800.* The diameter considered is the maximum diameter of the bowl. When the bowl lip ispresent the diameter is taken on the rim of the bowl.Bibliographic ReferencesLane 1997a. Lane S., Clay pipes, in “Skiddy’s Castle and Christ Church, Cork – Excavations1974-77”, Cork 1997 (pages 224-238).Lane 1997b. Lane S., Clay pipes, in “Excavations at North Gate – Cork 1994”, Cork 1997(pages 102-105).Lane 2003. Lane S., Clay pipes, in “Excavations in Cork City, 1984-2000”, Cork 2003(pages 248-251). 157
  • 168. iSSUE 10: Eachtra JoUrnal - iSSn 2009-2237 archaEological Excavation rEport Metal Finds Nails Nails (E2414:1:7) Fe. Average L. 49.5 mm., average Th. (of shank) 9.6 mm. Two incom- plete nails. Headless. Shanks straight, sub-rectangular in section. Very corroded. Nail (E2414:2:14) Fe. L. 27.5 mm., D. (of shank) 7.3 mm., D. (of head) 16.2 mm. Incom- plete (broken in 2 parts). Shank straight, sub-circular in section. Flat sub-circular head. Very corroded. Nail (E2414:2:15) Fe. L. 97.5 mm., Th. (of shank) 9 mm., D. (of head) 23.4 mm. Com- plete. Shank slightly bent, sub-rectangular in section. Sub-circular head. Very corroded. Nail (E2414:48:2) Fe. L. 26.9 mm., Th. (of shank) 7 mm., D. (of head) 15 mm. Incom- plete (final part of shank missing). Shank straight, rectangular in section. Flat sub-circu- lar head. Very corroded. Nails (E2414:162:3) Fe. Average L. 52.3 mm., average Th. (of shank) 8 mm. Three incom- plete nails. Headless. Shanks straight, rectangular in section. Very corroded. Nail (E2414:217:2) Fe. L. 43 mm., Th. (of shank) 7.8 mm., D. (of head) 17 mm. Complete. Shank straight, sub-rectangular in section. Sub-circular head. Very corroded. Conserved. Nail (E2414:221:1) Fe. L. 72.5 mm., Th. (of shank) 9.5 mm., D. (of head) 15.2 mm. Ap- parently complete. Shank straight, sub-rectangular in section. Sub-circular head. Very corroded. Conserved. Nail (E2414:285:15) Fe. L. 31.9 mm., Th. (of shank) 5.7 mm., D. (of head) 10.09 mm. Complete. Shank straight, sub-rectangular in section. Sub-circular head. Very corroded. Nail (E2414:285:16) Fe. L. 45.3 mm., Th. (of shank) 11 mm. Incomplete. Shanks straight, rectangular in section. Headless. Very corroded. Nails (E2414:285:18) Fe. Average L. 26.8 mm., average Th. (of shank) 9.1 mm. Three incomplete nails. Headless. Shanks straight, rectangular in section. Very corroded. Nails (E2414:285:19) Fe. Average L. 64.3 mm., average Th. (of shank) 13.5 mm. Three incomplete nails. Headless. Shanks straight, rectangular in section. Very corroded. Nail (E2414:332:1) Fe. L. 57.4 mm., Th. (of shank) 8.6 mm., W. (of head) 22.3 mm. Com- plete. Shanks straight, rectangular in section. Head rectangular in shape. Very corroded.158
  • 169. Ballinglanna north 1-E2414 http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/e2414-ballinglanna-north1-co-cork/Nail (E2414:338:1) Fe. L. 55.5 mm., Th. (of shank) 7.9 mm. Incomplete. Shanks straight,rectangular in section. Headless. Very corroded.Horseshoe Nails (E2414:307:2) Fe. Average L. 25.7 mm., average Th. (of shank) 6 mm.,average D. (of head) 8.4 mm. Two complete nails. Shanks straight, sub-rectangular insection. Flat sub-circular head. Very corroded.Other ObjectsMetal fragments (E2414:132:2) Fe. Average L. 21 mm., average Th. 7.3 mm. Two frag-ments, possible bronze. Irregular in shape. Corroded.Casting mold (E2414:132:3) Fe. Average L. 44.45 mm., average Th. 22.1 mm. Two frag-ments, possible bronze. Irregular in shape. Corroded.Disc (E2414:u/s:2) Pb. D. 24.3 mm., Th. 2.9 mm. Complete. Circular in shape andslightly corroded. Possible seal or gaming piece? Conserved.Bar (E2414:2:18) Fe. L. 60.09 mm., W. 12.6 mm., Th. 6.1 mm. Sub-rectangular in shape.Very corroded.Iron ring (E2414:1:5) Fe. Maximum D. 42 mm., minimum D. 21 mm. Complete. Sub-circular in section. Corroded.Iron Chain (E2414:u/s:3) Fe. L. 220.7 mm., W. 30 mm., D. (of rings) 6.7 mm. Incom-plete. Part of chain. Three links present. Rings sub-elliptical in shape and circular insection. Corroded.Horseshoe (E2414:307:3) Fe. L. 160.5 mm., W. 150.1 mm., Th. 17.5 mm. Complete. Verycorroded.Horseshoe (E2414:307:4) Fe. L. 160.2 mm., W. 140.9 mm., Th. 15 mm. Complete. Verycorroded.Lumps (E2414:1:5) Fe. Average D. 38.4 mm. Three iron lumps sub-circular in shape.Corroded.Lump (E2414:2:1) Fe. L. 38.3 mm., Th. 23.2 mm. Sub-rectangular in shape. Slightlycorroded.Lump (E2414:2:13) Fe. L. 38.3 mm., Th. 23.2 mm. Sub-rectangular in shape. Corroded. 159
  • 170. iSSUE 10: Eachtra JoUrnal - iSSn 2009-2237 archaEological Excavation rEport Lumps (E2414:2:16) Fe. Average L. 55.5 mm., average W. 22.5 mm., average Th. 14 mm. Two iron lumps sub-rectangular in shape. Very corroded. Lump (E2414:242:1) Fe. D. 22.6 mm. Sub-circular in shape. Corroded. Lump (E2414:285:14) Fe. D. 36 mm. Sub-circular in shape. Corroded. Iron Tool (E2414:162:2) Fe. L. 150.7 mm., W. 110.4 mm., Th. 11.4 mm. Incomplete. Possible part of an agricultural tool of some kind. Sub-triangular in shape with a hook on the top. Slightly bent. Very corroded. Iron Knife (E2414:214:3) Fe. L. 61.8 mm., W. 16.6 mm., Th. 7.5 mm. Incomplete. Pos- sible blade. Sub-rectangular in shape. Very corroded. Conserved Iron Wedge (E2414:222:1) Fe. L. 80 mm., Th. 40.08 mm. Sub-rectangular in shape. Probable part of a tool. Corroded. Conserved Iron Wedge (E2414:359:2) Fe. L. 61.33 mm., Th. 10.71 mm. Sub-rectangular in shape. Probable part of a tool. Conserved. Iron Blade (E2414:286:1) Fe. L. 51.97 mm., Th. 01.61 mm., L. 29.61 mm., Th. 02.53mm., L. 17.28 mm., Th. 11.59mm. Sub-rectangular in shape. Three fragments. Conserved. Iron Object (E2414:265:2) Fe. L. 57.7 mm., W. 13 mm., Th. 8.4 mm. Possible blade frag- ment. Sub-rectangular in shape. Very corroded. Iron Object (E2414:285:17) Fe. L. 56 mm., W. 13.9 mm., Th. 10.05 mm. Possible blade fragment. Sub-rectangular in shape. Very corroded. Iron Object (E2414:285:20) Fe. L. 67 mm., W. 21.6 mm., Th. 8.4 mm. Possible blade fragment. Sub-rectangular in shape. Very corroded. Iron Object (E2414:285:21) Fe. L. 67 mm., W. 21.6 mm., Th. 8.4 mm. Possible horseshoe fragment. Sub-rectangular in section, bent and slightly U-shaped. Very corroded. Blade (E2414:314:1) Fe. L.72.30 mm., W. 18.18 mm., Th.4.81 mm. Possible knife. In- complete. Triangular blade. Conserved. Modern Glass A total of 6 glass fragments were found on site. Three of them (E2414:1:1, E2414:2:1-2) and a bottle neck (E2414:2:3) presumably belong to the same bottle (col.5GY 4/1). An-160
  • 171. Ballinglanna north 1-E2414 http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/e2414-ballinglanna-north1-co-cork/other fragment (col.5G 6/2) from C.285 is a possible glass bottom. Part of a blue glassbottle neck was also recovered from C.371. They can all be considered modern (18th/19thCentury).Modern PotteryThirty modern pottery sherd in total were recovered from site.Glazed red earthenwareTen sherds in total.Three body sherds and one rim sherd from topsoil (C.1). One bowl rim sherd and onebody sherd from C.2. Two handles from C.285. One body sherd from C.296. Two pos-sible plate fragments from C.322. One body sherd from C.327.PearlwareTwo sherds in total.One handle from C.2. One plate rim sherd from C.391.CreamwareOnly one rim sherd from C.285 (crem and brown slip).Decorated slipwareTwo sherds in total.One body sherd from C.2, decorated with a leaves motif in pink and light green. One rimsherd from C.285.StonewareTwo sherds in total.One cup handle from C.285. One body sherd from C.296.Transfer printed wareEleven sherds in total.Three body sherds from C.1, decorated in brown. Three body sherds from C.285, deco-rated in brown, green and purple. Four plate body sherds in blue decoration from C.307.One body sherd from C.391.Salt glazed wareTwo sherds in total.One base sherd and one body sherd from C.162. 161
  • 172. iSSUE 10: Eachtra JoUrnal - iSSn 2009-2237 archaEological Excavation rEport Co.No. Find No. Type Dating Form 1 4 Glazed Red Earthenware (x4) 18th/19th Bowl Transfer Printed Ware (x3) 19th/20th Plate 2 11 Glazed Red Earthenware (x2) 18th/19th Bowl 12 Pearlware 19th Cup Decorated Slipware 19th Plate/Cup 162 1 Salt Glazed Ware (x2) 20th Jugs? 263 1 Glazed Red Earthenware 18th/19th Bowl 285 12 Glazed Red Earthenware 18th/19th Jugs 13 Decorated Slipware 19th Plate Transfer Printed Ware (x3) 19th/20th Plate Creamware 19th Cup Stoneware L19th/20th Cup 296 1 Glazed Red Earthenware 18th/19th Bowl Stoneware L19th/20th Plate? 307 1 Transfer Printed Ware (x4) 19th/20th Plate 322 1 Glazed Red Earthenware (x2) 18th/19th Plate? 327 2 Glazed Red Earthenware 18th/19th Plate 391 2 Pearlware 19th Plate Transfer Printed Ware 19th/20th Plate162

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