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Excavation Report of archaeological site at Mackney, Co. Galway. A group of Bronze Age pits, post-holes and stake-holes.

Excavation Report of archaeological site at Mackney, Co. Galway. A group of Bronze Age pits, post-holes and stake-holes.

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    Archaeological Excavation Report - E2445 Mackney, Co. Galway Archaeological Excavation Report - E2445 Mackney, Co. Galway Document Transcript

    • Issue 2 [ISSN 2009-2237] Archaeological Excavation Report E2445 - Mackney, Co. Galway Group of Bronze Age pits, post-holes and stake-holes
    • Archaeological Excavation Report, Mackney, Co. Galway Group of Bronze Age pits, post-holes and stake-holes June 2009 Client: Roads Design Office, Galway County Council E No.: E2445 Ministerial Order: A024/32 Licensee: John Tierney Contact details: The Forge, Innishannon, Co. Cork. Written by: David Fallon Tel.: 021 470 16 16 John Tierney Fax: 021 470 16 28 E-mail: info@eachtra.ie Web Site: www.eachtra.ie
    • E2445 | A024/32 Mackney, Co. Galway ISSUE 2: Eachtra Journal - ISSN 2009-2237 Table of Contents i Summary ............................................................................................................ iv ii Acknowledgements ............................................................................................. iv 1 Introduction ........................................................................................................1 2 Site Location, Topography and Soils ....................................................................1 3 Background to the Development .........................................................................1 4 Archaeological and Historical Background .........................................................2 4.1 Prehistoric period ...............................................................................................2 5 Results of Excavation ...........................................................................................4 5.1 Hearth ...............................................................................................................4 5.2 Post-holes ...........................................................................................................5 5.3 Burnt soil spread ................................................................................................5 5.4 The pits ..............................................................................................................5 5.5 Isolated pits ........................................................................................................6 5.6 Lithics ................................................................................................................6 5.7 Charred plant remains .......................................................................................6 5.8 Charcoal ...........................................................................................................6 5.9 Radiocarbon dates..............................................................................................7 6 Interpretation ......................................................................................................7 7 Bibliography ........................................................................................................9 7.1 Websites ............................................................................................................10 8 Figures ................................................................................................................11 9 Plates .................................................................................................................. 15 10 Appendices .........................................................................................................18 10.1 Appendix 1: Stratigraphic Register ...................................................................19 10.2 Appendix 2: Stratigraphic Matrix .....................................................................26 10.3 Appendix 3: Groups and sub-groups text .........................................................27 Permalink: http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/e2445-mackney-co-galway/ iii
    • E2445 | A024/32 Mackney, Co. Galway ISSUE 2: Eachtra Journal - ISSN 2009-2237 Table of contents cont. 10.4 Appendix 4: Lithics Finds Report for E2445 Mackney .....................................32 10.5 Appendix 5: Plant remains analysis .................................................................34 10.6 Appendix 6: Charcoal analysis ........................................................................36 List of Figures Figure 1: Discovery series OS map showing the route of the new N6 Galway to Ballinasloe road (Contract 4) and the location of all excavation sites .............................................................. 11 Figure 2: The route of the new N6 Galway to Ballinasloe road (Contract 4) overlaid on the 1st edition OS map..................................................................................................................... 12 Figure 3: The route of the new N6 Galway to Ballinasloe road (Contract 4) overlaid on the RMP map ............................................................................................................................. 13 Figure 4: Figure 4: Post-excavation plan of the Bronze Age site at Mackney.......................... 14 List of Plates Plate 1: Working shot of site, facing W ................................................................................ 15 Plate 2: Post-excavation of hearth (C001), facing NE ........................................................... 15 Plate 3: Post-excavation of Bronze Age rubbish pit (C019), facing N ................................... 16 Plate 4: Mid-excavation of stone-lined post hole (C034), showing in-situ lining, Facing E .. 16 Figure 5: Saddle quern from the fill of pit C.93 (E2445:92:1) Photo: John Sunderland. ........ 17 Permalink: http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/e2445-mackney-co-galway/ iv
    • E2445 | A024/32 Mackney, Co. Galway ISSUE 2: Eachtra Journal - ISSN 2009-2237 i Summary The site excavated at Mackney E2445 represented the remains of Middle to late Bronze Age occupation, with potential evidence for a structure made from timber uprights. The excavated features included a hearth, post-holes and pits. There were no artefacts from the site to com- plement the interpretation of the archaeological features. This is one of five sites dating to the Bronze Age that were found by Eachtra Archaeological Projects during work on Contract 4 of the N6 Galway to Ballinasloe new road. Their existence indicates widespread settlement in the area during the Bronze Age, with a potential focus of local activity in the catchment area of the river Suck. Townland Mackney Civil Parish Clontuskert Barony Clonmacnowen County Galway Ministerial Order no. A024/32 E no. E2445 OS Map Sheet GA 87 National Grid Reference 183704 229507 Elevation 50 m OD Site type Bronze Age settlement ii Acknowledgements The excavation director was John Tierney and the senior supervisor was Mick Drumm. Field crew included Lesley Davidson, Joanna Pilszyk, Amanda Boechler, Rafal Wolanski and Luke Ryalls. Illustrations are by Ben Blakeman, Lesley Davidson, Enda O’Mahony and Robin Turk. Report compilation was by Anluan Dunne. Specialist analysis was carried out by Mary Dillon, Farina Sternke and the 14 Chrono Centre at Queen’s University Belfast. The project was commissioned by Galway County Council and was funded the National Roads Author- ity under the National Development Plan (2000-2006). The project archaeologist was Jerry O’Sullivan and the assistant project archaeologist was Martin Jones. Permalink: http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/e2445-mackney-co-galway/ v
    • E2445 | A024/32 Mackney, Co. Galway ISSUE 2: Eachtra Journal - ISSN 2009-2237 1 Introduction This report comprises the final excavation report for a prehistoric settlement site found at Mackney, Co. Galway during archaeological testing within the lands acquired for the new N6 Galway to Ballinasloe dual carriageway road scheme (O’Donoghue et al. 2006, Figure 1). The site comprised a large hearth, a spread of burnt soil, 13 pits and five post-holes. Charcoal from the site yielded two Middle to Late Bronze Age radiocarbon dates. 2 Site Location, Topography and Soils The site was located in the townland of Mackney at NGR 183704 229507 on the western outskirts of modern day Ballinsaloe. The site is situated within a gently undulating glacial landscape overlooking the valley of the River Suck c. 4 km to the east. The land is used as open pastureland and there are isolated areas of peat. The solid bedrock is Middle to Upper Carboniferous Limestones, with Calp Limestones predominating in the area of this site. The Quaternary deposits in the region are undulating glacial drift with some post-glacial peat and alluvial deposits. Trial pitting for the Environmental Impact Assessment report indicated that the subsoil in the area of this site at Mackney was sandy till. Much of the site was located in land that was relatively low-lying and prone to flooding (Plate 1). It was located on soils classified as grey brown podzolics, with associated brown earths, gleys and basin peat. These soils have a moderately wide use range and are good for cereal, fruit and vegetable cultivation (Gardiner & Radford 1980). At the time of excavation the land was in pasture enclosed by drystone field boundaries of 18th or 19th century date. 3 Background to the Development The excavation was undertaken by Eachtra Archaeological Projects for Galway County Council and the National Roads Authority and forms part of wider archaeological excavation programme undertaken by Eachtra within approximately 15 km of the proposed N6 Galway to Ballinasloe dual carriageway scheme (Contract 4, Figures 1-3). Permalink: http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/e2445-mackney-co-galway/ 1
    • E2445 | A024/32 Mackney, Co. Galway ISSUE 2: Eachtra Journal - ISSN 2009-2237 4 Archaeological and Historical Background 4.1 Prehistoric period Mesolithic material has now been identified from a small number of sites in western Con- nacht and in particular material has been identified on the major river and lake systems. Lough Corrib stands out as a centre of outstanding importance for looking at both Mesolith- ic settlement and the Mesolithic/Neolithic transition (Gibbons et al. 2004). The artefactual location bias suggests that the Lough Corrib catchment area was a population centre in the later Mesolithic period. The finding of a Bann flake at Oranmore confirms that there was a human presence to the east of the Corrib in the late Mesolithic. No definite Mesolithc site has as yet been identified in east Galway but there are flint artefacts that probably date to the Mesolithic from burnt mound sites excavated by Eachtra Archaeological Projects at Barnac- ragh (E2446) and Urraghry (E2449). The Neolithic or new stone age began around 4000 BC when the first farmers came in search of pasture for their livestock and arable land in which to grow their grain. Ireland was then heavily forested so it was necessary for these farmers to engage in forest clearance. This they did with polished stone axeheads hafted in wooden handles. A number of stone axes have been recovered from along the valley of the river Suck and around the Ballinasloe area in general (Henry 1992, 37-38), indicating activity in the area during the Neolithic. The Neolithic period also saw new developments in ritual activity, in particular the build- ing of megalithic tombs. Only seven Neolithic tombs are recorded for the whole of north Galway (as defined by Vol 2 of the Archaeological inventory of Co. Galway), which includes the barony of Clonmacowen, and these are limited to court tombs and wedge tombs (Alcock et al. 1999, 1). There is no published inventory for south Galway. No megalithic tombs are recorded from the area around Balinasloe and Aughrim; the closest concentration is a group of four tombs identified around the limestone plains of Monivea. The erection of large more or less unhewn stones, often in prominent locations, was a wide- spread custom in prehistoric Ireland and elsewhere in western Europe. These take the form of stone circles, stone rows, stone pairs and single or isolated standing stones. Single standing stones may have had a wide variety of uses ranging from route or boundary markers to burial memorials. Two standing stones (RMP GA098:031 and GA087:023) are located around Aughrim, one of which is reputed to be associated with a stone axehead (Alcock et al. 1999, Permalink: http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/e2445-mackney-co-galway/ 2
    • E2445 | A024/32 Mackney, Co. Galway ISSUE 2: Eachtra Journal - ISSN 2009-2237 17). During the Bronze Age metal was extracted and worked for the first time. Bronze Age axes and a dagger have been found in the area round Ballinasloe and a bronze spear head (NMI 1986:19) and dirk (NMI 1986:16) were recovered from the river Suck during drainage opera- tions in the 1880s (information from the National Museum of Ireland Topographical files). Underwater investigation of the site of Correen Ford, on the river Suck, identified a Late Bronze Age sword which was found close to a portion of a pottery vessel, perhaps of the same age (Kelly 1989). Coreen Ford was probably one of the main crossing points on the Suck in prehistory and early history. A variety of burial monuments date to the Bronze Age period, including cairns, tumuli and barrows. A cairn is a mound of stone often used to cover burials, and a tumulus is a mound of earth used for the same purpose. Barrows are burial monuments which usually consist of a circular central area, which may be flat or slightly dished (a ring ditch), or domed (a ring barrow), and which is enclosed by a ditch and occasionally by an external bank. Excavated Bronze Age burials include interments in cists, in pits lined with stone flags, and in simple pits, some of which were accompanied by pottery or other grave goods. These can be placed in tumuli, cairns or barrows, but can also be set within ‘natural’ monuments, such as sand ridges, or can appear in flat cemeteries, with no above ground marker at all (Waddell 1990, 1). A total of 22 cairns and tumuli, 10 isolated cist and pit graves and 31 barrows are known from north Galway (Alcock et al. 1999, 4 & 12). A significant concentration of Early Bronze Age features can be recognised in the area between Athenry, Tuam and Headford; however, very few burials or cairns have been identified in the areas around Ballinasloe and Aughrim. The most common Bronze Age monuments are burnt mounds. They are represented by small mounds of burnt stone, which were fired in order to heat water in a pit dug into a marshy area, the stones being discarded once they had cooled. The function of these monuments has been the source of much debate with various theories being expounded including cooking, washing and relaxation. Three burnt mounds have been excavated by Eachtra Archaeologi- cal Projects during the course of the present excavation programme: at Barnacragh (E2446), Cooltymurraghy (E2448) and Urraghry (E2449). Bronze Age dates were retrieved from a possible settlement site in Mackney townland (E2443) and this present site, again in Mack- Permalink: http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/e2445-mackney-co-galway/ 3
    • E2445 | A024/32 Mackney, Co. Galway ISSUE 2: Eachtra Journal - ISSN 2009-2237 ney townland (E2445), also revealed evidence associated with Bronze Age settlement. These are important additions to the recorded prehistoric landscape in east Galway. We know almost nothing of Irish Iron Age settlement and burial outside the major complexes of royal ritual sites and a small number of burial sites that may be Iron Age in date. Deficien- cies in our knowledge of the settlements and habitations of ordinary people are so marked that Raftery referred to the majority of the population as the ‘invisible people’ (1994, 112). The majority of the evidence for the Iron Age period consists of finds of La Tène decorated metalwork and some pieces of stone sculpture. Examples of La Tène artefacts/monuments from east Galway include the Turoe Stone located close to Loughrea and a Late La Tène metal artefact found at. Rahally hillfort. This hillfort was excavated along the route of the new N6 Galway to Ballinalsoe road (Contract 3) and the evidence indicates settlement in prehistoric and medieval times (Mullins in progress). Iron Age radiocarbon dates were ob- tained from excavations at an enclosure site at Loughbown 2, also excavated along the route of the new N6 Galway to Ballinasloe road (Contract 4). However, medieval dates were also obtained from Loughbown 2 and the exact nature of occupation at the site during the Iron Age is uncertain. 5 Results of Excavation This site comprised a large hearth, a spread of burnt soil, 13 pits, three large stone-lined post-holes and two smaller post-holes. These were found within an area of excavation that measured 571 sq m (Figure 4). An un-stratified chert chunk was originally interpreted as an artefact but specialist examination indicated that it was natural. There were no artefacts from the site. Archaeological activity was concentrated to the west, north-west and south-west of the large hearth. Detailed results are available in the context register (Appendix 1), the stratigraphic matrix (Appendix 2), the groups and sub-groups text (Appendix 3), the finds register (Appendix 4) and specialist results (Appendices 5-7). The following is an interpreta- tive summary. 5.1 Hearth The hearth (C.1) was found within a large pit that measured 2.5 m long, 2.0 m wide and 0.45 m deep (Plate 2). It had moderately sloping sides and a shallow concave base. The basal Permalink: http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/e2445-mackney-co-galway/ 4
    • E2445 | A024/32 Mackney, Co. Galway ISSUE 2: Eachtra Journal - ISSN 2009-2237 fill (C.79) was confined to the eastern half of the pit and was overlain by a charcoal-flecked deposit (C.71) that was 0.1 m deep. The main fill (C.2) was 0.2 m deep and it contained oc- casional charcoal flecks. Hazel charcoal from this context yielded a Middle to Late Bronze Age radiocarbon date of cal BC 1117-915 (UB-7355). There was evidence for in situ scorching of the edges of the pit. 5.2 Post-holes A total of five post-holes (C.5, C.34, C.39, C.42 and C.49) were found in the area around the hearth. On average these measured 0.73 m long, 0.55 m wide and 0.24 m deep. There was evidence for stone packing in three of the post-holes; C.34, C.39 and C.42 (see Plate 4). The fact that stone packing was still in place indicates that these posts must have rotted in situ, as removal of the posts would have disturbed the packing. Three post-holes (C.5, C.42 and C.34) were positioned in a straight line to the south-west of the hearth. These may form the partial remains of a wall or structure that surrounded or shielded the hearth. 5.3 Burnt soil spread A spread of burnt soil (C.12/C.83) was found 2.5 m to the west of the hearth, outside the line of post-holes. It was characterized by evidence for scorching, a concentration of charcoal flecks and very small fragments of burnt stone. This was interpreted as hearth rake-out and it measured 4.4 m north to south and 2.6 m east to west. 5.4 The pits A total of 10 pits (C.3, C.13, C.15, C.17, C.19, C.32, C.39, C.47, C.49 and C.90) were found in the area around the hearth (see Plate 3 for an example). On average these measured 1.07 m long, 0.87 m wide and 0.35 m deep. There were no finds from these pits and there was little indication of their original use. The fill of one of the pits (pit C.13, fill C.14) produced hazel charcoal which yielded a Middle to Late Bronze Age radiocarbon date cal BC 1114-919 (UB-7356), demonstrating that use of the pits was contemporary with use of the hearth. Some of the pits may represent disturbed post-holes. For example the pits C.3 and C.32 were found along the same line as the post-holes by the hearth (C.5, C.34 and C.42) and they may have formed part of a wall or structure. Permalink: http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/e2445-mackney-co-galway/ 5
    • E2445 | A024/32 Mackney, Co. Galway ISSUE 2: Eachtra Journal - ISSN 2009-2237 Three pits (C.39, C.49 and C.90) were found in close proximity to the hearth. These may also have originally been post-holes, perhaps acting as internal supports in a structure. Alterna- tively, they may simply represent hearth furniture. There were five external pits (C.13, C.15, C.17, C.19 and C.47) located c. 1 m outside the wall, to the south-west. These may have been associated with any external activities arising during occupation of the possible structure. Two of the pits (C.13 and C.19) cut the occupa- tion surface (C.12/C.83). 5.5 Isolated pits A total of three pits (C.85, C.86 and C.88) were located in the north-west corner, c. 5 m from the main area of activity. There was no evidence for a relationship between these pits and the other archaeological features discovered at the site. The function of these pits is obscure, although the retrieval of 100% oak charcoal from one of the pits (C.88) suggests that this is the remains of an oak post that burnt in situ (see Appendix 7). 5.6 Lithics One lithic find from the site was examined by Farina Sternke (Appendix 5). Although origi- nally interpreted as a flint blade, this was in fact one natural chunk of chert, retrieved from the topsoil, and of no archaeological significance. A stone fragment identified as part of a saddle quern was also retrieved (Plate 5). 5.7 Charred plant remains A total of 29 samples from this site were examined by Mary Dillon (Appendix 6). Only one sample produced charred plant remains, an indeterminate nut shell fragment. 5.8 Charcoal Charcoal from this site was identified by Mary Dillon (Appendix 7). A total of 10 samples were examined and the most frequent charcoal type was oak followed in descending fre- Permalink: http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/e2445-mackney-co-galway/ 6
    • E2445 | A024/32 Mackney, Co. Galway ISSUE 2: Eachtra Journal - ISSN 2009-2237 quency by hazel, apple type, ash, sloe/cherry/plum, alder, yew and willow/aspen. 5.9 Radiocarbon dates Radiocarbon analysis was carried out by the 14 Chrono Centre in Queen’s University Belfast. Dates were calibrated using Calib Rev5.0.2 (©1986-2005 M. Stuiver & P.J. Reimer) and in conjunction with Stuiver & Reimer 1993 and using calibration data set Intcal04.14c (Reimer et al. 2004). Lab. Context Sample Material Years BP δ 13 1 sigma 2 sigma Period code (charcoal) C calibrated calibrated date date UB- 2 (hearth) 27 Hazel, 2842 ± -27.0 cal BC Middle 7355 7 frags, 35 BP cal BC 1117-915 - Late 0.58g 1048-971 Bronze 960-934 Age UB- 14 (pit) 16 Hazel, 2844 ± -25.0 cal BC Middle 7356 22 frags, 32 BP cal BC 1114-919 - Late 1.8g 1048-972 Bronze 959-937 Age 6 Interpretation This site comprised a cluster of prehistoric features, including a hearth, a burnt soil spread, pits and post-holes. The features represented the partial remains of a Bronze Age occupation site. A line of posts (C.5, C.42 and C.34) may have formed a wall and another two pits (C.3 and C.32) also found along this line may represent disturbed post-holes. If these features formed part of a wall they were located c. 1 m from the edge of the hearth. It is possible that the structural features around the hearth represent the partial remains of a building and radi- ocarbon dates indicate a period of occupation in the Middle to Late Bronze Age. As the post- holes are set in a straight line it appears that they could form part of a rectangular building. This is relatively unusual because circular structures were the norm by the Middle Bronze Age (Doody 2000, 137; Doody 2007, 91). However, some examples of rectilinear houses are known and Doody (2007, 92) estimates that these account for 16% of the excavated Middle Bronze Age house sites. Alternatively, the features define a roughly circular occupation space, and this is a more common floor plan for domestic structures in the Irish Bronze Age. The enclosing elements may not have survived because they did not cut the subsoil. For example, they could have been made from sod or from canvas. Permalink: http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/e2445-mackney-co-galway/ 7
    • E2445 | A024/32 Mackney, Co. Galway ISSUE 2: Eachtra Journal - ISSN 2009-2237 Recent excavations along the new N6 Galway to Ballinasloe road (Contracts 1-4) indicate that Bronze Age activity in the area was widespread. Burnt mounds were found in all sectors of the new road, but ritual sites such as cremations and burials were only found in the middle sectors of the road (including Newford, Deerpark, Curragh More, Carrowkeel, Ballykeeran, Cross, Rathglass, Treanbaun I and Treanbaun III). Evidence for domestic occupation was rare and this site at Mackney E2445 is one of the few examples. In this respect the pattern from the N6 Galway to Ballinasloe mirrors the general record of the Irish Bronze Age, where ritual sites are more widely recognised than domestic sites (Doody 2007, 97). There are rela- tively few excavated Bronze Age occupation sites in County Galway. A search of the online excavations database for 1970-2003 (www.excavations.ie) revealed a few potential sites such as the two Bronze Age midden sites excavated at Omey Island and False Bay, Truska, stone remains of structures possibly dating to the Early Bronze Age at Lettershea and Late Bronze Age stone hut sites excavated at Dún Aonghasa. The excavations database suggests therefore that Mackney E2445 is the first record of a Bronze Age building made from timber uprights in the county. This site is one of five Bronze Age sites excavated by Eachtra Archaeological Projects within 6.5 km along the route of the new road covered by Contract 4. These included burnt mound sites at Urraghry, Cooltymurraghy and Barnacragh and another site with ephemeral traces of Bronze Age occupation at Mackney E2443. These sites are broadly within the catchment zone of the river Suck and they indicate widespread use of this part of the landscape during the Bronze Age. Permalink: http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/e2445-mackney-co-galway/ 8
    • E2445 | A024/32 Mackney, Co. Galway ISSUE 2: Eachtra Journal - ISSN 2009-2237 7 Bibliography Alcock, O., de hOra, K. and Gosling, P. 1999 Archaeological Inventory of County Galway, Vol. 2 North Galway. Dublin, The Stationery Office. Bennett, I. (ed.) 2006 Excavations 2003. Bray, Wordwell. Doody, M. 2007 Excavations at Curraghatoor, Co. Tipperary. Cork, UCC Department of Archaeology Archaeological Monograph. Doody, M. 2000 Bronze Age houses in Ireland, in Desmond, A., Johnson, G., McCarthy, M., Sheehan, J. and Shee Twohig, E. New Agendas in Irish Prehistory. Bray, Wordwell. Gardiner, M.J. and Radford, T. 1980 Soil Associations of Ireland and Their Land Use Potential. Dublin, An Foras Talúntais. Gibbons, M., Gibbons, M. and Higgins, J. 2004 Mapping the Mesolithic in western Connacht, IQUA Newsletter 32, 4-7. Henry, M. 1992 Prehistoric Life in Co. Galway: A Distributional Analysis, Journal of the Galway Hist and Archaeol Society, Vol. 44 (1992), 29-46. Kelly, E.P. 1989 Ford, in Bennett, I. (ed.) Excavations 1989. Bray, Wordwell. Mullins, G. In progress Rahally, in Bennett, I. (ed.) Excavations 2006. O’Donoghue, J., Tierney, J. and Doolan, A. 2006 N6 Galway to Ballinasloe test excavations report, Centreline testing 4.0, Contract 4 Cloghagalla Eighter Co. Galway to Beagh, Co. Roscommon. Unpublished report for Eachtra Archaeological Projects submitted to the Department of Environment, Heritage and Local Government. Raftery, B. 1994 Pagan Celtic Ireland: the enigma of the Irish Iron Age. London, Thames and Hudson. Reimer, P.J., Baillie, M.G.L., Bard, E., Bayliss, A., Beck, J.W., Bertrand, C., Blackwell, P.G., Buck, C.E., Burr, G., Cutler, K.B., Damon, P.E., Edwards, R.L., Fairbanks, R.G., Friedrich, M., Guilderson, T.P., Hughen, K.A., Kromer, B., McCormac, F.G., Manning, S., Bronk Ramsey, C., Reimer, R.W., Remmele, S., Southon, J.R., Stuiver, M., Talamo, S., Taylor, F.W., van der Plicht, J. and Weyhenmeyer, C.E. 2004 Permalink: http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/e2445-mackney-co-galway/ 9
    • E2445 | A024/32 Mackney, Co. Galway ISSUE 2: Eachtra Journal - ISSN 2009-2237 IntCal04 Terrestrial Radiocarbon Age Calibration, 0–26 Cal Kyr BP, Radiocarbon 46, 1029-1058. Waddell, J. 1990 The Bronze Age Burials of Ireland. Galway. Stuiver, M., and Reimer, P.J. 1993 Extended (super 14) C data base and revised CALIB 3.0 (super 14) C age calibration program, Radiocarbon 35, 215-230. 7.1 Websites Database of Irish excavations www.excavations.ie Permalink: http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/e2445-mackney-co-galway/ 10
    • 8 E2445 | A024/32 Figures Mackney, Co. Galway Mackney Masonry, pits & ditches Coololla Aughrim battlefield 1691: Luttrel’s Pass Urraghry Burnt mound Permalink: http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/e2445-mackney-co-galway/ Loughbown I Ringfort (site of ) & forge Coololla Lime kiln & Linen mill Mackney Ringfort with skeletal remains Cooltymurraghy Burnt mound Mackney Pits & saddle quern Loughbown II Barnacragh Ringfort (site of ) Burnt mound Pollboy & Tulrush Underwater survey at Suck crossing Figure 1: Discovery series OS map showing the route of the new N6 Galway to Ballinasloe road (Contract 4) and the location of all excavation sites ISSUE 2: Eachtra Journal - ISSN 2009-2237 11
    • E2445 | A024/32 E2449 A024/36 Urraghy Burnt mound Mackney, Co. Galway E2442 A024/09 Loughbown I Ringfort & forge E2447 A024/34 Coololla Lime kiln & forge Permalink: http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/e2445-mackney-co-galway/ E2448 A024/35 Cooltymurraghy Burnt mound E2054 A024/21 Loughbown II E2446 A024/33 Ringfort Barnacragh Burnt mound Figure 2: The route of the new N6 Galway to Ballinasloe road (Contract 4) overlaid on the 1st edition OS map ISSUE 2: Eachtra Journal - ISSN 2009-2237 12
    • E2442 A024/09 E2445 | A024/32 Loughbown I Ringfort & forge E2443 A024/31 Mackney E2447 A024/34 Pits & ditches Coololla Lime kiln & forge E2449 A024/36 Urraghy Burnt mound E2444 A024/10 E2448 A024/35 Mackney Mackney, Co. Galway Cooltymurraghy Ringfort with skeletal remains Burnt mound E2445 A024/32 E2054 A024/21 Mackney Loughbown II Pits Ringfort E2446 A024/33 Barnacragh Burnt mound Permalink: http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/e2445-mackney-co-galway/ Legend Canal Folly Togher Earthwork Field system Burial Ground/Graveyard Ecclesiastical Site/Holy well Castle/Tower Stone Group/Inscibed Stone Ringfort Enclosure Motte Monument 0 Km 2 Km Figure 3: The route of the new N6 Galway to Ballinasloe road (Contract 4) overlaid on the RMP map ISSUE 2: Eachtra Journal - ISSN 2009-2237 13
    • N E2445 | A024/32 Limit of excavation Mackney, Co. Galway C.86 C.85 C.34 C.88 C.32 C.39 C.42 C.93 Permalink: http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/e2445-mackney-co-galway/ C.13 C.1 C.3 C.19 C.49 C.90 C.17 C.5 C.15 Key Pit Hearth 1m 0 5m Post-hole Burnt Soil Spread Figure 4: Figure 4: Post-excavation plan of the Bronze Age site at Mackney ISSUE 2: Eachtra Journal - ISSN 2009-2237 14
    • E2445 | A024/32 Mackney, Co. Galway ISSUE 2: Eachtra Journal - ISSN 2009-2237 9 Plates Plate 1: Working shot of site, facing W Plate 2: Post-excavation of hearth (C001), facing NE Permalink: http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/e2445-mackney-co-galway/ 15
    • E2445 | A024/32 Mackney, Co. Galway ISSUE 2: Eachtra Journal - ISSN 2009-2237 Plate 3: Post-excavation of Bronze Age rubbish pit (C019), facing N Plate 4: Mid-excavation of stone-lined post hole (C034), showing in-situ lining, Facing E Permalink: http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/e2445-mackney-co-galway/ 16
    • E2445 | A024/32 Mackney, Co. Galway ISSUE 2: Eachtra Journal - ISSN 2009-2237 Figure 5: Saddle quern from the fill of pit C.93 (E2445:92:1) Photo: John Sunderland. Permalink: http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/e2445-mackney-co-galway/ 17
    • E2445 | A024/32 Mackney, Co. Galway ISSUE 2: Eachtra Journal - ISSN 2009-2237 10 Appendices Appendix 1 Stratigraphic index Appendix 2 Stratigraphic matrix Appendix 3 Groups and sub groups text Appendix 4 Lithics report Appendix 5 Plant remains Appendix 6 Charcoal Permalink: http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/e2445-mackney-co-galway/ 18
    • 10.1 Appendix 1: Stratigraphic Register E2445 | A024/32 Context Grid Context Fill of… Filled Basic Description Finds no. Sample Drawing No. type with… No. No. 001 110/105 Hearth - 002 Hearth, irregular shape in plan, shallow concave profile, 2.50m N/S by 2.0m by 0.41m 002 110/105 Hearth 001 - Fill of hearth [001]mid grey brown clay silt. Occasional sub- 027 deposit angular and sub -rounded stones and moderate medium peb- bles, 2.0m N/S by 1.81m by 0.19m 003 110/105 Pit - 004, 025 Pit [003], U-shaped profile, circular in plan, 0.48m N/S by Mackney, Co. Galway 0.44m by 0.12m 004 110/105 Pit fill 003 - Fill of pit [003]friable black clay silt 30 70 -- dump of burnt 001 material, 0.48m N/S by 0.35m by 0.07m 005 110/100 Post-hole - 006, 054 Cut of post-hole [005], square U-Shaped profile --over cut = 057, slightly so probably a shallow concave, rectangular with round- 055=056 ed corners in plan, 0.82m N/S by 0.56m by 0.20m 006 110/100 Post-hole 005 - Fill of post-hole [005] friable dark greyish black clay silt occa- E2445:6:1 009, 010, Permalink: http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/e2445-mackney-co-galway/ fill sional sub-rounded medium stones moderate small sub-angular pottery 011 stones occasional fragments of burnt stone occasional fragments sherd of pottery 0.82m E/W by 0.42m by 0.04m 007 VOID 008 VOID 009 Extensive Top soil - - Top Soil, mid brown clay silt 30 70 E2445:9:1 natural chert chunk 010 Extensive Subsoil - - Subsoil, whitish yellow sandy clay 40 60 011 VOID 012 105/105 Occu- 011 - Surface--a concentration of charcoal flecks and very small 003 pation fragments of burnt stone 012 within a mid red brown sand silt surface 40 60 deposit 083 there was some scorching of the natural too. Probably a sub soil but possibly a prehistoric activity horizon- -cut by [013] and[019], 1.28m N/S by 1.12m by 0.06m, 012 = 083 ISSUE 2: Eachtra Journal - ISSN 2009-2237 19
    • Context Grid Context Fill of… Filled Basic Description Finds no. Sample Drawing No. type with… No. No. E2445 | A024/32 013 105/105, Pit - 014 Cut of pit [013], U-shaped profile with concave base, circular in 105/110 plan, 1.60m E/W by 1.00 by 0.78m 014 105/105, Pit fill 013 - Fill of pit [013], soft mid red brown clay silt 30 70, 1.60m E/W 016, 019, 105/110 by 1.00m by 0.78m 034 015 105/100 Pit - 016 Cut of pit [015], shallow concave profile--truncated through the centre by an animal burrow, sub-circular in plan, 1.20m N/S by 1.10m by 0.16m [015] = [017] Mackney, Co. Galway 016 105/100 Pit fill 015=017 - Fill of pit [015] = [017] soft dark greyish black clay silt 40 60, 023 1.20m N/S by 1.10m by 0.16m, 016 = 018 017 105/100 Pit - 018, 028 Cut of pit [015], shallow concave profile--truncated through the centre by an animal burrow, sub-circular in plan, 1.20m N/S by 1.10m by 0.16m [015] = [017] 018 105/100 Pit fill 015=017 - Fill of pit [015] = [017] soft dark greyish black clay silt 40 60, 002 1.20m N/S by 1.10m by 0.16m, 016 = 018 Permalink: http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/e2445-mackney-co-galway/ 019 105/105 Pit - 020, 044, Cut of pit [019] square U-shaped profile, circular in plan, 1.10m 045,046, E/W by 1.02m by 0.64m. Cut by posthole [029] 051, 053 020 105/105 Pit fill 019 - Fill of pit [019]friable dark reddish brown sand clay, 1.10m E/W 004 by 1.02 m E/W by 1.02m by 0.22m, 020 = 051 021 VOID 022 VOID 023 VOID 025 110/105 Pit fill 003 - Basal fill puddling? of [003] friable mid greyish black sandy silt 30 70, 0.48m N/S by 0.44m by 0.05m 026 100/115 Hearth pit 085 - Fill of pit possible hearth [085]/Spread of scorched fill of pit 032 fill [085] soft dark red brown clay silt 40 60 moderate medium sub- angular stones, 1.57 m N/S by 0.58m by 0.28m 027 95/110, Pit fill 088 - area of concentrated burning debris fill of [088], soft mid grey 031 95/115 brown clay silt 25 75 occasional medium (lime?) stone frequent charcoal flecks and medium charcoal fragments, 1.18m E/W by 1.03m by 0.26m ISSUE 2: Eachtra Journal - ISSN 2009-2237 20
    • Context Grid Context Fill of… Filled Basic Description Finds no. Sample Drawing No. type with… No. No. E2445 | A024/32 028 105/100 Pit fill 017 - basal fill of [017] 029 105/105 Post-hole - 030 Post-hole [029] u-shaped profile, circular in plan, 0.24m N/S by 0.24m by 0.08m. Cut upper fill of pit [019] 030 105/105 Post-hole 029 - Fill of posthole [029] firm mid greyish white clay silt 40 60-- 005 fill frequent large angular stones, 0.24m N/S by 0.24m by 0.08m 031 VOID 032 110/110 Pit - 033 Cut of pit [032] very shallow square U-shaped profile sub-circu- Mackney, Co. Galway lar in plan,1.23m N/S by 0.82m by 0.23 033 110/110 Pit fill 032 - Fill of pit [032], friable mid grey black silt clay occasional sub- angular stones, 1.23mN/S by 0.82m by 0.15m 034 110/110 Post-hole - 035, 036 Cut of post hole [034] square u-shaped profile, sub-circular in plan, 0.82m E/W by 0.60m by 0.35m 035 110/110 Post-hole 034 - Stone packing for a post hole [034], frequent sub-rounded stone stones, largest stone approx 0.45m, Permalink: http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/e2445-mackney-co-galway/ packing 036 110/110 Post-hole 034 - Fill of post hole [034], soft dark black brown silt clay 30 70, fill 0.85m E/W by 0.72m by 0.29m 037 110/110 Post-hole - 038, 080 Cut of post hole [037] concave in profile, circular in plan, 0.18m N/S by 0.12m 0.08m 038 110/110 Post-hole - 027 Top fill of post hole [037], Dark greyish black friable clayey silt, 028 fill 0.18m N/S by 0.12m by 0.08m 039 110/110, Post-hole 040, 041 Cut of post hole [039] square with vertical edges, sub-circular in 115/110 plan, 0.80m E/W by 0.51m by 0.20m 040 110/110, Post-hole 039 Stone packing for post[039] 115/110 stone packing 041 110/110, Post-hole 039 Fill of stone lined post hole [039], mid brownish orange friable 115/110 fill clayey silt with occasional sub-angular stones, 0.90m E/W by 0.70m by 0.40m 042 105/110, Post-hole Cut of post hole [042] u-shaped profile, circular in plan, 0.80m 110/110 E/W 0.73m by 0.28m ISSUE 2: Eachtra Journal - ISSN 2009-2237 21
    • Context Grid Context Fill of… Filled Basic Description Finds no. Sample Drawing No. type with… No. No. E2445 | A024/32 043 105/110, Post-hole 084 Fill of post hole [084] very soft dark brownish black clay silt-- 008 110/110 fill result of post burning in-situ?, 0.58m N/S by 0.50m by 0.14m 044 105/105 Pit fill 019 Fill of pit [019] very soft light brownish yellow clay--secondary E2445:44:1 013 fill high water content, 110m E/W by 1.03m by 0.40m pottery 045 105/105 Pit fill 019 Lens of charcoal rich burnt material found in pit [019]very soft 006 black clay silt, 0.20m N/S by 0.17m. by 0.10m 046 105/100 Pit fill 019 Lens of charcoal rich burnt material found in pit [019]very soft 007 Mackney, Co. Galway black clay silt, 0.14m N/S by 0.10m. by 0.7m 047 105/100 Pit 048, 078 Cut of pit [047] concave in profile, sub-circular in plan, trun- cated by pits [015] and [017]0.70 N/S by 0.62m by 0.36m 048 - Pit fill 047 Fill of pit [048] light greyish white stiff friable clayey silt, 0.70m 014, 017 N/S by 0.62m by 0.36m 049 - Post-hole 050 Cut of post hole [049] concave profile, circular in plan, trun- cated by [074], 0.40m N/S by 0.35m by 0.15m Permalink: http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/e2445-mackney-co-galway/ 050 105/105 Post-hole 049 Fill of post hole [049] friable mid grey black sand silt 40 60, 024 fill 0.40m N/S by 0.40m by 0.03m 051 110/105 Pit fill 019 Fill of pit [019]friable dark reddish brown sand clay, 1.10m E/W by 1.02m by 0.22m, 020 = 051 053 110/100 Pit fill 019 Basal fill of [019] friable mid greyish clay silt, 1.10m E/W by 015 1.02m by 0.10m 054 110/100 Post-hole 005 Backfill of post-hole [005] soft mid brown orange clay silt oc- 011 fill casional small sub-angular and medium sub-rounded stones, 0.47m E/W by 0.46m by 0.18m 055 110/100 Post-hole 005 Primary fill of post hole [005] very soft mid brown orange sand fill silt, 0.54m N/S by 0.45m by 0.13m 055=056 056 110/100 Post-hole 005 Primary fill of post hole [005] very soft mid brown orange sand fill silt, 0.81m E/W by 0.06m by 0.01m, 055=056 057 110/100 Post-hole 005 Secondary fill of post hole [005]soft mid brownish orange clay fill silt occasional small to medium sub-rounded stones, 0.81m E/W by 0.09m by 0.13m ISSUE 2: Eachtra Journal - ISSN 2009-2237 22
    • Context Grid Context Fill of… Filled Basic Description Finds no. Sample Drawing No. type with… No. No. E2445 | A024/32 059 110/100 Post-pipe Fill of possible post pipe [089], light greyish white stiff silty clay fill with frequent sub-rounded stones, moderately sorted, 0.81m E/W by 0.17m by 0.19 m, 059=006 060 110/105 Possible - - possible metalled surface surface 061 VOID 062 VOID Mackney, Co. Galway 063 VOID 064 VOID 065 105/110, Post-hole 042 Possible stone post pad of post hole [042], 0.36m E/W by 0.22 110/110 stone pad m by 0.20m 066 105/110, Post-hole 042 Post packing of post hole [042] medium pebbles, 0.68m E/W 110/110 fill by 0.30m by 0.17m 067 105/110, Post-hole 042 Possible post pad at base of post-pipe for post hole [042] me- Permalink: http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/e2445-mackney-co-galway/ 110/110 stone pad dium sub-angular stone, 0.10M N/S by ?m by 0.06m 068 105/110, Post-hole 042 Backfill of post hole [042] soft mid yellow brown clay silt 30 70, 110/110 fill 0.80m E/W 0.55m by 0.10m 069 105/110, Post-hole 042 Primary fill of post hole [042]compact light grey brown coarse 110/110 fill gravel sand, 0.09m N/S by ?m by 0.18m 070 105/110, Post-hole 042 Backfill of post hole [042] mid yellowish brown soft sandy silt, 110/110 fill 0.11mN/S by ?m by 0.11m 071 110/105 Hearth 001 Fill of hearth [001]very soft dark black clay silt, occasional large 018 deposit sub-angular stones, well sorted occasional flecks of charcoal, moderate small fragments of charcoal very frequent fragments of heat affected stone--concentrated at bottom of deposit, 2.10m N/S by 2.00m by 0.09m 072 VOID 073 VOID 074 110/105 Post-pipe 075 U-shaped post-pipe [074] for post hole [049], tapered blunt point in profile, circular in plan, 0.22m N/S by 0.12m by 0.15m ISSUE 2: Eachtra Journal - ISSN 2009-2237 23
    • Context Grid Context Fill of… Filled Basic Description Finds no. Sample Drawing No. type with… No. No. E2445 | A024/32 075 110/105 Post-pipe 074 fill of post-pipe [074] post hole [049] friable mid brown orange 021 fill clay silt occasional small angular stones, 0.22m by 0.10m by 0.10m 076 VOID 077 VOID 078 105/100 047 079 110/105 Hearth 001 Fill of hearth [001] very soft mid brown sand clay, moder- 030 Mackney, Co. Galway deposit ate fine sub-angular and sub-rounded pebbles, 2.50m N/S by 2.00m by 0.15m 080 110/110 Post-hole 037 Bottom fill of post hole [037], mid brownish orange, friable 029 fill clayey silt, 0.18m N/S by 0.12m by 0.05m 081 VOID 082 VOID 083 105/105 Occu- Surface--a concentration of charcoal flecks and very small Permalink: http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/e2445-mackney-co-galway/ pation fragments of burnt stone 012 within a mid red brown sand silt Surface 40 60 deposit 083 there was some scorching of the natural too. Probably a sub soil but possibly a prehistoric activity horizon- -cut by [013] and[019], 1.28m N/S by 1.12m by 0.06m, 012 = 083 084 110/110 Post-pipe 043 Possible post-pipe left after post was removed/burnt? [084], square u-shaped profile, circular in plan, 0.24m N/S by ?m by0.18m 085 105/115 Pit - 026 Cut of pit [085] concave profile, oval in profile, truncated by [086], 1.57m N/S by 0.58m by 0.28m 086 105/115 Pit 087 Cut of pit [086] concave profile, oval in plan, truncates [085], 0.93m N/S by 0.62m by 0.31m 087 105/115 Pit fill 086 Fill of pit [086] soft dark red brown clay silt 40 60 moderate 033 medium sub-angular stones, 0.93m N/S by 0.62m by 0.31m 088 95/110 Pit 027 Cut of pit [088] square U-shaped profile, circular in plan, 1.18m E/W by 1.03m by 0.26m ISSUE 2: Eachtra Journal - ISSN 2009-2237 24
    • Context Grid Context Fill of… Filled Basic Description Finds no. Sample Drawing No. type with… No. No. E2445 | A024/32 089 110/100 Post-pipe 005 Post packing to form post pipe [005] stiff light greyish white silt fill clay moderate sub-rounded stones, postpipe square U-shaped profile sides sloping steeply, 0.05m N/S by ?m by 0.03m 090 115/110 Post-hole 091 Possible post hole [090], shallow with vertical sides in profile, circular in plan, possibly used to form structure with [039] and [042] 091 115/110 Post-hole 090 Fill of possible post hole [090], friable mid yellow brown sandy Mackney, Co. Galway fill silt, with frequent coarse gravel, and medium sub-angular stones, 0.085m E/W by 0.08 by 0.08m 092 Pit fill 093 Fill of pit [093], mid brown silty clay with frequent charcoal E2445:92:1 flecks and occasional small stones. 0.4 m diameter and 0.2m deep 093 Pit 092 Pit with U-shaped profile, filled by 092, 0.4 m diameter and 0.2m deep Permalink: http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/e2445-mackney-co-galway/ […] = Cut ISSUE 2: Eachtra Journal - ISSN 2009-2237 25
    • 10.2 Appendix 2: Stratigraphic Matrix E2445 | A024/32 9 2 16 18 6 33 75 43 87 30 Mackney, Co. Galway 54/5 71 15 28 32 74 84 86 29 7 55/5 79 17 38 59 20/51 6 14 36 1 89 80 89 44 Permalink: http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/e2445-mackney-co-galway/ 13 35 60 59 37 45 4 34 48 41 69 46 25 27 50 78 40 68 53 3 88 49 47 39 70 26 19 83 12 5 67 85 91 42 90 10 cut deposit ISSUE 2: Eachtra Journal - ISSN 2009-2237 26
    • E2445 | A024/32 Mackney, Co. Galway ISSUE 2: Eachtra Journal - ISSN 2009-2237 10.3 Appendix 3: Groups and sub-groups text 10.3.1 Group 1 Natural deposits This group describes the natural subsoil identified across the excavated area. 10.3.1.1 Natural subsoil Subsoil C10 Description: White yellow sand clay beneath topsoil C.9. Interpretation: This subgroup describes the natural subsoil which was a white yellow sand clay. This is natural subsoil. 10.3.2 Group 2 Features around hearth This group describes a series of Bronze Age features identified across the excavated area. These include a possible occupation surface, a hearth, five post-holes and a number of pits. 10.3.2.1 Possible occupation surface Spread C.12 Description: Oval shaped spread of red brown sand silt with frequent charcoal flecking and burnt stone inclusions. The spread measured 1.28 m north/south, 1.12 m east/west and was quite shallow with an average depth of 0.06 m. The surface was cut by two large pits C.13 and C.19 described in subgroup 2.4. Interpretation: The spread is probably associated with the large hearth {group 2.2} located 2.5 m to the east. The spread is similar to the surrounding natural subsoil {group 1.1} how- ever the burnt stones and charcoal flecking suggest an anthropogenic formation. 10.3.2.2 Hearth Cut C.1, Fills C.2, C.71, C.79 Description: Large sub-circular hearth or fire pit. The pit C.1 containing the hearth meas- ured 2.5 m north/south by 2.0 m east/west and was 0.45 m deep. It had moderately sloping sides and a shallow concave base. The basal fill C.79 was confined to the eastern half of the pit and was a soft mid brown sand clay with moderate amounts of pebble inclusions. This Permalink: http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/e2445-mackney-co-galway/ 27
    • E2445 | A024/32 Mackney, Co. Galway ISSUE 2: Eachtra Journal - ISSN 2009-2237 was covered by a 0.1 m deep band of dark black silt C.71 with moderate amounts of charcoal flecking and occasional large stones. The main fill was a 0.2 m deep mid grey brown clay silt C.2 with pebble and stone inclusions and occasional charcoal flecking. The hearth or fire pit is associated with a series of rubbish pits and post-holes {subgroup 2.3}. Interpretation: This pit contained a burnt fill and is interpreted as a hearth or fire-pit. 10.3.2.3 Post-holes Cuts C.5, C.34, C.37, C.39, C.42, C.49, Fills C.40, C.41, C.35, C.36, C.66, C.84, C.43, C.80, C.38, C.6, C.54/57, C.55/56, C.50. Description: A total of five post-holes were also found in the area around the hearth (C.5, C.34, C.39, C.42 and C.49). A shallow feature (C.37) was also a possible truncated post-hole. On average the post-holes measured 0.73 m long, 0.55 m wide and 0.24 m deep. There was evidence for stone packing in three of the post-holes; C.34, C.39 and C.42. The fact that stone packing was still in place indicates that these posts must have rotted in situ, as removal of the posts would have also disturbed the packing. Three (C.5, C.42 and C.34) were posi- tioned in a straight line to the south-west of the hearth. Post-hole cut C.5, filled with C.6, C.54/57, C.55/56. Post-pipe cut C.89 is filled with C.59. It had a square U-Shaped profile and was rectangular with rounded corners in plan. It measured 0.82m N/S by 0.56m by 0.20m. The fill of the post-hole C.6 was a friable dark greyish black clay silt occasional sub-rounded medium stones moderate small sub-angular stones. Another fill C.54/57 and it was a soft mid brown orange clay silt occasional small sub-angular and medium sub-rounded stones. The primary fill was C.55/56 a very soft mid brown orange sand silt. Post-hole C.39 was sub-circular in shape with smooth moderately sloping sides and a flat base. It measured 0.9 m by 0.7 m by 0.4 m deep. Filled with mid brown orange clay silt C.41 with occasional large sub-angular stones. The post-pipe was packed in place by stone packing C.40. Post-hole C.34 was sub-circular in shape with smooth moderately sloping sides and a flat base. It measured 0.8 m by 0.6 m by 0.35 m deep. The sides of the post-hole were lined with large sub-rounded stones C.35 which would have acted as packing stones for the post. The fill was mid brown orange silt clay C.36 which contained moderate amounts of small to large stones. Post-hole C.42 was sub-circular in shape with concave steep sides and a flat base. It measured 0.8 m by 0.73 m by 0.28 m deep. The sides of the post-hole were lined with peb- bles, packing stones and a mid yellowish brown sandy silt C.66. A post-pipe C.84 located in Permalink: http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/e2445-mackney-co-galway/ 28
    • E2445 | A024/32 Mackney, Co. Galway ISSUE 2: Eachtra Journal - ISSN 2009-2237 the southern half of the post-hole measuring 0.58 m by 0.5 m by 0.14 m was identified and was filled with a very soft dark brown black silt C.43, it was also filled with C.70. There were two stone-pads in the base of the post-hole, C.65 and C.67. Post-hole cut C.49 filled with C.50. C.74 Post-pipe cut in post-hole C.49. C.75 Fill of post-pipe C.74. The post-hole C.49 had a concave profile, was circular in plan, and was truncated by C.74 and measured 0.40m N/S by 0.35m by 0.15m. The fill C.50 was friable mid grey black sand silt. The shallow remains of possible small post-hole C.37 were identified to the east of post-hole C. 34. It had smooth steep sides and a flat base and measured 0.18 m by 0.12 m by 0.08 m deep. The lowest fill was a mid brown orange clay silt C.80 with occasional medium sized stone inclusions. The upper fill was dark grey black clay silt C.38 which possibly repre- sents the decayed remains of a small post. Post-hole cut C.29 was filled with C.30, a firm mid greyish white clay silt with fre- quent large angular stones. The post-hole was circular in plan and U-shaped in profile. It measured 0.24 m in diameter and was 0.08 m deep. The post-hole cut the upper fill of pit C.19. Post-hole cut C.90 was filled with C.91, a friable mid yellow brown sandy silt, with frequent coarse gravel, and medium sub-angular stones. The post-hole was shallow with vertical sides in profile. It was circular in plan and measured 0.085 m E/W by 0.08 m and it was 0.08 m deep. Interpretation: The occasional large sub-angular stones present in fill C.41 of post-hole C.39 are possibly the remains of packing material which were used to support a post and have now mixed with the fill of the post-hole. This suggests that the post was removed from the post-hole and not left to rot in situ. The same appears to have been the case for post-hole C.34. However, post-holes C.42 and C.37 appear to have rotted in situ. Post-hole C.90 was possibly used to form structure with post-holes C.39 and C.42. These post-holes are asso- ciated with the hearth C.1. Post-holes and stake-holes are often found in association with hearths. The post-holes may denote the presence of a screen or a structure to shield the fire from the prevailing south-westerly wind. 10.3.2.4 Pits Cuts C.3, C.13, C.15, C.17, C.19, C.32, C.47, Fills C.4, C.25, C.14, C.16, C.28, C.18, C.20, C.51, C.44, C.45, C.56, C.53, C.33, C.78, C.48. Description: This subgroup describes a series of seven pits situated near the hearth C.1. Pit C.3 was circular in plan, and it measured 0.48 m N/S by 0.44 m by 0.12 m deep. Permalink: http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/e2445-mackney-co-galway/ 29
    • E2445 | A024/32 Mackney, Co. Galway ISSUE 2: Eachtra Journal - ISSN 2009-2237 The fills (C.4 and C.25) were friable black clay silt constituting a dump of burnt material and friable mid grey black sand silt, possibly representing natural silting up of the base of the pit. Pit C.13 was circular in plan and measured 1.6 m E/W by 1.0 m by 0.78 m. It was filled by C.14 a soft mid red brown clay silt. Pit C.15 was sub-circular in plan and measured 1.2 m N/S by 1.1 m by 0.16 m deep. It was filled by C.16 a soft dark grey black clay silt. Pit C.17 was sub-circular in plan and measured 1.2 m N/S by 1.1 m by 0.16 m deep. It was filled by C.28, the basal fill and C.18, a soft dark grey black clay silt. Pit C.19 was circular in plan and measured 1.1 m E/W by 1.02 m by 0.64 m deep. It was filled by deposits of friable dark red brown sand clay, C.20 and C.51, light brown yellow clay C.44, two lenses of charcoal rich burnt material C.45 and C.46, very soft mid brown orange sand silt C.56 and a friable mid grey clay silt C.53. Pit C.32 was sub-circular in plan and measured 1.23 m N/S by 0.82 m by 0.23 deep. It was filled by a friable mid grey black silt clay C.33. Pit C.47 was sub-circular in plan, truncated by pits C.15 and C.17. Despite trunca- tion it measured 0.7 m N/S by 0.62 m by 0.36 m deep. It was filled by light grey white stiff friable clayey silt C.48 and C.78. Interpretation: A total of seven pits (C.3, C.13, C.15, C.17, C.19, C.32 and C.47) were found in the area around the hearth C.1. On average these measured 1.07 m long, 0.87 m wide and 0.35 m deep. There were no finds from these pits and there was no indication of their original use. The fill of one of the pits (C.13, fill C.14) produced hazel charcoal which yielded a Middle to Late Bronze Age radiocarbon date cal BC 1114-919 (UB-7356), demonstrating that use of the pits was contemporary with use of the hearth. These pits were interpreted as either rubbish pits, or possible early structural features that have been truncated. 10.3.3 Group 3 Group of pits to the north-west This group describes three pits that were in the northwest corner of the site, c. 5 m from the main area of activity. 10.3.3.1 Pits Cuts: C.85, C.86, C.88, Fills: C.26, C.87, C.27. Description: Pit C.85 was oval in plan. It was truncated by C.86. The remaining dimensions were 1.57 m N/S by 0.58 m by 0.28 m deep. It was filled by C.26 a deposit with evidence for in situ burning. The deposit was a soft dark red brown clay silt with moderate small to me- dium sub-angular stones. Pit C.86 was oval in plan. It truncated C.85 and measured 0.93 m N/S by 0.62 m by 0.31 m deep. It was filled by C.87 a dark red brown clay silt. Pit C.88 was circular in plan and measured 1.18 m E/W by 1.03 m by 0.26 m deep. It was filled by C.27 a Permalink: http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/e2445-mackney-co-galway/ 30
    • E2445 | A024/32 Mackney, Co. Galway ISSUE 2: Eachtra Journal - ISSN 2009-2237 soft mid grey brown clay silt. Interpretation: A total of three pits (C.85, C.86 and C.88) were located in the northwest corner, c. 5 m from the main area of activity. Fill C.26 of pit cut C.85 has evidence of in situ burning. This may have been a hearth or a pit used for disposal of hearth waste. Pit C.86 truncates pit C.85. There was no evidence for a relationship between these pits and the other archaeological features discovered at the site. These pits are possibly rubbish pits, with C.85 interpreted as a possible hearth. Permalink: http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/e2445-mackney-co-galway/ 31
    • E2445 | A024/32 Mackney, Co. Galway ISSUE 2: Eachtra Journal - ISSN 2009-2237 10.4 Appendix 4: Lithics Finds Report for E2445 Mackney By: Dr. Farina Sternke, MA, PhD, Department of Archaeology, University College Cork Introduction One lithic find from the archaeological investigations along the route of the N6 Galway- Ballinasloe Road at Mackney, Co. Galway, were presented for analysis. The find is associated with a possible Bronze Age habitation site. Thickn. (mm) Find Number Length (mm) Width (mm) Comment Complete Condion Retouch Material Context Cortex Type E2445:9:91 9 Chert Natural Chunk Yes Slightly weathered 5 16 11 Yes No some edge damage Table 1 Composition of the lithic assemblage from Mackney (E2445) Methodology All lithic artefacts were examined visually and catalogued using Microsoft Excel. The follow- ing details were recorded for each artefact: context information, raw material type, artefact type, the presence of cortex, artefact condition, length, with and thickness measurements, fragmentation and the type of retouch (where applicable). The technological criteria recorded are based on the terminology and technology presented in Inizan et al. 1999. The general typological and morphological classifications are based on Woodman et al. 2006. Quantification The lithics are one natural chunk of chert (Table 1). Provenance The find was recovered from the topsoil. Permalink: http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/e2445-mackney-co-galway/ 32
    • E2445 | A024/32 Mackney, Co. Galway ISSUE 2: Eachtra Journal - ISSN 2009-2237 Condition: The lithics survives in slightly weathered complete condition. Technology/Morphology: The lithic is a natural chunk of chert which displays some edge damage on its right edge. Conservation Lithics do not require specific conversation, but should be stored in a dry, stable environment. Preferably, each lithic should be bagged separately and contact with other lithics should be avoided, so as to prevent damage and breakage, in particular edge damage which could later be misinterpreted as retouch. Larger and heavier items are best kept in individual boxes to avoid crushing of smaller assemblage pieces. Discussion The lithic find from the archaeological investigations at Mackney, Co. Galway, along the route of the N6 Galway - Ballinasloe Road is a natural chunk of chert which has no archaeo- logical significance. Bibliography Inizan, M.-L., M. Reduron-Ballinger, H. Roche and J. Tixier 1999. Technology and Terminology of Knapped Stone 5. CREP, Nanterre. Woodman, P. C., Finlay, N. and E. Anderson 2006. The Archaeology of a Collection: The Keiller-Knowles Collection of the National Museum of Ireland. National Museum of Ireland Monograph Series 2. Wordwell, Bray. Permalink: http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/e2445-mackney-co-galway/ 33
    • E2445 | A024/32 Mackney, Co. Galway ISSUE 2: Eachtra Journal - ISSN 2009-2237 10.5 Appendix 5: Plant remains analysis By Mary Dillon 10.5.1 Introduction The site excavated at Mackney E2445 represented the remains of Middle to Late Bronze Age occupation. The site comprised a large hearth, nine pits, three large stone-lined post-holes, and two smaller post-holes. Charcoal from the site yielded two Middle to Late Bronze Age radiocarbon dates. 10.5.2 Methodology Bulk soil samples were collected on site and were processed post-excavation using a simple flotation method. Each sample was saturated in water to allow the carbonised plant material to float. This was then poured off into a series of sieves (1 mm and 250 µm), trapping the ‘flot’ (floating material), which was air-dried and stored in air-tight plastic bags. The flots were sort- ed and scanned for plant material and charcoal using a low-powered binocular microscope (magnification x 10 to x 40). Nomenclature and taxonomic orders follows Stace (1997). 10.5.3 Results Only one sample out of 29 produced plant remains. S31 from pit fill C27 contained an inde- terminate nut shell fragment. 10.5.4 Discussion It is interesting to compare this site to other Bronze Age sites. Haugheys Fort is a Late Bronze Age hillfort in Ulster. Here large amounts of uncontaminated charred barley was found in pits in the interior along with some hazel nut shells and, in the innermost ditch, weed seeds and an intact apple were found (Mallory 1995, 29). At False Bay in Co. Galway a Bronze Age midden was excavated. Small amounts of charred barley grain were identified here (Mc- Cormick 1995, 13). At Ballynattin in Co. Wicklow Bronze Age structures and associated features produced emmer wheat grains, barley grains (probably naked barley), and indeter- minate wheat grains, which were also probably emmer. Nine emmer wheat spikelets and knotgrass seeds were also identified (Dillon 2006a). Area 1 at Tawlaght in Co. Kerry dated to the Bronze Age. Plant remains came from a variety of features, including post holes, pits, a stakehole and a slot trench. They were dominated by barley grains, cereal grains that could Permalink: http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/e2445-mackney-co-galway/ 34
    • E2445 | A024/32 Mackney, Co. Galway ISSUE 2: Eachtra Journal - ISSN 2009-2237 not be identified to type and weed seeds including those from the knotgrass family (Dillon 2006b). A burnt mound site at Doughiska E2052, Co. Galway produced one hazelnut shell fragment and one cereal grain cf. barley (Dillon 2007a). A similar site nearby, Mackney E2443, produced no plant remains (Dillon 2007b). The lack of plant remains from this site may indicate a non-domestic use for the site. As il- lustrated above many Bronze Age settlement sites do produce plant remains, while at burnt mound sites plant remains are rare. 10.5.5 Summary Only one indeterminate nut shell fragment was recovered from the 29 soil samples taken at this site. In comparison to Bronze Age settlement sites this is rare, although some Bronze Age sites, such as burnt mounds, rarely produce plant remains. The lack of plant remains may indicate a non-domestic use for the site. 10.5.6 References Dillon, M. 2006a. Analysis of plant remains from Ballynattin, Co. Wicklow. Unpublished technical report produced for Eachtra Archaeological Projects. Dillon, M. 2006b. Analysis of plant remains from Tawlaght, Co. Kerry. Unpublished technical report produced for Eachtra Archaeological Projects. Dillon, M. 2007a. Analysis of plant remains from Doughiska E2052, Co. Galway. Unpublished technical report produced for Valerie J. Keeley ltd. Dillon, M. 2007b. Analysis of plant remains from Mackney E2443, Co. Galway. Unpublished technical report produced for Eachtra Archaeological Projects. McCormick, F. 1995. False Bay, Co. Galway, in the Bronze Age, Archaeology Ireland, 9 (1), 12-13. Mallory, J. 1995. Haugheys Fort – Macha’s other twin?, Archaeology Ireland, 9 (1), 28-30. Stace, C.A. 1997 New Flora in the British Isles (2nd edition), Cambridge, Cambridge University Press. Permalink: http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/e2445-mackney-co-galway/ 35
    • E2445 | A024/32 Mackney, Co. Galway ISSUE 2: Eachtra Journal - ISSN 2009-2237 10.6 Appendix 6: Charcoal analysis By Mary Dillon Introduction The site excavated at Mackney E2445 represented the remains of Middle to Late Bronze Age occupation. The site comprised a large hearth, nine pits, three large stone-lined post-holes, and two smaller post-holes. Twenty-nine samples were submitted for analysis and 10 samples contained charcoal. Methodology Bulk soil samples were collected on site and were processed post-excavation using a simple flotation method. Each sample was saturated in water to allow the carbonised plant material to float, which was then poured off into a series of sieves (1 mm and 250 µm), trapping the ‘flot’ (floating material). This was air-dried and stored in air-tight plastic bags. The flots were sorted and scanned for plant material and charcoal using a low-powered binocular micro- scope (magnification x 10 to x 40). All charcoal fragments of 2 mm or greater were identified. Each fragment was prepared for microscopic examination by fracturing it by hand and there- by exposing a clean surface along transverse, radial and tangential planes. All three planes were examined at a range of magnifications (x5 to x100) under a Nikon stereo microscope. For reference literature the website ‘wood anatomy’ was consulted. The number and weight of fragments were recorded for each charcoal type. Results In all, 181 charcoal fragments were identified from 10 samples (Table 1). In Figs 1 and 2 percentage frequencies of the various charcoal types based on fragment count and dry weight, respectively, are shown. The most frequent charcoal type overall is oak at 47% or 77% by weight. This is followed in descending frequency by hazel 28% / 14%, po- moideae 8% / 3%, ash 7%/ 2%, Prunus type 4% / 1%, alder 3% / 2%, yew 2%/ 0.5% and willow/aspen 1% / 0.5%. Permalink: http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/e2445-mackney-co-galway/ 36
    • E2445 | A024/32 Mackney, Co. Galway ISSUE 2: Eachtra Journal - ISSN 2009-2237 Discussion Oak (Quercus) was the most common wood type in the Mackney E2445 assemblage, mak- ing up 47% (or 77% by weight). It forms 100% of S31 from C27, which was recorded as a pit, but given the charcoal evidence was probably a post-hole. The charcoal was from a large trunk or branch of a slow-growing oak (indicated by the wide and also straight tree rings), and the wood was slightly vitrified, indicating that it was possibly charred while below the soil. The indications are that this sample of oak charcoal was the remains of an oak post. Oak is a slow-burning wood and gives out substantial heat as it burns. Its dominance in an assemblage usually indicates the smelting of metals (which it was widely used for) or the re- mains of oak posts. There are two native species of oak in Ireland, namely Q. petraea and Q. robur. Unfortunately, it is difficult to distinguish these species on the basis of wood anatomy (Grosser 1977). Oak would have become widespread and common in the Bronze Age but not dominant according to a pollen diagram from Mongon Bog near Clonmacnoise, Co. Offaly (Parkes & Mitchell 2000). Fig. 1 Percentage fragment count of wood types from Mackney E2445 Permalink: http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/e2445-mackney-co-galway/ 37
    • E2445 | A024/32 Mackney, Co. Galway ISSUE 2: Eachtra Journal - ISSN 2009-2237 Fig. 2 Percentage weight of wood types from Mackney E2445 Hazel (Corylus avellana) formed 28% (or 14% by weight) of the assemblage. It was widely exploited in both prehistory and historical times for its nutritious nuts and supple rods which were widely used for building. Its coppice-like growth form makes it relatively easy to cut and there are normally substantial quantities of dead wood available near ground level for fuel wood. A pollen diagram from Mongon Bog (Parkes & Mitchell 2000, 35-40) indicates that during the Bronze Age hazel was one of the most prominent trees. Pomoideae type charcoal - including Sorbus (rowan/whitebeam), Crataegus (hawthorn) and Malus (crab apple) - formed 8% / 3% of the assemblage. Woodlands and woodland-related environments are the normal habitats for the various woody plants that may be represented in this wood type, although Sorbus includes trees with quite different ecological preferences such as rowan (S. aucuparia) and whitebeams (e.g. S. hibernica, S. aria and S. rupicola). An important habitat, especially for hawthorn (Crataegus), is the so-called Mantel or edge com- munities of woodlands (cf. Wilmanns & Brun-Hool 1982). The spines of hawthorn afford it a degree protection from grazing and enable it to establish and survive in the face of light grazing. Pomoideae was poorly represented in the pollen record from Mongon Bog (it is in- sect pollinated). Ash (Fraxinus excelsior), accounting for 7%/ 2% by weight, is present in small amounts in many of the samples. Ash makes great fuel, burned green or dead, and this may have influ- Permalink: http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/e2445-mackney-co-galway/ 38
    • E2445 | A024/32 Mackney, Co. Galway ISSUE 2: Eachtra Journal - ISSN 2009-2237 enced its selection. According to the pollen diagram it was readily available in the locality. Prunus type charcoal - including P. avium (wild cherry), P. padus (bird cherry) and P. spinosa (blackthorn) - formed 4% / 1% of the assemblage. Blackthorn may have been common in Mantel vegetation while wild cherry would be expected to occur in the woodlands. Bird cherry may also have been represented but today it is largely confined to the northern part of Ireland (Preston et al. 2002). Webb et al. (1996) regards it as introduced though this view is not universally accepted. Prunus was poorly represented in the Mongon Bog pollen record (it is insect pollinated). Alder (Alnus glutinosa), yew (Taxus baccata) and willow/aspen (Salix/populus) were recorded at under 3% of the total assemblage. The charcoal came from the hearth, post-holes and pits. There was no notable difference between the hearth samples and samples from the post-holes and pits, implying perhaps that the charcoal from the post-holes and pits came from the hearth originally. The only exception to this was S31 from C27. This sample was 100% oak. The charcoal was from a large trunk or branch of a slow growing oak (indicated by the wide and also straight tree rings), and the wood was slightly vitrified, indicating that it was possibly charred whilst below the soil. The indications are that this sample of oak charcoal was the remains of an oak post. While this context was recorded as a pit, it was possibly a post-hole. It is almost unknown to find a sample of 100% mature oak wood, unless it is the burnt remains of a structure or oak that was used to fire smelting works. Oak is a strong, durable wood. The anatomy of oak wood lends itself excellently to wood working. It is easily split into planks, as it has large multiseri- ate rays. Tyloses form in the vessels of heartwood, and along with tannin deposits, make the wood virtually impenetrable (cf. Wilson & White 1986). It has been widely used in construc- tion throughout prehistory and also in the historical period. The use of oak in Bronze Age structures is widely documented e.g. at Ballinderry 2 (Hencken 1942, 8) and at Raffin Fort (Newman 1995, 175). However, it is suspected that many of the older excavations that claim to have wetland settlement sites built entirely of oak are biased. There is a danger that hard timbers were automatically regarded as oak which, on account of its hardness, was also more likely to be preserved under wet conditions. There was therefore a bias towards oak in both sampling and identification. The rest of the assemblage is probably the remains of locally gathered wood used to fire small Permalink: http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/e2445-mackney-co-galway/ 39
    • E2445 | A024/32 Mackney, Co. Galway ISSUE 2: Eachtra Journal - ISSN 2009-2237 fires, exploiting easily available hazel, ash, pomoideae type such as hawthorn, rowan, white- beam and Prunus species such as blackthorn and cherry which were growing around the site. Alder, yew and willow/aspen were probably also present in the immediate locality. The pres- ence of wet-loving trees such as willow/aspen and alder indicates that the site may have been situated near damp ground. Comparative studies It is interesting to compare the charcoal from Mackney E2445 with that from other Bronze Age sites. For example, at Lough Gur, Co. Limerick, several Bronze Age structures have been excavated by R.M Cleary. Hazel, willow/aspen, ash, oak and alder charcoal were recovered from the post-holes with blackthorn, birch and elm charcoal in smaller amounts (McKeown 2003, 149-51; Cleary 2003, 109-47). While the ash and oak were evidently used as structural posts, it is suggested that other woods, in particular hazel, are the burnt remains of wattles. Charcoal analysis from fulachta fiadh excavated along the Gas Pipeline to the West demon- strates that a range of trees were gathered as firewood, particularly alder, hazel, oak and ash (O’Donnell, 2005). O’Donnell’s studies suggest the same wood types were used as fuel in burnt mounds across the country, which suggest that a selection process of some kind was in place. These trees were also common at Kiltoton Colinstown burnt mound in Co. Westmeath (Dillon, 2006) and nearby burnt mound sites at Cooltymurraghy, Urraghy and Barnacragh (Dillon 2007a, 2007b, 2007c). Situated only 300 m from this site, Mackney E2443 consisted of pits and a hearth and was probably contemporary with Mackney E2445. The most frequent charcoal type there is hazel at 63% followed in descending frequency by pomoideae 17%, Prunus 7%, hazel/alder 3%, oak 3%, ash 3%, willow/aspen 3%, holly 1%, birch 1% and alder 1% (Dillon 2007d). The analysis surmised that the charcoal assemblage from that site reflected the remains of locally gathered wood. Summary Oak dominated the assemblage, followed by hazel, pomoideae, ash and prunus. Alder, yew and willow were also recorded. The dominance of oak is largely due to one sample which was the remains of an oak structural timber and probably indicates a post-hole. It is likely the rest of the assemblage reflects locally gathered wood used for small firings. Permalink: http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/e2445-mackney-co-galway/ 40
    • E2445 | A024/32 Mackney, Co. Galway ISSUE 2: Eachtra Journal - ISSN 2009-2237 Fragment Count Sample Context Oak Hazel Pomoideae Ash Willow/aspen Alder Yew Prunus 27 2 2 7 16a 14 6 22 3 3 9 6 2 6 1 2 2 27 31 50 10 6 4 1 19 14 12 1 3 1 1 18 71 3 7 16b 14 9 11 1 13 44 3 1 6 2 2 8 3 1 2 1 2 1 85 50 15 13 2 5 3 8 Weight in grams Sample Context Oak Hazel Pomoideae Ash Willow/aspen Alder Yew Prunus 27 2 0.13 0.58 16a 14 0.12 1.8 0.3 0.25 9 6 0.18 0.18 0.07 0.06 0.03 27 31 14.21 10 6 0.18 0.18 19 14 1.91 0.01 0.07 0.02 0.04 18 71 0.05 0.19 16b 14 0.15 0.25 0.02 13 44 0.07 0.14 0.14 0.14 0.08 8 3 0.01 0.08 0.05 0.03 0.04 Table 1 Fragment count and weight of charcoal Permalink: http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/e2445-mackney-co-galway/ 41
    • E2445 | A024/32 Mackney, Co. Galway ISSUE 2: Eachtra Journal - ISSN 2009-2237 References Cleary, R.M. 2003. Enclosed late Bronze Age habitation site and boundary wall at Lough Gur, Co. Limerick. Proceedings of the Royal Irish Academy, 103C, 109-47. Dillon, M. 2006. Analysis of charcoal from Kiltotan Colinstown, Co. Westmeath. Unpublished technical report produced for Eachtra Archaeological Projects. Dillon, M. 2007a. Analysis of charcoal from Cooltymurraghy E2448, Co. Galway. Unpublished technical report produced for Eachtra Archaeological Projects. Dillon, M. 2007b. Analysis of charcoal from Urraghry E2449, Co. Galway. Unpublished technical report produced for Eachtra Archaeological Projects. Dillon, M. 2007c. Analysis of charcoal from Barnacragh E2446, Co. Galway. Unpublished technical report produced for Eachtra Archaeological Projects. Dillon, M. 2007d. Analysis of charcoal from Macknety E2443, Co. Galway. Unpublished technical report produced for Eachtra Archaeological Projects. Hencken, H. O’N. 1942. Ballinderry crannóg no. 2. Proceedings of the Royal Irish Academy, 47C, 1-76. Grosser, D., 1977. Die Holzer Mitteleuropas. Berlin: Springer-Verlag. McKeown, S. 2003. The charred wood. In: Cleary R.M. (2003) Enclosed late Bronze Age habitation site and boundary wall at Lough Gur, Co. Limerick. Proceedings of the Royal Irish Academy, 103C, 149-151. Newman, C. 1995. Raffin Fort, Co. Meath: Neolithic and Bronze Age activity. In: E. Grogan & C. Mount (eds.) Annus archaeologiae: proceedings of the OIA winter conference 1993. Organisation of Irish Archaeologists, Dublin, 55-65. O’Donnell, L. 2005 Environmental Archaeology from the Gas Pipeline to the West. On http://www.mglarc.com. Parkes H.M & Mitchell FJG 2000 Vegetation History at Clonmacnoise, Co. Offaly in Proceedings of the Royal Irish Academy, Vol. 100B, No. 1, 35-40 Preston, C.D., Pearman, D.A. & Dines, T.D. (eds.) 2002. New atlas of the British and Irish flora. Oxford University Press, Oxford. Permalink: http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/e2445-mackney-co-galway/ 42
    • E2445 | A024/32 Mackney, Co. Galway ISSUE 2: Eachtra Journal - ISSN 2009-2237 Webb, D.A., Parnell, J. & Doogue, D. 1996 An Irish flora, 7th edn. Dundalgan Press, Dundalk. Wilmanns, O. & Brun-Hool, J. 1982. Irish Mantel and Saum vegetation. In: J. White (ed.) Studies on Irish vegetation, Royal Dublin Society, Dublin, 167-174. Wilson, K. & White, D.J.B. 1986 The anatomy of wood: its diversity and variability. Stobart, London. ‘Wood Anatomy’ at http//:www.woodanatomy.ch. Permalink: http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/e2445-mackney-co-galway/ 43