Archaeological Excavation Report E0476 - Bricketstown, Co. Wexford, Ireland - EAP Journal
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Archaeological Excavation Report E0476 - Bricketstown, Co. Wexford, Ireland - EAP Journal

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In Bricketstown townland a number of agricultural features were exposed including a limekiln, land divisions, hearth and stakeholes, a platform with medieval waste and evidence of ridge and furrow ...

In Bricketstown townland a number of agricultural features were exposed including a limekiln, land divisions, hearth and stakeholes, a platform with medieval waste and evidence of ridge and furrow cultivation. The main features of the sites included early land divisions (ditches), a work surface with residues from various industrial activities, a hearth surrounded by stakeholes/hearth furniture, later land divisions (ditches) that enclosed ridges and furrows and a kiln. The archaeological evidence from the site is generally indicative of activity associated with agriculture, incorporating a kiln, furrows, boundaries and drainage ditches.

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Archaeological Excavation Report E0476 - Bricketstown, Co. Wexford, Ireland - EAP Journal Archaeological Excavation Report E0476 - Bricketstown, Co. Wexford, Ireland - EAP Journal Document Transcript

  • Eachtra Journal Issue 4 [ISSN 2009-2237] Archaeological Excavation Report E0476 - Bricketstown, Co. Wexford Kiln, field systems, hearth, work surface
  • Archaeological Excavation Report, N25 Rathsillagh to Harristown Realignment Bricketstown Co. Wexford Kiln, field systems, hearth, work surface December 2009 Client: Wexford County Council, c/o Tramore House Road Design Office, Tramore, Co. Wexford Licence No.: 00E0476 Licensee: Daniel Noonan Contact details: The Forge, Innishannon, Co. Cork. Written by: Daniel Noonan and Penny Johnston Tel.: 021 470 16 16 Fax: 021 470 16 28 E-mail: info@eachtra.ie Web Site: www.eachtra.ie
  • 00E0476 Bricketstown, Co. Wexford ISSUE 4: Eachtra Journal - ISSN 2009-2237 Table of Contents 1 Summary ............................................................................................................1 2 Introduction .......................................................................................................1 3 Description of Development ...............................................................................1 4 Background to the excavation area......................................................................1 5 Archaeological & Historical Background............................................................2 5.1 Mesolithic 7000-4000 BC............................................................................2 5.2 Neolithic 4000-2500 BC ..............................................................................2 5.3 Bronze Age 2500-500 BC.............................................................................3 5.4 Iron Age 500 BC-500 AD ............................................................................3 5.5 Early Medieval 500 AD-1169 AD ................................................................4 5.6 Later Medieval 1169 AD-1600 AD...............................................................4 5.7 Post-Medieval (after 1600 AD) .....................................................................5 6 Results of Archaeological Excavation .................................................................6 6.1 Early Land Division - Ditches ......................................................................6 6.2 The Kiln .......................................................................................................7 6.3 Industrial Area - Work Surface ....................................................................11 6.4 Hearth and Stakeholes ................................................................................12 6.5 Later Land Division - Ditches ....................................................................13 6.6 Furrows .......................................................................................................14 7 Artefacts and Industrial Waste........................................................................... 15 8 Environmental Remains .................................................................................... 15 9 Discussion ......................................................................................................... 15 10 Summary ........................................................................................................... 19 11 References ..........................................................................................................20 11.1 Websites ......................................................................................................22 12 Figures ............................................................................................................... 23 13 Plates ................................................................................................................. 36 14 Appendices ........................................................................................................41 14.1 Appendix 1: Context Register ......................................................................41 14.2 Appendix 2: Stratigraphic Matrix ...............................................................48 14.3 Appendix 3: Finds register ...........................................................................49 14.4 Appendix 4: The medieval pottery from Bricketstown, Taghmon ................54 Permalink: http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/e0476-bricketstown-co-wexford/ iii
  • 00E0476 Bricketstown, Co. Wexford ISSUE 4: Eachtra Journal - ISSN 2009-2237 Table of contents cont. 14.5 Appendix 5: Radiocarbon dates ...................................................................56 14.6 Appendix 6: Archaeobotanical Assessment Report on the Charred Plant remains from Bricketstown .............................................................................................................57 14.7 Appendix 7: Geological Identification of Stone Artefacts from Bricketstown63 14.8 Appendix 8: Industrial residues ...................................................................66 14.9 Appendix 9: Charcoal assessment Bricketstown, Co. Wexford (00E0476) ...75 Permalink: http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/e0476-bricketstown-co-wexford/ iv
  • 00E0476 Bricketstown, Co. Wexford ISSUE 4: Eachtra Journal - ISSN 2009-2237 List of Figures Figure 1: Discovery map showing the route of the N25 Rathsillagh-Harristown road ..........................23 Figure 2: Ordnance Survey 1st edition showing the route of the N25 Rathsillagh-Harristown road ... 24 Figure 3: RMP sheet showing the route of the N25 Rathsillagh-Harristown road ...............................25 Figure 4: Route of new road with all excavated sites displayed .............................................................26 Figure 5: Plan of excavated area within the context of modern field and road boundaries ....................27 Figure 6: Plan of the excavated area showing the three main areas of archaeological activity (kiln, hearth and stakeholes, the working surface) and ditches .................................................................................28 Figure 7: Sections through early land division ditches (C.5 and C.8) ...................................................29 Figure 8: Post-excavation plan of the kiln bowl and flue (C.54 and C.19) ............................................30 Figure 9: Mid-excavation plan of the kiln bowl and flue (C.54 and C.19) ...........................................31 Figure 10: Earliest activity at the medieval work surface (C.154 and C.141).........................................32 Figure 11: Work surface truncated by furrows (C.80 and C.81) ..........................................................33 Figure 12: Area with hearth (C.97) and stakeholes ............................................................................34 Figure 13: Section through later land division ditch (C.15) .................................................................35 List of Plates Plate 1: Pre-excavation of kiln and ditches showing the kiln flue cutting the early ditch .......................36 Plate 2: Stone-lined flue at the base of the kiln bowl .............................................................................36 Plate 3: Lime residues at the base of the kiln bowl.................................................................................37 Plate 4: Layers of burnt clay and charcoal within the kiln flue ..............................................................37 Plate 5: Rake-out banked onto the southeast side of the flue .................................................................38 Plate 6: Re-cut of the kiln bowl.............................................................................................................38 Plate 7: Pre-excavation shot of parallel furrows traversing the site..........................................................39 Plate 8: Millstone fragments recovered during topsoil removal ..............................................................39 Plate 9: Mid excavation of kiln showing splayed flue ............................................................................ 40 Plate 10: Post-excavation of kiln bowl showing baked substratum in kiln ............................................ 40 Permalink: http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/e0476-bricketstown-co-wexford/ v
  • 00E0476 Bricketstown, Co. Wexford ISSUE 4: Eachtra Journal - ISSN 2009-2237 1 Summary County Wexford Townland Bricketstown Parish Kilgarvan Civil Parish Whitechurchglynn Barony Bantry National Grid Co-ordinates 29177 12290 (219800 122947) Chainage 7010 East-West 400-1200 North-South (Adamstown to Taghmon Road) Site Type Kiln, ditches, furrows, hearth, stake-holes and a working surface Excavation Licence Number 00E0476 2 Introduction Archaeological testing was conducted by Eachtra Archaeological Projects along the proposed route of the N25 realignment from Rathsillagh to Harristown, Co. Wexford. The proposed routeway was stripped by machine (under licence 00E0379) and in Bricketstown townland a number of agricultural features were exposed including a limekiln, land divisions, hearth and stakeholes, a platform with me- dieval waste and evidence of ridge and furrow cultivation. The site was close to the intersection of the Adamstown to Taghmon road and the main route, at chainage 7020. Following consultation with the DoEHLG (then Dúchas) and Wexford County Council a strategy of total excavation under licence 00E0476 was decided upon. The site represented a segment of the proposed road intake and was 180 m long and a maximum of 21 m wide. 3 Description of Development The N25 is the main southern east to west route, traversing the counties of Cork, Waterford, Kilkenny and Wexford. It links the port of Rosslare Harbour with Cork City, via New Ross, Waterford City, Dungarvan and Youghal. A section of the N25 route between the townlands of Rathsillagh and Har- ristown Little was selected for upgrading, as the old road comprised a single carriageway in either direction, with several ‘blind’ junctions, and in many cases only a hedge separating farmland from the road. The new route sought to straighten and level out the N25 and to provide a wider single car- riageway with hard shoulder in either direction, in keeping with the Barntown scheme completed in 1998 (Fig.1). 4 Background to the excavation area The 8.5 km route of the new road crosses a series of low, undulating hills, to the south of the old N25 route, and is situated at a height of between 45 m and 80 m above sea level. The landscape here is characterised by small hills interspersed with many small streams; these eventually flow into the River Corock to the southwest, into the Slaney to the northwest, as well as feeding into Ballyteige Bay to the south. From its western beginning in Rathsillagh townland the routeway climbs gently, running parallel and to the south of the old N25. It then continues through Assagart, Ballyvergin, Shanowle, Permalink: http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/e0476-bricketstown-co-wexford/ 1
  • 00E0476 Bricketstown, Co. Wexford ISSUE 4: Eachtra Journal - ISSN 2009-2237 Camaross, Carrowreagh, Dungeer, Bricketstown and through into Harristown Little, eventually exit- ing in Harristown Big townland and tying into the Barntown improvement which opened in 1998 (Figs. 1-3). The higher ground was lush pasture, well drained, and gave spectacular views all around. Sites on this part of the route included prehistoric settlement activity and a series of limekilns. Conversely, the lower ground in Camaross, Carrowreagh and Dungeer was quite marshy and prone to growth of gorse. Sites traditionally associated with low-lying ground were found in these townlands, for example a burnt mound at Dungeer and a moated site at Carrowreagh (Fig. 4). 5 Archaeological & Historical Background There are thirteen recorded archaeological monument sites within 1 km either side of the development; one is a church and graveyard site, nine are listed as enclosure sites of between 30 m and 60 m in di- ameter and three are moated sites (two of which are destroyed). The ecclesiastical site apparently dates to the medieval period as there is a fragment of a medieval grave cover in the graveyard and the site was originally surrounded by a circular bank (Moore 1996, 129). The enclosures most likely represent the raths and ringforts of the early medieval period (Moore 1996, 28). Prior to these excavations, the known archaeological remains in the locality were all medieval and post-medieval but several prehis- toric sites were identified during the course of this programme of excavation along the N25 route-way, including Neolithic material at Harristown Big, Bronze Age sites at Dungeer, Ballyvergin and Har- ristown Big and Iron Age activity at two sites in Bricketstown. 5.1 Mesolithic 7000-4000 BC The earliest known human occupation of Ireland dates to the Mesolithic period (c. 7000-4000 BC). Lithic scatters from the period have been found along the banks of the Barrow river in counties Wex- ford and Waterford (Green and Zvelebil 1990). Some diagnostic Mesolithic stone artefacts were also found in Camolin, in north Wexford, and along the eastern coastline between Carnsore and Kilm- ichael point (Stout 1987, 3). However, most activity is identified in resource-rich locations by riversides and coastlines and there is no known evidence for Mesolithic activity within the area affected by the roadtake. 5.2 Neolithic 4000-2500 BC There is piecemeal evidence for Neolithic occupation in County Wexford. Stout’s (1987) distribution map of Neolithic remains includes evidence for one single burial site, fifteen find spots for flint and stone atefacts, two portal tombs and seven other possible megalithic tombs. Work on the Archaeologi- cal Survey of Ireland reduced the number of other possible megaliths from seven to five (Moore 1996). Subsequent excavation work has increased the extent of knowledge concerning Neolithic settlement in the county. Early Neolithic pottery was found by McLoughlin (2004) at Kerlogue (02E0606) and at a pit and a hearth excavated under licence 00E0630 at Courtlands East (Purcell 2002). Later Neolithic activity in the county is indicated by Sandhills ware, discovered during an excavation (02E0434) in a Permalink: http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/e0476-bricketstown-co-wexford/ 2
  • 00E0476 Bricketstown, Co. Wexford ISSUE 4: Eachtra Journal - ISSN 2009-2237 pit at St. Vogues (Purcell 2004). An undated excavation at MacMurroughs (1985:59) also uncovered a number of flints and a ground stone axe, associated with a hearth and pit may also be Neolithic in date (Cotter 1986). Some evidence for Neolithic activity was found as part of this project at Harristown Big (00E0424) where Neolithic pottery was discovered at a site where various pits and stakeholes were excavated. Early Neolithic and possible Middle Neolithic wares were found. 5.3 Bronze Age 2500-500 BC Some of the earliest Bronze Age finds from Co. Wexford are three chance finds of Beaker gold discs (only one with a provenance). Other Bronze Age metal finds from the county includes hoards of both Early and Late Bronze Age artefacts, e.g. at Cahore Point, a cave at Nash, Ballyvadden, Enniscorthy, Forth Commons and New Ross (Stout 1987, 9-10, 22). At Ballyvadden the Late Bronze Age metal ob- jects were found within a ceramic container, a unique feature in Irish hoards, but apparently common on the continent during the period (Stout 1987, 22). Burnt mounds are the most common Bronze Age site-types found in Ireland and sixty-three such sites were identified in the Archaeological Inventory for the county (Moore 1996) and since the survey work several have been excavated in the county; examples were found at Strandfield (McCarthy 2004) and along the routes of the N30 (Enniscorthy to Clonroche) and the N11 (Arklow to Gorey) roads (www. nra.ie). Only one burnt mound was excavated during works on the Rathsillagh-Harristown realign- ment of the N25; this was found at Dungeer 00E0474. Much of our evidence for Bronze Age activity in Wexford to date has come from burials. There is a recognised concentration of cist-type burials in Co. Wexford; these are commonly thought to date to the Early Bronze Age. Stout (1987) identified more than thirty-seven identified but many were not well documented and Moore (1996) could only pinpoint the locations of only twenty-five cist and pit burials in total. Several other burials with diagnostic Bronze Age pottery have since been found during excavation: there was a cordoned urn burial at Ballintubbrid, vase urn burials at Coolnaboy, Gorey Corporation Lands and Kilmurry, a cist with a tripartite bowl at Knockbrack and a ring ditch with cremation burials at Ferns Lower (Bennett 2004-5). Another ring-ditch was found at Kerlogue Sites 4 and 5 and a large round house excavated at Kerlogue Site 2 was probably also of Bronze Age date (McLoughlin 2004). The excavations from the Rathsillagh-Harristown road scheme included one Early-Middle Bronze Age site at Ballyvergin where hot-stone technology was used in association with metalworking. Another metalworking site was found at Harristown Big (00E0425) where a series of Late Bronze Age metalworking pits and crucibles were found and the Late Bronze Age burnt mound site at Dungeer (00E0474). 5.4 Iron Age 500 BC-500 AD In common with much of Ireland there is very little evidence for Iron Age activity in Co. Wexford. Hillforts and promontory forts have possible construction dates in the Late Bronze Age or Early Iron Age and there are two hillforts and five promontory forts in the county (Moore 1996). The artefactual Permalink: http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/e0476-bricketstown-co-wexford/ 3
  • 00E0476 Bricketstown, Co. Wexford ISSUE 4: Eachtra Journal - ISSN 2009-2237 evidence for this period in Wexford includes two pins that are of probable Iron Age date and two pos- sible Iron Age stone heads recovered from Duncormick (Stout 1987, 29-30). Two of the sites excavated along the route of the Rathsillagh-Harristown road produced Iron Age radiocarbon dates, both were from Bricketstown and one was a small cremation cemetery (00E0623), the second was a small hearth (00E0624). 5.5 Early Medieval 500 AD-1169 AD The beginnings of Christianity are evident in the remains of seventeen early ecclesiastical sites in Co. Wexford (Moore 1996). One of the earliest excavated examples from Co. Wexford was at St. Vogues, at Carnsore, where a wooden church preceded a stone building (O’Kelly 1975). One of the closest known early church sites to the roadtake is located approximately 3 km to the south at the church of Poulmarl/Taghmon, the monastery founded by St. Munna in the seventh century. The list of abbots from this site continues to the end of the tenth century and there is a record of a Viking raid in 917 AD (Moore 1996, 160). By this time the Norse town of Weisford, later to become Wexford, was already established, having been established by the end of the ninth century (Colfer 1990-1991). Evidence for settlement in the county during the early medieval period comes from ringforts, typical monuments of the period. These were circular or subcircular enclosures made from earthen banks that surrounded areas roughly between 25 and 40 metres in diameter. Excavated examples have demon- strated that they generally surrounded single farmstead-type settlement sites. One hundred and fifty- three examples are known from the county (Moore 1996). Of these only two were located within close proximity to the area of the new Rathsillagh-Harristown road (at Haystown, c. 3 km to the north of the new road and at Cullenstown c. 2 km to the south). There are also numerous circular enclosure sites that probably represent ringforts; thirteen of them appear on the RMP Sheet 36 (covering the area of the new road-take) for Co. Wexford. 5.6 Later Medieval 1169 AD-1600 AD The Anglo-Normans first landed in Ireland in Co. Wexford in 1169. The county was within their initial land-grab zone between AD 1169 and AD 1190 (Mitchell & Ryan 1997, 305) and was sub-infeudated in the early stages of Anglo-Norman activity in Ireland (Colfer 1987). Wexford county was one of the first twelve counties created by the English Kings in the 12th to 13th centuries, from the original Prov- inces and lesser Territories of the Irish Tuatha (Howarth 1911, 161). By the thirteenth century much of the area covered by the Rathsillagh-Harristown road-take was a frontier zone and the archaeological landscape of these areas is characterised by moated sites: there are ten known sites on RMP Sheet 36 for Co. Wexford, the area covered by the new road, and one moated site at Carrowreagh was found along the line of the new road. Moated sites were distributed at the peripheries of the colonial organi- sation centres and probably represent an attempt at secondary colonisation (O’Keeffe 2000, 73-75). There are almost 130 moated sites known in County Wexford (Moore 1996, 95). However, by the end of the fourteenth century, much of the Anglo-Norman settlement in Co. Wexford had retreated to a southeastern stronghold in the baronies of Forth and Bargy, a pattern that Colfer (1987) suggests was Permalink: http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/e0476-bricketstown-co-wexford/ 4
  • 00E0476 Bricketstown, Co. Wexford ISSUE 4: Eachtra Journal - ISSN 2009-2237 reminiscent of the “Pale of county Wexford”. Excavations of medieval sites in the county include the remains of a medieval house were excavated at Ballyanne (Moran 2000), with pottery indicative of oc- cupation in the 12th to 14th centuries, and excavations at Ferns, Hook Head, Newtown, Tintern, Tagh- mon, New Ross and Wexford town all produced medieval archaeological remains (Bennett 2004-5). Along the route of the Rathsillagh-Harristown road the moated site at Carrowreagh (excavated under licence no. 00E0476) was the largest medieval site excavated. A spread of medieval occupation material was also excavated at Bricketwtown (00E0476) and this was rich in the remains of medieval pottery. It is also possible that the limekilns at Bricketstown (00E0476) and Harristown Little (00E0417) were in use at the very end of the medieval period. 5.7 Post-Medieval (after 1600 AD) A few excavations of post-medieval archaeological sites have been carried out in Wexford county, in- cluding Brideswell Big, Duncannon Fort, and excavations in Wexford and Ennisorthy town (Bennett 2004-5). Some of the excavations from the Rathsillagh to Harristown road scheme were probably used during this time, in particular the limekilns at Bricketstown (00E0476, 00E0626) and Harristown Little (00E0417) were probably in use at this period. There is Jacobean house site in Dungeer, one of the townlands affected by the roadtake. References to the house/castle date to the early seventeenth century (Moore 1996). Permalink: http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/e0476-bricketstown-co-wexford/ 5
  • 00E0476 Bricketstown, Co. Wexford ISSUE 4: Eachtra Journal - ISSN 2009-2237 6 Results of Archaeological Excavation The site comprised six archaeological parts; early land divisions (ditches), a kiln, a working surface, a hearth with stakeholes, later land divisions (ditches) and furrows (Fig. 5 and 6). The latest features were furrows, bound by ditches which acted as field divisions and/or drains. Underlying the furrows two separate areas of activity were encountered. The first of these consisted of a number of stakeholes and a hearth, while the second was a working surface. The kiln, which post-dated one of the field bounda- ries, was also excavated. The context register, with full contextual details, is found in Appendix 1, the stratigrpahic matrix is in Appendix 2 and the finds register is in Appendix 3. 6.1 Early Land Division - Ditches Two parallel ditches (C.5 and C.8), orientated roughly northeast-southwest, ran across the northern end of the site (Fig. 6). The northeastern of the two (C.5) was also the longest, with 56.5 m of the ditch exposed. It was 1 m wide with a maximum remaining depth of 0.14 m. The northwestern edge of the ditch sloped gradually to an irregular, but flattish base. The opposite side was almost vertical. This ditch was filled by two deposits (C.3 and C.10), both were probably a product of natural processes and their ‘tip lines’ seemed to indicate this infill occurred from the southeastern side (Fig. 7). The basal fill (C.10) was a redeposited natural while the upper fill (C.3) was darker with more characteristics of a surface soil. The redeposited natural in C.10 may have slumped from a bank located to the southeast. At an average distance of 1.5 m to the southeast was the parallel ditch (C.8) which was exposed over a length of 37 m. This ditch was 1.2 m wide and 0.32 m deep. The ditch cut had moderately sloping sides, convex on the northwest and concave on the southeast, with a flat base (Fig. 7). Three fills (C.2, C.6 and C.7) had been deposited in the cut (C.8). The basal fill (C.7) was the thickest of these and was overlain by redeposited subsoil (C.6) which was similar to the basal fill (C.10) of the other ditch (C.5). These were redeposited natural sediments and may have been slump from a bank of redeposited natural that filled the area between the two ditches. The tip lines in both sections (Fig. 7) also suggest that infilling occurred from the area between the two ditches, again suggesting a bank. The upper fill of ditch C.8 was C.2, a fill almost identical to C.7, the basal fill. A fragment of pottery was recovered from C.2 (Find 00E0476:2:1). This was identified as medieval Leinster Cooking Ware (Appendix 4), which is the same type as the pottery recovered from the work surface situated c. 30 m to the southwest and its deposition here may indicate that the activity at both areas of the site were more or less contemporaneous. However, this could also indicate material from a medieval context that was disturbed and redeposited in the ditch fill at a much later date. Two of the fills from C.8 (C.7 and C.2) were very similar to the upper fill of the previous ditch (C.3 in ditch C.5). As the fills within both ditches are quite similar it is likely that they fell into disuse at approximately the same time. All the indicators suggest that these two ditches were the remains of one field boundary, also originally in- corporating a bank. The southeastern ditch (C.8) travelled southwest to a point where it was truncated by another ditch (C.15) and it did not continue further beyond this. In contrast, the other parallel ditch (C.5) was truncated by two ditches to the south (C.15 and C.35) but continued beyond them and beyond the excavated area. This ditch (C.5) was also cut by the flue of the kiln (Plate 1 shows the kiln Permalink: http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/e0476-bricketstown-co-wexford/ 6
  • 00E0476 Bricketstown, Co. Wexford ISSUE 4: Eachtra Journal - ISSN 2009-2237 and nearby ditches before excavation with the kiln flue clearly truncating the ditch). 6.2 The Kiln The kiln was located towards the northern end of the excavated area (Fig. 6). It consisted of a relatively large circular bowl cut (C.54) with a flue (C.19) extending to the southwest. It was the flue cut which truncated the field boundary ditch (C.5) (Plate 1). The bowl (C.54) measured 2.72 m east-west, 2.87 m north-south. It had almost vertical straight sides which came to a flat base, producing a sizable pit to a depth of about 0.7 m (Fig. 8). The flue (C.19) was orientated northeast-southwest and entered the bowl on the southern side where the opening was cut to a width of 0.84 m. The base of the flue rose steadily from the base of the bowl to just over 4 m away where it terminated at ground level. As the base became shallower, the sides of the flue cut also splayed - changing from vertical to gently sloping– and widened to over 2.6 m. In total, the bowl and flue denoted a structure of approximately 7 m in length. Once the main cutting of the kiln had been completed it is possible that the builders tested the mer- its of the location they had chosen and the depth of their kiln. In this instance, a trampled charcoal spread (C.173) may be explained as the result of use of the kiln before its construction was finished; it lay at the centre of the base of the bowl and may be associated with the earliest ephemeral burning deposits within the flue (C.172). Subsequent alterations were made after this phase of burning and the subsoil was removed from the side of the bowl to the east and west of the flue aperture. This cut (C.171) created an overhang on the western side of the bowl. The void behind the stone lining around the bowl (C.136) was filled by a sandy silt (C.170). The circumference of the base of the bowl was lined with stones (C.136), the only break being at the flue opening (Plate 2). Within this circle of stones the base was divided into quadrants, each one filled with stones (C.136) covered in lime residue (Plate 3). The stone-rows within the kiln bowl were separated from each other by up to 0.2 m and laid in a cruciform pattern, continuing the line of the flue, and defining quadrants within the bowl. The conduits between each quadrant were coarsely lintelled (C.142 and C.160) to create a complex air circulation system throughout the kiln. These air ducts (C.59 and C.57) were filled with debris (C.155, C.156, C.158 and C.161) and materials which indicated kiln use, such as charcoal and burnt lime. Three of the relatively solid quadrants (or quar- ter-circles C.136) each had further consolidating deposits laid above them. These (C.94, C.134 and C.135) were of orange silty sand, were of substantial extent and all had been heat altered. The fourth quadrant in the northeast had a small deposit (C.117) which consisted of ashy grey sandy silt that was probably related to the use of the kiln. Although it is possible the orange deposits (C.94, C.134 and C.135) related to a working platform as was hypothesised during excavation, it is more likely that these deposits provided mass to which latent heat transferred and thus aided a prolonged heating process. Furthermore, the fact that a consolidation Permalink: http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/e0476-bricketstown-co-wexford/ 7
  • 00E0476 Bricketstown, Co. Wexford ISSUE 4: Eachtra Journal - ISSN 2009-2237 layer was absent from the quadrant furthest to the rear of the bowl (C.54) may have allowed the air to funnel through to the back of the kiln, thus balancing the heat distribution throughout. At the aperture of the flue the stone lining (C.136) gave way to redeposited topsoil (C.148) which had been packed on each side of the flue. This was covered by lintel stones (C.162) which would have se- cured the opening but had definitely subsided over time. The remainder of the flue cut (C.19) evidently had side stones (C.114) but only a few of these remained (Fig. 9). The fact that the capstones (C.162) had shifted somewhat was evidenced by a patchwork of deposits above the stones; overlying the lintels were two deposits (C.146 and C.144) of redeposited and scorched naturals and above these were three further deposits (C.127, C.125 and C.124) of sandy silt, each sealing the flue canal. (The complexity of this series of deposits is illustrated in the mid-excavation plan Fig. 9). The flue cut (C.19) to the southwest of the lintels (C.162) was the location of multiple burning epi- sodes, including several deposits indicative of raking out of ashes and burnt soil. At the southwestern end of the flue (C.19), as it splayed out at ground level, a charcoal stained spread (C.139) signified these episodes of ash removal. Approximately half way down the external part of the flue, a hearth spread (C.138) remained, which consisted of burnt clays and charcoal (Plate 4 and Fig. 9). This comprised lenses of ashy material which probably represented a sequence of firings with only short time periods separating each event. It occupied the entire floor of the northern half of the flue. Both the hearth (C.138) and the rake-out (C.139) were covered by a layer of further raked/disturbed material (C.125). This red sandy silt (C.125) was heavily oxidised and littered with residue from burning and so was re- lated to hearths and previous firings. It had been disturbed - probably raked – and banked up against the southeast side of the flue (Plate 5). This was probably to clear the northwest side of the flue chan- nel so that the kiln could be used without entirely removing previous hearth material. This remaining channel was later partially backfilled with two deposits (C.95 and C.111). Both were about 0.1 m thick and had sparse evidence for burning activity. One (C.95) closed the start of the flue at the southwest, while the other (C.111) covered the remainder of the hearth (C.138) further down the flue. The largest of the surviving side stones (C.114) of the flue then collapsed over the latter deposit (C.111). To put the flue beyond use it was backfilled with a mottled friable material (C.88) which contained occasional charcoal and covered the entire northwestern side of the flue. Within the bowl, changes had also occurred during the lifespan of the kiln. A number of fills had col- lapsed into the chamber, filling it slowly from all sides. Immediately overlying the quadrants (C.136) and their sand packing (C.94, C.134 and C.135) were four fills (C.112, C.113, C.115 and C.116) (Fig. 9). On the southeastern side, a small deposit (C.112) had been indirectly heat affected. Similarly, a much larger deposit (C.113) on the eastern side produced evidence of indirect heating. It was also likely that this fill had been deposited before the final firing of the kiln as small pieces of charcoal were frequent in its composition. On the western side a fill (C.115) was found to show the same residual evidence and a small deposit (C.116) to the north was almost identical. These fills (C.112, C.113, C.115 and C.116) were all a product of kiln use and collectively illustrate heat related subsidence from all Permalink: http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/e0476-bricketstown-co-wexford/ 8
  • 00E0476 Bricketstown, Co. Wexford ISSUE 4: Eachtra Journal - ISSN 2009-2237 sides above the kiln. The relatively insubstantial amounts concerned did not block the air flow through the kiln. Overlying these initial fills was a more substantial crescent-shaped deposit (C.110) which was thickest over the flue entrance and presumably collapsed from this side, as it was absent from the northern side. This was a discoloured, charcoal flecked, residual layer from when the kiln was active and, although substantial, it would not have prevented heat circulation within the kiln. The kiln appeared to fall into disuse beyond this period and most of the fills within the bowl repre- sented the destruction of chamber or related material. Overlying the fill within the bowl (C.110), an un-burnt fill (C.87) was found which only occasionally produced charcoal flecks and scorched natu- ral. At the same time a greenish grey clay deposit (C.91), containing frequent mortar and moderate charcoal flecks, was backfilled over the central point of the cruciform flue system and effectively put this system out of use. Allied to this was clayey silt (C.90) deposited on the southern side. This was a compacted mottled layer that suggested that kiln material, probably rake-out, was used in the purpose- ful backfill of the bowl. A less mottled deposit (C.89) was dumped above this and further up the side of the bowl. On the side nearest the flue, three similar fills (C.84, C.85 and C.86) of brown silt, all with inclusions of burnt lining (baked natural), were identified high on the edge. These were distinct deposits and C.85 and C.86 were divided by a much darker silt spread (C.79) to the west. This dark deposit (C.79) produced some burnt stone but nothing else indicative of heat transfer. There was a subsequent central backfill of the bowl characterised by a firm sandy silt (C.76) with pebbles as well as pieces of weathered limestone and charcoal flecks. A further dump of dark silt (C.75) was deposited on the southern slope of the bowl and contained occasional charcoal and burnt stone. A spread of material (C.73) was tipped from the east edge and was similar to that which had been tipped from the south (C.75). Both were probably originally cleared from the flue before being backfilled at a later date. On the south side a further layer (C.72) was deposited, again indicating deliberate backfilling, but with less evidence that the soil was previously an active component within the kiln. These were covered by deposits C.71, an un-sorted, sterile brown pebbly silt that did not indicate any association with use of the kiln and C.70, a green sandy silt which also seems unlikely to have been connected with any direct kiln activity. A dark broad fill (C.69) of sandy silt with charcoal flecks covered these layers and most of the southern and eastern sides of the pit. The deposit was disturbed and so was not burned in situ, but this fill indicates a period of activity in the late medieval/post-medieval period, as some charcoal in the deposit returned a radiocarbon date of cal AD 1450-1650 (Beta-219132, see Appendix 5). The opposite side of the bowl appeared to be backfilled with comparatively few deposits. High on the north edge, a previously heated sandy silt (C.68) was dumped. At approximately the same time a large reddish brown deposit (C.67) was tipped from the southern side. Another backfilled deposit (C.66) was dumped on top from the southwest side; it included layers of broken shale which suggest that this material originated as subsoil, perhaps removed when the kiln was constructed. A smaller deposit (C.65) to the south also included shale. An additional grey pebbly crescent shaped deposit (C.64) was found high on the southwestern edge. It was overlain by a layer (C.62) of black silt with occasional flecks of charcoal. Following this, natural subsoil (C.60), most likely from the original cutting of the Permalink: http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/e0476-bricketstown-co-wexford/ 9
  • 00E0476 Bricketstown, Co. Wexford ISSUE 4: Eachtra Journal - ISSN 2009-2237 kiln (C.54), was backfilled from the west. Yet another fill (C.56) of black silt that contained evidence of burning was then tipped in from the west, over which still more natural subsoil (C.55) was deposited. A small patch of strongly cemented pebbly sand (C.53) was found to have been dumped high on the southwest edge and this had been covered by a layer (C.52) of yellowish orange clay. An insubstantial dark silt (C.47) was then deposited on this followed by a further pebbly deposit (C.46). The southern half of the remaining kiln hollow was then covered with natural subsoil (C.44) which almost certainly originated from the kiln cut (C.54) as this subsoil had charcoal flecking. On the north side of the kiln redeposited natural subsoil (C.42) was tipped (backfilled) from the west. Two dark burnt soils (C.41 and C.40) were then dumped on top of this. Both areas of redeposited natural (C.42 and C.44) were then covered with a broad burnt deposit of sandy silt (C.39) which contained inclusions of charcoal and possible burnt kiln lining which may have originated from a kiln cleaning episode. Backfilling continued at the western side of the kiln, and two more burnt brown silt deposits (C.37 and C.36) were tipped from the western edge. C.36 was then covered with a sequence of pebbles (C.34 and C.32) and more burnt sandy silts (C.33, C.31, C.28 and C.20). This sequence was sealed beneath a broad fill of stony redeposited natural subsoil (C.30) which had been dumped in from the southwest. A dark reddish black sand (C.26) was then deposited on C.30. Across the southern side a final large fill of brown stony silt (C.23) was dumped. The final fills evident in the kiln bowl (C.54) were less substantial (C.16, C.17, C.18 and C.20), all produced evidence of burning. The flue cut (C.19), while put beyond use by a substantial fill (C.88), would still have remained as a depression. At the end nearest the flue aperture, this depression was backfilled further with brown silty clay (C.83). Above this and to the southwest, light ashy silt (C.77) was deposited before burnt mottled silt (C.74) was banked up on the flue aperture. The fills at the northern end of the flue were then cov- ered with mottled redeposited natural (C.63) which had probably originated from the cutting of the flue (C.19). At the southwest end of the flue three deposits (C.45, C.43 and C.38) backfilled the west side. All produced charcoal flecks and probably represented earlier ‘rake-outs’ events which were later redeposited. A large brownish red deposit (C.61) with inclusions of charcoal was banked up against the southeastern side of the flue (C.19). Finally, the flue (C.19) was completely levelled out by a deposit (C.29) of assorted topsoil, natural subsoil and charcoal flecks. The bowl section of the kiln (C.54), once filled, was cut into at some later date. This was a sub-circu- lar pit (C.12), approximately 2 m in diameter with moderate concave sides, with the exception of the northern side which was almost vertical (Plate 6). It was dug to a depth of 0.44 m and the base was irregular. The sides of the cut were not oxidised and they were not burned in situ. The primary fill (C.11) of the pit only represented previous backfills of the kiln bowl which had been cut through and then redeposited. The uppermost fill (C.9) was brown sandy silt with occasional flecks of burnt natural and charcoal, but again not indicative of a function for the pit (C.12). This late pit cut may suggest that the site was intended to be reopened and that this task had commenced and was then abandoned before completion. Permalink: http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/e0476-bricketstown-co-wexford/ 10
  • 00E0476 Bricketstown, Co. Wexford ISSUE 4: Eachtra Journal - ISSN 2009-2237 Eighteen samples from the kiln were examined for plant remains and for the extraction of material from the heavy residues left after flotation. Limited quantities of charred macroplant fragments were discovered in the samples (see Appendix 6) and these may have been used as fuel or tinder in the kiln. Weathered limestone (identified by R. Unitt) was found in three contexts associated with the kiln bowl (C.136, C.155 and C.156) and this may have been a raw material for kiln use if lime was prepared. Any residual lime from use as a limekiln would have quickly dissolved in water and would not necessarily leave a trace (R. Unitt, pers. comm.). 6.3 Industrial Area - Work Surface Approximately 30 m to the south of the kiln an area of intense archaeological activity was interpreted as a work surface (Fig.6). This was recorded as twelve layers of archaeological deposits. These layers were partially truncated by furrows (C.80 and C.81). The earliest activity encountered was represented by two cuts; C.154 and C.141 (Fig. 10). The eastern of the two (C.154) was a relatively shallow stakehole, which tapered and inclined towards the south. This was filled by an orangey red clay deposit (C.153 – similar to C.140 detailed below). The other feature (C.141) was a sub-circular pit with a cut that had a steep side at the west, while elsewhere the sides sloped gently to a blunt rounded base. The first deposit in the sequence (C.143) partially filled this pit cut (C.141), although most of it was found to the east of the stakehole (C.154). This spread was not found over the stakehole and it is possible that the timber stake was still in place when charcoal spread was deposited. The charcoal spread (C.143) comprised black clay with stones and frequent char- coal, probably hearth material removed from the pit cut (C.141). A thick fill (C.140) of orangey red clay filled the remainder of the pit and also sealed the charcoal spread and the stakehole. This material (C.140) contained no finds but was probably hearth related material from elsewhere. A large layer (C.92) of redeposited natural overlay this, and extended in all directions beyond the previ- ous contexts. It contained numerous pottery fragments (Finds 00E0476:92:1-35) and after refitting by the pottery specialist these were identified as thirty sherds of Leinster Cooking Ware (Appendix 4). A piece of iron slag, a possible furnace bottom, was also found in this deposit. This layer formed a surface of unknown function. Three small lenses of burnt clay (C.137) were deposited on top of this surface; the burnt clay produced no finds and was not in situ. Overlying this was an elongated (east-west) charcoal spread (C.93) which contained many pottery fragments (00E0476:93:1-39), refitted to form thirty-four sherds of Leinster Cooking Ware (Appendix 4). The deposit appeared to have been scattered here as it was very thin with poorly defined edges. Another large layer (C.82) covered the charcoal and more or less mirrored the extent of the previous layer. It comprised dark brown clay with moderate amounts of charcoal and burnt clay and large amounts of Leinster Cooking Ware (00E0476:82:1-88), which were refitted to produce seventy-eight sherds (Appendix 4). A further large layer of dark brown silty clay with moder- ate charcoal inclusions (C.48) was deposited directly on the surface (Fig. 11) and it also produced sev- eral pottery fragments (00E0476:1-18), possibly residual from the lower layer (C.82). Also above C.82, Permalink: http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/e0476-bricketstown-co-wexford/ 11
  • 00E0476 Bricketstown, Co. Wexford ISSUE 4: Eachtra Journal - ISSN 2009-2237 in the northeast, was a crescent shaped deposit (C.78) that consisted of black silty clay with frequent charcoal. This was probably hearth material raked to the side of a hearth (C.51), which was defined by an area of burnt clay and edged by the crescent shaped deposit (C.78) at its southeastern extent. This hearth (C.51) was on the interface with the topsoil and so had been partially truncated by agricul- tural activity. Millstone fragments (Appendix 7) were recovered from this location during monitoring of topsoil removal within the development site (Finds no. 00E0476:1:18-19). These finds suggest the possibility that the hearth was associated with processing cereals (heat is often required to harden grain and facilitate grinding). Indeterminate fragments of grains and grasses were retrieved from a sample of the hearth (Appendix 6). It is also possible that the millstones were part of general waste that was dumped at this part of the site, representing domestic (pottery) and industrial (slag) activities. The surfaces and layers at this part of the site may have been deliberately laid work surfaces that were constructed by moving waste and debris from other areas of activity, or perhaps the remains signify a sequence of dumping, rather than deliberate deposition, in one area. Either way, the hearth laid at the very highest level of these layers may have been for work or for waste disposal purposes. 6.4 Hearth and Stakeholes Between the kiln and the working area there was another small area of archaeological activity that comprised numerous stakeholes and a circular pit (Fig. 12). The pit (C.97) contained two fills (C.96 and C.59), with the basal fill (C.96) identified as redeposited natural subsoil which contained no arte- facts or archaeobotanical material (Appendix 6) and there was no evidence to indicate its origin. Both fills contained moderate amounts of broken slate and the upper fill (C.59) resembled hearth material. As a consequence the pit has been interpreted as a hearth. A stake had been inserted into the northern part of this hearth (C.59). The sub-circular stakehole (C.123) tapered to a point and inclined to the northeast. This stakehole (C.123) was filled with reddish brown gravel (C.122). Immediately north of the hearth five stakeholes (C.101, C.129, C.131, C.133 and C.103) were found clustered together (Fig. 12). Three of these (C.101, C.131 and C.133) were circular, one oval (C.103) and one sub-circular (C.129). All were roughly the same depth (c. 0.1 m) except for the central stakehole (C.133) which was shallower (0.05 m) and set completely vertical. The others (C.101, C.129, C.131, and C.103) were generally inclined towards a central point (east, southwest, southwest and northeast respectively). These contained separate but similar fills (C.100, C.102, C.128, C.130 and C.132) of reddish brown silty clay with inclusions of fine pebbles and charcoal. No artefacts were recovered. Approximately 0.6 m north of the latter group, an isolated sub-circular stakehole (C.99), which was ‘U-shaped’ and set vertically, contained a fill (C.98) identical to those identified in the other stake- holes. Permalink: http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/e0476-bricketstown-co-wexford/ 12
  • 00E0476 Bricketstown, Co. Wexford ISSUE 4: Eachtra Journal - ISSN 2009-2237 Three further stakeholes (C.105, C.107 and C.109) were located to the south of the hearth (C.59). The western-most of these (C.105) was a circular stakehole of similar depth to those elsewhere; it leant slightly away from the hearth (to the southwest). This was filled by C.104, the same reddish brown silty clay encountered in stakeholes to the north of the hearth. Directly south of the hearth, an ovate stakehole (C.107) orientated southwest-northeast was excavated. This was shallow (0.05 m) but filled with the similar brown silty clay (C.106). The stake here would have inclined to the southeast. Finally, the third stakehole (C.109) south of the hearth was sub-circular and inclined to the southwest. This was filled with light brown silty clay (C.108) with only very occasional charcoal inclusions. This isolated area of archaeology must be interpreted as a hearth with associated spit or cooking furniture. Although there were no connections between any of the stakeholes they were probably all broadly contemporary. The stakes were generally aligned north/northwest to south/southeast across the hearth, some clustered together at the north. This was the only area of the site where cereal grains were relatively frequent (mostly identified as oats and barley, see Appendix 6) and it is an area that may have been used for cooking or processing grain. However, there was no evidence for the date of this activity at the site and it is difficult to relate it to either the kiln to the north or the medieval deposits to the south. 6.5 Later Land Division - Ditches Two ditches (C.15 and C.35) traversed the site and these encompassed and were aligned with the later furrows. These ditches ran parallel to one another and were orientated east-west (Fig. 6). They both truncated earlier ditches (C.5 and C.8). The northern of the two ditches (C.15), contained three fills; C.4, C.13 and C.14 (Fig. 13). Both sides of the ditch cut (C.15) were stepped, but the northern side was slightly steeper. The primary fill (C.14) consisted of burnt clay with high instances of charcoal. It appeared that wood and scrub had been burned in places intermittently along the base of the ditch. This was in turn covered by a fill (C.13) of orange silty clay which was probably redeposited natural subsoil and it may represent the collapse, or purposeful backfill, of a field bank. One fragment of Leinster Cooking Ware (Find 00E0476:13:1, identified in Appendix 4) was also incorporated into the fill. A sherd was also recovered from the ear- lier ditch (C.8). Disturbance and truncation probably led to the redeposition of earlier pottery into the fills of both ditches. The upper fill (C.4) of the ditch was brown silty clay, formed primarily through natural silting of the ditch, perhaps accelerated by agricultural activity in the vicinity, evidenced by the presence of furrows to the south (see below). Another ditch (C.35) ran parallel to the south. It was approximately half as wide and only half as deep as C.15 and it had moderate concave sides sloping to a flat base. The basal fill (C.27) was brownish orange silty clay, comparable to the middle fill of the northern ditch (C.13). It also had inclusions of charcoal, again suggesting intermittent burning activity. The ditch was finally filled with a dark brown Permalink: http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/e0476-bricketstown-co-wexford/ 13
  • 00E0476 Bricketstown, Co. Wexford ISSUE 4: Eachtra Journal - ISSN 2009-2237 deposit (C.24) comparable to the upper fill of ditch C.15. Although the ditch cuts (C.15 and C.35) were quite different, the fills indicate similar formation processes, and they were probably back-filled simultaneously. The redeposited fills C.13 and C.27 suggest a bank had been built between the ditches from the up-cast of the cuts. These ditches signify the enclosing of land which contained the evidence for ridge and furrow agricul- ture. 6.6 Furrows Approximately 25 furrows traversed the site and survived in various degrees of preservation (Plate 7). They were all roughly parallel to one another and were orientated north-northwest – south-southeast (Fig. 6). These were recorded diligently where it was suspected that the line of the furrow truncated earlier activity. As these were homogeneous, the furrows at locations with no underlying archaeology will not be discussed here. Only two furrows (C.80 and C.81) passed over archaeology (the working area C.48). Both were of a shallow depth and were filled with brown silty clay (C.49 and C.50 respectively). These fills contained charcoal and pottery (Finds 00E0476: 49:1-5 and 00E0476:50:1-20), after refitting these were identi- fied by the pottery specialist as twenty-three sherds of Leinster Cooking Ware (Appendix 4) which were probably disturbed from the underlying layer (C.48). Permalink: http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/e0476-bricketstown-co-wexford/ 14
  • 00E0476 Bricketstown, Co. Wexford ISSUE 4: Eachtra Journal - ISSN 2009-2237 7 Artefacts and Industrial Waste The most common artefacts retrieved from this site were fragments of ceramic pottery which were ex- amined by Clare McCutcheon (Appendix 4). These were primarily retrieved from contexts that made up the work surface. After refitting were two hundred and two sherds of Leinster Cooking Ware were identified, with four vessel noted: two cooking jars, a lamp and a platter or slab that was probably used as a serving dish. These were all domestic wares. Industrial waste from the site was analysed by Effie Photos-Jones (Appendix 8). This comprised one lump of slag that was found in the layers that made up the work surface and it was identified as slag that formed after roasting, possibly in preparation for a smelt. Fragments from millstone (Plate 8) were recovered during topsoil monitoring at the site and these were the subject of a visual examination by the geologist Richard Unitt (Appendix 7). It was identified as Red-brown, clast supported, immature conglomerate and the granular stone was probably deliberately chosen as a raw material for the millstone since its rough texture created a good grinding surface (R. Unitt pers. comm.). This stone is described in Appendix 7. These finds are catalogued in the Finds Register in Appendix 3. The pottery and slag were retrieved from the work surface and the millstone fragments were retrieved from topsoil during monitoring. 8 Environmental Remains Charcoal was only found in two of the samples from the site and this was assessed by Mary Dillon in advance of radiocarbon dating (Appendix 9). Martha Tierney examined forty-five samples for plant remains from the site but no charred seeds were found in any of the samples (see Appendix 6). 9 Discussion The main features of the sites included early land divisions (ditches), a work surface with residues from various industrial activities, a hearth surrounded by stakeholes/hearth furniture, later land divisions (ditches) that enclosed ridges and furrows and a kiln. The archaeological evidence from the site is gen- erally indicative of activity associated with agriculture, incorporating a kiln, furrows, boundaries and drainage ditches. The hearth and a work/industrial surface to the south of the site do not appear to be related and their purpose or function remains puzzling. The most complex sequence of archaeological deposits at the site was excavated at the kiln, which can be summarised as follows: a bowl and flue cut, with the flue splayed at its entrance (see Plate 9). The base of the flue was inclined, with the highest point at the flue entrance and the lowest at the point where it met the base of the bowl. Stone-lined air conduits in a cruciform pattern were found at the base of the bowl and they continued from the line of the flue and allowed the efficient distribution of heat within the kiln. There was evidence for successive firings and rake-outs from the bowl. At the end of its use the kiln flue was apparently deliberately blocked, although there was some evidence to suggests that there may have been attempts to recut the bowl. However, this was not successful and kiln was abandoned. Permalink: http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/e0476-bricketstown-co-wexford/ 15
  • 00E0476 Bricketstown, Co. Wexford ISSUE 4: Eachtra Journal - ISSN 2009-2237 This site was initially interpreted as a grain drying kiln and appears in a gazetteer of excavated grain drying kilns (Monk and Kelleher 2005, 109). It now appears that this classification is mistaken. The absence of large quantities grain or plant remains in any of the kiln deposits (Appendix 6) is one argu- ment against the interpretation of the site as a grain drying kiln. In addition, the series of kilns exca- vated during this project were significantly bigger than the usual size of excavated keyhole shape grain drying kilns; chamber diameters ranged from 0.32 m to 1.6 m in most surveyed examples (Monk and Kelleher 2005, 81), while the chamber at this site was c. 2.8 m in diameter, in line with the sizes noted for the few excavated examples of late medieval/early post-medieval limekilns known from Ireland (see comparative table below). Table of comparative details for excavated examples of Irish limekilns Site County Orientation Total length Bowl Length Bowl Width Bowl Depth Flue length Flue width Ballymount Great 97E0316 Dublin 1.2 0.71 (Conway 1998) Laurence’s Street, Drogheda Louth 3.4 3.4 98E0544 (Murphy 2000) Custom House 97E0028 ext Galway NW-SE 3.5 3.5 >1 (Delaney 2000) Nicholas Street Site F Dublin N-S Bowl and 1.88 1.8 1.55 No flue N/A (Walsh 1997) stokehole found c.2.2 m Danecastle, Carrick-on-Bannow Wexford NNW-SSE Not fully 3.48 1.64 5.04 4.35-1.35 04E0855 excavated (Ó Drisceoil 2004-5) Bohercrow road, Murgasty Tipperary E-W 8.5 c. 3.5? 3.48 1.2 c. 5? 97E0026 (Cummins 1999) Bricketstown 00E0476 Wexford NE-SW 7 2.87 2.72 0.7 4 0.84 to 2.6 Bricketstown 00E0626 Wexford NNE-SSW 7 c. 3 c. 3 1.25 4 1 to 2 Harristown Little 00E0417 * Wexford NNE-SSW 3.7 * 2.7 2.7 0.52 1* 1 * indicates truncation, full extent unknown ? indicates that measurements are estimates based on summary measurements given Other excavated limekilns include Drogheda (Campbell 1987) and Tullyallen 5 (Campbell 2001) in Co. Louth, Kilkenny Castle (Sweetman 1976) and Callan (Moran 2001) in Co. Kilkenny, two lime kilns at Mondaniel (03E1094), Co. Cork (Quinn 2006) and one limekiln at 8-9 Lower Abbey St., Sligo 98E0216 ext (Hayden 1999). Additional suggestions that this was a limekiln come from the structural remains at Bricketstown (00E0476), in particular the air vent at the base of the kiln bowl. This was constructed from stones and arranged in a cruciform pattern to allow an even distribution of air through the kiln. The constant distribution of air during lime burning was crucial as this ensured that the procedure occurred evenly (Bick 1984) and ventilation channels would have promoted good results from the kiln. This facility was more impressive than the simple earth cut channel found at the base of the other Bricketstown kiln (00E0626). A kiln similar to the Bricketstown example was found at Dromthacker, Co. Kerry (Cleary 1998) with cruciform air vents at the base. These vents were earth-cut rather than stone lined Permalink: http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/e0476-bricketstown-co-wexford/ 16
  • 00E0476 Bricketstown, Co. Wexford ISSUE 4: Eachtra Journal - ISSN 2009-2237 flues and although no radiocarbon date was obtained the structure was interpreted as a nineteenth century limekiln. The baked substratum found at each of these Wexford kilns indicated extreme heat, and at Brckets- town (00E0476) there was evidence that the walls of the kiln, cut into the subsoil, had been subject to extremely high temperatures (see Plate 10 of post-ex of kiln bowl). This is comparable to the results from another excavation in Co. Wexford; at Danecastle, Carrick-on-Bannow Ó Drisceoil (2004-5) noted that a limekiln was lined with a mixture of clay and crushed sandstone which had baked rock- hard in the heat of the kiln. Temperatures inducing such baking must have been far in excess of the requirements for drying grain and hard-baked subsoil is not usually a noted feature of grain drying kilns. Temperatures reached during experimental firings of grain drying kilns were never in excess of 65ºC (Monk and Kelleher 2005, 97-100) while the temperatures required for making lime is usually near the 900ºC mark (Stowell 1963, 10; Hale et al. 2003). A more recent limekiln was recorded along the route of the Harristown-Rathsillagh realignment, within the townland of Ballyvergin, which was shown on the 1st edition OS map and was said to have been in use only 70 years prior to its destruction (Elder 2001). It was located 2 km northwest of the site at Bricketstown. This kiln appears to have been a successor to the earlier examples excavated at Harrisown Little and Bricketstown. It’s existence is proof of the availability of suitable raw materials for lime burning in the general area. The post-medieval example from Ballyvergin was cut into a field boundary and in this it resembles the other kiln sites (at Bricketstown 00E0626 and 00E0476 and at Harristown Little 00E0417), which are all associated with ditch complexes that have been interpreted as relict field boundaries. Permanent structure limekilns fall into two basic types, draw kilns or flare kilns. The type found at Bricketstown (00E0476) fits into descriptions of flare kilns. These kilns were operated by placing a single consignment of stones (such as limestone, marble or chalk) and interspersed with fuel such as fuel and charcoal. These were loaded from the top of the kiln. These stones contain calcite (calcium carbonate) which can be heated to produce calcined lime or quicklime (CaCO3 + heat → CaO + CO2). The heat source came from the hearth which was lit at the base of the kiln. These needed to be big fires as heating only at low temperatures causes a reversible reaction, and allows the re-absorption of atmos- pheric carbon dioxide. The process is only reversible if temperatures have exceeded 900ºC, releasing all the carbon dioxide. Once the fire was lit it required several days of burning before the limestone was calcined. The end product, quicklime, was retrieved from the bottom of the kiln. The entire procedure of lime burning was “more an art than a science”, being dependent on the weather (wind strength and direction) and the quality of both raw materials and fuel supplied (Bick 1984). Quicklime is an alkaline crystalline solid which is caustic but it has several uses; used in building work as a bonding agent (an ingredient in mortar), in render, in whitewash, and as fertiliser (Rynne 1999), although its use for the latter purpose in Ireland generally dates to the period around the mid Permalink: http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/e0476-bricketstown-co-wexford/ 17
  • 00E0476 Bricketstown, Co. Wexford ISSUE 4: Eachtra Journal - ISSN 2009-2237 seventeenth century (Ó Drisceoil 2004-5). The date returned from charcoal in this Bricketstown kiln may overlap with this (cal AD 1450-1650). Rynne (1999, 29) notes that most small limekilns, citing as example a stone-built kiln with a 2.2 m diameter bowl (Power et al. 1994, 334), were probably used only intermittently for the production of small quantities of lime to be used for agricultural purposes. The bowl of this Bricketstown kiln was a similar small size, perhaps indicating that its primary use was for the production of agricultural lime. By the late seventeenth century thousands of acres in Ireland had been improved by manuring and liming, including areas of Co. Wexford, where “all sorts of excellent bread, corn, grain, orchards, fruits, sweet herbs, meadows, pastures for all sorts of cattle” were the produce of land that was “not naturally fertile” (Molyneux 1680s, cited in Clarkson and Crawford 2001, 15-16). By the late eight- eenth century Young (1780) commented that the Irish farmers were accomplished lime burners, and that this was the primary form of “manure” or fertiliser that they used. The working surface, situated 30 m south of the kiln, was identified as an earlier, feature based on the assemblage of medieval pottery (Leinster Cooking Ware, see Appendix 4). Numerous sherds of Leinster Cooking Ware were also found during excavation of the moated site at Carrowreagh, 1.3 km northwest, and three contexts associated with this pottery type produced radiocarbon dates from cal AD 1300-1430. This suggests that the work surface at Bricketstown may have predated use of the kiln (use dated to between cal AD 1450-1650 (Beta 219132). However, the deposit that the pottery was taken from resembles a dump of material (slag was also found) and it may simply represent the clearing away of waste from an earlier settlement or industrial area. The kiln was associated with several ditches, probably relict field boundaries and it truncated one of these, indicating that construction of the kiln predated the enclosure of the land and the formation of some of the boundaries. These marked property boundaries, protected arable fields against wild and domestic animals, enclosed domestic animals to protect from predators, and provided shelter, etc. (see Groenman-van Waateringe 1981). Some of the field boundary ditches evidently enclosed the furrows that ran northwest-southeast across the southern part of the site. All of the limekilns excavated along the route of the N25 Rathsillagh-Harristown road were associated with ditches that have been inter- preted as field boundaries. Kilns are often associated with boundaries as they were frequently cut into banks to provide shelter during firing and to facilitate top loading of the kiln. Permalink: http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/e0476-bricketstown-co-wexford/ 18
  • 00E0476 Bricketstown, Co. Wexford ISSUE 4: Eachtra Journal - ISSN 2009-2237 10 Summary The site comprised six archaeological parts; early land divisions (ditches), a limekiln, a working surface, a hearth with stakeholes, later land divisions (ditches) and furrows. The latest features were ridge and furrows, they were bound by ditches which acted as field divisions and/or drains. Underlying the fur- rows two separate areas of activity were encountered. The first of these consisted of a number of stake- holes and a hearth, while the second was a working surface. The kiln, which post-dated one of the field boundaries, was also excavated. The archaeological excavation at this site indicates continuous agrarian and quasi-industrial activity in the area from the late medieval period onwards. The division of land, through the use of ditches and implied banks, both before and after use of the kiln, draws attention to the sub-division and consolidation of property through time. Permalink: http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/e0476-bricketstown-co-wexford/ 19
  • 00E0476 Bricketstown, Co. Wexford ISSUE 4: Eachtra Journal - ISSN 2009-2237 11 References Bennett, I. 2004-5. ‘Archaeological Excavations in Co. Wexford’, Journal of the Wexford Historical Society 20, 184-196. Bick, D. 1984. ‘Limekiln on the Gloucestershire-Herefordshire border’, Industrial Archaeology Review VII (1), 85-93. Campbell, K. 1987 ‘The archaeology of medieval Drogheda’, Archaeology Ireland 2. Campbell, K. 2001 ‘Tullyallen 5, Co. Meath’, in Bennett, I. (ed.) Excavations 1998. Bray, Wordwell. Clarkson, L.A. and Crawford, E.M. 2001. Feast and Famine. Food and Nutrition in Ireland 1500- 1920. Oxford, Oxford University Press. Cleary, R.M. 1998. ‘Dromthacker’, pp. 85-86 in I. Bennett (ed.) Excavations 1997. Bray, Wordwell. Colfer, B. 1987. ‘Anglo-Norman Settlement in County Wexford’, pp. 65-101 in Whelan, K. (ed.) Wexford History and Society. Interdisciplinary essays on the history of an Irish county. Dublin, Geography Publications. Colfer, B. 1990-1991. ‘Medieval Wexford’, Journal of the Wexford Historical Society 13, 4-29. Conway, M. 1998. ‘Ballymount Great, Co. Dublin’, in Bennett, I. (ed.) Excavations 1997. No. 079. Cotter, C. 1986. ‘MacMurroughs, Co. Wexford’, in Cotter, C. (ed.) Excavations 1985. Dublin, Irish Academic Publication for Organisation of Irish Archaeologists. Cummins, T. 1999. ‘Bohercrow Road, Murgasty, Co. Tipperary’ in Bennett, I. (ed.) Excavations 1998. Bray, Wordwell. Delaney, D. 2000. ‘Custom House, Flood Street/Courthouse Lane, Galway’, in Bennett, I. (ed.) Excavations 1999. Bray, Wordwell. Elder, S. 2001. ‘Archaeological Monitoring Report 00E0379’, Unpublished report for Eachtra Archaeological Projects. Green, S. W. and Zvelebil, M. 1990. ‘The Mesolithic colonisation and agricultural transition of south- east Ireland’, Proceedings of the Prehistoric Society 56, 57-88. Groenman-van Waateringe, W. 1981. ‘Field boundaries in Ireland’, pp. 285-290 in Ó Corráin (ed.) Irish Antiquity. Dublin, Four Courts Press. Hale, J., Heinemeier, J., Lancaster, L., Lindroos, A. and Ringbom, A. 2003. ‘Dating ancient mortar’, American Scientist 91 (2). Permalink: http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/e0476-bricketstown-co-wexford/ 20
  • 00E0476 Bricketstown, Co. Wexford ISSUE 4: Eachtra Journal - ISSN 2009-2237 Hayden, A. 1999. ‘8-9 Lower Abbey Street Sligo’, in Bennett, I. (ed.) Excavations 1998. Bray, Wordwell. Howarth, O.J.R. 1911. A Geography of Ireland. London, Oxford Geographies. McCarthy, M. 2004. ‘Strandfield, Co. Wexford’, pp. 520-521 in Bennett, I. (ed.) Excavations 2002. Bray, Wordwell. McLoughlin, C. 2004. ‘Kerlogue’, pp.517-518 in Bennet, I. (ed.) Excavations 2002. Bray, Wordwell. Mitchell, F. and Ryan, M. 1997. Reading the Irish Landscape. Dublin, Town House. Monk, M. and Kelleher, E. 2005. ‘An assessment of the archaeological evidence fro Irish corn-drying kilns in the light of the results of archaeological experiments and archaeobotanical studies’, Journal of Irish Archaeology XIV. Moore, M. 1996. Archaeological Inventory of County Wexford. The Stationary Office, Dublin. Moran, J. 2000. ‘Ballyanne, Co. Wexford’, in Bennett, I. (ed.) Excavations 1998. Bray, Wordwell. Moran, J. 2001. ‘Tinnamoona, Chapel Lane, Callan’, in Bennett, I. (ed.) Excavations 2000. Bray, Wordwell. Murphy, D. 2000. ‘Former Drogheda Grammar School, Laurence’s Street, Drogheda’, in I. Bennett (ed.) Excavations 1999. Bray, Wordwell. Ó Drisceoil, C. 2004-5. ‘Excavation of a Limerkiln at Danceastle, Carrick-on-Bannow’, Journal of the Wexford Historical Society 20, 203-208. O’Keeffe, T. 2000. Medieval Ireland, An Archaeology. Stroud, Tempus. O’Kelly, M.J. 1975. ‘Archaeological Survey and Excavation of St. Vogue’s Church, Enclosure and Other Monuments st Carnsore, Co. Wexford’, Unpublished excavation report for the Electricity Supply Board. Power, D., Lane, S., Byrne, E., Egan, U., Sleeman, M., Cotter, E. and Monk, J. 2000. Archaeological Inventory of County Cork Vol. 4 Part 2. Dublin, The Stationery Office. Purcell, J. 2004. ‘St. Vogue’s’, p.520 in Bennet, I. (ed.) Excavations 2002. Bray, Wordwell. Purcell, A. 2002. ‘Courtlands East, Co. Wexford’, in Bennett, I. (ed.) Excavations 2000. Bray, Wordwell. Quinn, A. 2006. ‘Mondaniel 3 03E1094 Co. Cork’, in Bennett, I. (ed.) Excavations 2003. Bray, Permalink: http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/e0476-bricketstown-co-wexford/ 21
  • 00E0476 Bricketstown, Co. Wexford ISSUE 4: Eachtra Journal - ISSN 2009-2237 Wordwell. Rynne, C. 1999. The Industrial Archaeology of Cork City and its Environs. Dublin, Government of Ireland. Stout, G. 1987. ‘Wexford in Prehistory 5000 B.C. to 300 A.D.’, pp.1-39 in Whelan, K. (ed.) Wexford History and Society. Interdisciplinary essays on the history of an Irish county. Dublin, Geography Publications. Stowell, F.P. 1963. Limestone as a raw material. Oxford, Oxford University Press. Sweetman, P.D. 1976. ‘Kilkenny’, in Delaney, T. (ed.) Excavations 1975. Walsh, C. 1997. Archaeolgical Excavations at Patrick, Nicholas and Winetavern Streets, Dublin. Kerry, Brandon. Young, A. 1780. A Tour in Ireland. Dublin. 11.1 Websites www.nra.ie/Archaeology/LeafletandPosterSeries Maps reproduced under licence where appropriate Ordnance Survey Ireland Licence No. AU 0005603 © Government of Ireland Permalink: http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/e0476-bricketstown-co-wexford/ 22
  • 00E0476 Bricketstown, Co. Wexford ISSUE 4: Eachtra Journal - ISSN 2009-2237 12 Figures Figure 1: Discovery map showing the route of the N25 Rathsillagh-Harristown road Permalink: http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/e0476-bricketstown-co-wexford/ 23
  • 00E0476 Bricketstown, Co. Wexford Permalink: http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/e0476-bricketstown-co-wexford/ 00E0471 00E0474 00E0473 00E0626 00E0424 Legend 00E0623 00E0417 New Road 00E0475 Existing N25 00E0625 New Archaeological Sites 00E0476 00E0624 00E0425 1km Figure 2: Ordnance Survey 1st edition showing the route of the N25 Rathsillagh-Harristown road 24 ISSUE 4: Eachtra Journal - ISSN 2009-2237
  • 00E0476 Bricketstown, Co. Wexford DE 18 LIS TE1531 D 14 21 D 20 13 173131 EL IS 19 TE D 67 16 Permalink: http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/e0476-bricketstown-co-wexford/ 25 00E0471 24 00E0474 23 00E0473 00E0626 00E0424 00E0623 52 00E0417 Legend New Road 00E0475 Existing N25 D 00E0625 64 New Archaeological Sites EL 00E0476 IS 33 00E0624 00E0425 1km TE 58 D 3232 Figure 3: RMP sheet showing the route of the N25 Rathsillagh-Harristown road 25 ISSUE 4: Eachtra Journal - ISSN 2009-2237
  • 00E0476 Bricketstown, Co. Wexford ISSUE 4: Eachtra Journal - ISSN 2009-2237 Figure 4: Route of new road with all excavated sites displayed 500m 0m Permalink: http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/e0476-bricketstown-co-wexford/ 26
  • 00E0476 Bricketstown, Co. Wexford ISSUE 4: Eachtra Journal - ISSN 2009-2237 Figure 5: Plan of excavated area within the context of modern field and road boundaries Permalink: http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/e0476-bricketstown-co-wexford/ 27
  • 00E0476 Bricketstown, Co. Wexford ISSUE 4: Eachtra Journal - ISSN 2009-2237 Figure 6: Plan of the excavated area showing the three main areas of archaeological activity (kiln, hearth and stakeholes, the working surface) and ditches Permalink: http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/e0476-bricketstown-co-wexford/ 28
  • 00E0476 Bricketstown, Co. Wexford ISSUE 4: Eachtra Journal - ISSN 2009-2237 W 0m E 1.20m C. 3 C.10 Natural C.5 W 0m E 1.30m C.2 C.6 C.7 C.8 Natural 0 1m Figure 7: Sections through early land division ditches (C.5 and C.8) Permalink: http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/e0476-bricketstown-co-wexford/ 29
  • 00E0476 Bricketstown, Co. Wexford ISSUE 4: Eachtra Journal - ISSN 2009-2237 Figure 8: Post-excavation plan of the kiln bowl and flue (C.54 and C.19) Permalink: http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/e0476-bricketstown-co-wexford/ 30
  • 00E0476 Bricketstown, Co. Wexford ISSUE 4: Eachtra Journal - ISSN 2009-2237 Figure 9: Mid-excavation plan of the kiln bowl and flue (C.54 and C.19) Permalink: http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/e0476-bricketstown-co-wexford/ 31
  • 00E0476 Bricketstown, Co. Wexford ISSUE 4: Eachtra Journal - ISSN 2009-2237 C.143 C.154 C.143 C.141 0 1m Figure 10: Earliest activity at the medieval work surface (C.154 and C.141) Permalink: http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/e0476-bricketstown-co-wexford/ 32
  • 00E0476 Bricketstown, Co. Wexford ISSUE 4: Eachtra Journal - ISSN 2009-2237 Figure 11: Work surface truncated by furrows (C.80 and C.81) Permalink: http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/e0476-bricketstown-co-wexford/ 33
  • 00E0476 Bricketstown, Co. Wexford ISSUE 4: Eachtra Journal - ISSN 2009-2237 C.99 C.101 C.103 C.129 C.133 C.131 C.123 C.97 C.105 C.107 C.109 Figure 12: Area with hearth (C.97) and stakeholes Permalink: http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/e0476-bricketstown-co-wexford/ 34
  • 00E0476 Bricketstown, Co. Wexford ISSUE 4: Eachtra Journal - ISSN 2009-2237 E 5.00 E 5.00 N 4.98 N 0.64 C.2 C.4 C.13 C.14 C.15 Natural 0 1m Figure 13: Section through later land division ditch (C.15) Permalink: http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/e0476-bricketstown-co-wexford/ 35
  • 00E0476 Bricketstown, Co. Wexford ISSUE 4: Eachtra Journal - ISSN 2009-2237 13 Plates Plate 1: Pre-excavation of kiln and ditches showing the kiln flue cutting the early ditch Plate 2: Stone-lined flue at the base of the kiln bowl Permalink: http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/e0476-bricketstown-co-wexford/ 36
  • 00E0476 Bricketstown, Co. Wexford ISSUE 4: Eachtra Journal - ISSN 2009-2237 Plate 3: Lime residues at the base of the kiln bowl Plate 4: Layers of burnt clay and charcoal within the kiln flue Permalink: http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/e0476-bricketstown-co-wexford/ 37
  • 00E0476 Bricketstown, Co. Wexford ISSUE 4: Eachtra Journal - ISSN 2009-2237 Plate 5: Rake-out banked onto the southeast side of the flue Plate 6: Re-cut of the kiln bowl Permalink: http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/e0476-bricketstown-co-wexford/ 38
  • 00E0476 Bricketstown, Co. Wexford ISSUE 4: Eachtra Journal - ISSN 2009-2237 Plate 7: Pre-excavation shot of parallel furrows traversing the site Plate 8: Millstone fragments recovered during topsoil removal (photograph: John Sunderland) Permalink: http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/e0476-bricketstown-co-wexford/ 39
  • 00E0476 Bricketstown, Co. Wexford ISSUE 4: Eachtra Journal - ISSN 2009-2237 Plate 9: Mid excavation of kiln showing splayed flue Plate 10: Post-excavation of kiln bowl showing baked substratum in kiln Permalink: http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/e0476-bricketstown-co-wexford/ 40
  • 00E0476 Bricketstown, Co. Wexford ISSUE 4: Eachtra Journal - ISSN 2009-2237 14 Appendices 14.1 Appendix 1: Context Register C. No. Type Description Finds Over Under 1 Topsoil - - - - 2 ditch fill (C.8) brown silty clay with pebbles none 6 1 3 ditch fill (C.5) brown silty clay with moderate pebbles an occ none 10 1 charcoal flecks 4 ditch fill (C.15) brown silty clay mod sub-angular pebbles and none 13 1 small/medium sub-angular stones with occa- sional flecks and small pieces of charcoal 5 Ditch cut NE-SW linear cut none Nat 10 6 ditch fill (C.8) redeposited natural - brownish yellow silty clay none 7 2 7 ditch fill (C.8) mid brown silty clay with moderate medium/ none 8 6 coarse pebbles 8 Ditch cut NE-SW linear cut none Nat 7 9 pit fill (C.12) light yellowish brown sandy silt with frequent none 11 1 angular pebbles and small stones and flecks of scorched clay 10 ditch fill (C.5) light yellowish brown silty clay with freq fine none 5 3 pebbles0 11 pit fill (C.12) mid reddish brown sandy silt with frequent peb- none 12 9 bles and occasional small stones 12 Pit cut sub-circular cut none 16 11 13 ditch fill (C.15) mid orange silty clay with moderate sub-angular/ 2 (pottery) 14 4 angular pebbles and stones 14 ditch fill (C.15) Burnt clay and charcoal - dark orange silty clay none 15 13 with occ angular pebbles and small stones 15 Ditch cut E-W linear cut none Nat 14 16 Flue fill (C.19) yellowish brown sandy silt with moderate none 17 12 subangular coarse pebbles and small stones and occasional flecks of burnt natural and charcoal 17 Spread/fill of Flue (C.19) dark yellowish brown sandy silt with moderate none 23 16 sub-angular pebbles and small stones with oc- casional flecks of charcoal and moderate flecks of scorched natural 18 Flue fill (C.19) yellowish brown sandy silt with frequent fine/ none 23 16 medium pebbles and occasional flecks of char- coal and burnt natural 19 Cut of kiln flue - - - - 20 Flue fill (C.19) yellowish brown sandy silt with moderate sub- none 31 12 angular pebbles and occasional flecks of charcoal 21 ditch fill (C.5) ligth reddish orange silty clay with moderate none 5 25 angular/sub-angular fine/medium pebbles 22 deposit Small spread of reddish pink sandy silt material none 23 12 with occasional fine sub-angular pebbles 23 fill Large mid yellowish brown gravel fill none 26 18 24 ditch fill (C.35) dark brown silty clay with occ flecks and small none 27 1 pieces of charcoal, occasional flecks of burnt clay, moderate pebbles and fine/medium stones 25 ditch fill (C.5) brown sandy silt with moderate fine/medium none 21 1 angular/sub-angular pebbles 26 Kiln fill dark reddish black sand with occ charcoal flecks none 30 23 and sub-angular medium pebbles and small stones Permalink: http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/e0476-bricketstown-co-wexford/ 41
  • 00E0476 Bricketstown, Co. Wexford ISSUE 4: Eachtra Journal - ISSN 2009-2237 C. No. Type Description Finds Over Under 27 ditch fill (C.35) redeposited natural - dark brownish orange none 35 24 with moderate angular/sub-angular stones and pebbles with occasional flecks of burnt clay and charcoal 28 Kiln fill brownish black sandy silt with moderate angular none 67 23 pebbles and charcoal flecks with occasional pieces of charcoal 29 Flue fill mottled yellowish brown sandy silt - frequent none 38 1 sub-angular pebbles, occasional charcoal flecks 30 Kiln fill yellowish brown pebbley silt with small/medium none 31 26 sub-angular stones 31 Black fill of kiln (C.19) dark brownish black sandy clay with occasional none 32 30 fine sub-angular pebbles and medium sub- rounded stones, frequent flecks of charcoal 32 Kiln fill light brownish grey pebbley silt with frequent none 33 31 angular pebbles and small stones 33 Kiln fill dark greyish black sandy silt with moderate sub- none 34 32 angular pebbles and occasional small stones and pieces of charcoal, frequent charcoal flecks 34 Flue fill of (C.19) Yellowish grey/brown silty shale with occasional none 36 33 flecks of burnt natural 35 Ditch cut E-W linear cut none Nat 27 36 Flue fill of (C.19) Black-purple sandy silt - frequent sub-angular none 39 34 pebbles, occasional small stones, frequent flecks of charcoal, occasional small pieces of charcoal and burnt natural 37 Flue fill of (C.19) orangish brown sandy silt - moderate sub-an- none 39 30 gular pebbles, occasioanl small stones, frequent small pieces of burnt natural 38 Flue fill of (C.19) reddish brown silty clay - angular/sub-angular none 43 29 fine/medium pebbles, moderate flecks and small pieces of charcoal 39 Flue fill of (C.19) reddish brown sandy silt - frequent angular peb- none 40 37 bles and small stones, moderate large pieces of burnt natural and occasional charcoal flecks 40 Flue fill of (C.19) dark brownish black sandy silt - moderate sub- none 41 39 angular pebbles and charcoal flecks 41 Possible fill of 19 light reddish orande sandy silt with frequent none 42 40 charcoal flecks 42 Flue backfill (C.19) yellowish brown sandy silt - moderate sub-an- none 44 41 gular pebbles and occasional small stones and charcoal flecks 43 Flue fill of (C.19) mottled silty clay - frequent sub-angular fine/ none 45 38 medium pebbles, moderate flecks and small pieces of charcoal 44 Fill of corn dryer brownish yellow sandy silt - frequent sub-angu- none 47 42 lar pebbles, moderate charcoal flecks 45 Flue fill of (C.19) brown sandy silt - moderate angular/sub-angular none 88 43 fine/medium pebbles, occasional charcoal flecks 46 Fill of corn dryer light yellowish grey gravel - sub-angular me- none 47 39 dium/coarse pebbles, small angular stones 47 Flue fill of (C.19) dark greyish brown sandy silt - moderate fine/ none - 44 medium angular pebbles, occasional charcoal flecks 48 Dark brown material dark brown silty clay with moderate stones and pot? 82 1 pebbles and moderate flecks and small pieces of charcoal Permalink: http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/e0476-bricketstown-co-wexford/ 42
  • 00E0476 Bricketstown, Co. Wexford ISSUE 4: Eachtra Journal - ISSN 2009-2237 C. No. Type Description Finds Over Under 49 furrow fill (C.80) dark brown silty clay with moderate pebbles and pot? 80 1 occasional charcoal flecks 50 furrow fill (C.81) dark brown silty clay with moderate pebbles and pot? 81 1 occasional charcoal flecks 51 deposit Burnt clay - dark orangish red silty clay with millstone 78 1 moderate pebbles and small stones 52 Kiln lining Yellowish orange burnt sandy clay - frequent fine none 33 44 sub-angular pebbles 53 Kiln fill Shaley lump brownish grey pebbley sand none 55 52 54 Cut of flue - - - - 55 lense/fill yellowish brown Gravelly sand silt none 56 53 56 Kiln fill dark bluish black silty sand - frequent angular none 60 55 fine pebbles, occasional small stones, moderate charcoal flecks 57 furrow fill - - - - 58 furrow fill - - - - 59 pit fill (C.97) burnt clay - reddish brown silty clay with oc- none 96 123 casional small stones 60 Kiln fill yellowish brown gravelly silt none 62 56 61 Flue fill mid brownish red sandy silt - frequent angu- none - 29 lar/sub-angular fin/medium pebbles, occasional charcoal flecks 62 Kiln fill dark bluish black sandy silt - moderate angular none 64 60 pebbles and small stones, occasional charcoal flecks 63 Flue fill mottled sandy silt - frequent angular/sub-angu- none 74 29 lar fine/medium pebbles 64 Spread light grey pebbles none 66 62 65 Spread brown sandy silt - frequent angular fine/medium none 66 44? pebbles 66 Kiln fill dark bluish brown sandy silt - moderate angular none 67 65 pebbles, occasional sub-angular medium stones 67 Kiln fill dark reddish brown silty sand - moderate sub- none 69 66 angular fine pebbles and small/medium stones, occasional charcoal flecks 68 Kiln fill mid orange sandy silt 0 occasional angular fine none 69 41 pebbles and sub-rounded small stones 69 Kiln fill dark brownish black sandy silt - moderate sub- none 70 67 angular pebbles and charcoal flecks 70 Kiln fill green sandy silt - moderate sub-angular pebbles, none 72 69 occasional sub-angular medium stones 71 Kiln fill greyish brown pebbley silt - moderate sub-angu- none 72 69 lar/angular pebbles, occasuional small sub-angu- lar stones 72 Kiln fill greyish brown sandy silt - occasional angular none 73 71 fine/med pebbles, occasional sub-angular me- dium stones, occasional flecks of charcoal and large pieces of scorched/burnt natural 73 Kiln fill greyish orange sandy silt - moderate sub-angular none 76 72 pebbles, occasional small angular stones, oc- casional flecks of charcoal 74 Flue fill mottled sandy silt - frequent angular pebbles, none 77 63 occasional charcoal flecks 75 Kiln fill dark bluish black sandy silt - moderate angular none 79 72 pebbles and small stones, occasional charcoal flecks Permalink: http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/e0476-bricketstown-co-wexford/ 43
  • 00E0476 Bricketstown, Co. Wexford ISSUE 4: Eachtra Journal - ISSN 2009-2237 C. No. Type Description Finds Over Under 76 Kiln fill firm sandy silt - moderate angular pebbles, oc- none 79 73 casional medium sub-rounded stones, moder- ate medium/large pieces of mortar (lime) and frequent flecks of charcoal 77 Flue fill light yellowish green ashy silt - occasional fine none 83 74 angular pebbles 78 Charcoal spread black silty clay with moderate pebbles and fre- none 82 51 quent charcoal flecks and small pieces 79 Possible kiln fill dark brownish black sandy silt - moderate sub- none - 76 angular pebbles 80 Furrow cut NW-SE linear cut none Nat 49 81 Furrow cut NW-SE linear cut none 93 50 82 Layer Mixed - dark greyish brown silty clay with none 93 78 moderate pebbles and stones and flecks to small pieces of burnt clay and charcoal 83 Flue fill brown silty clay - moderate sub-angular pebbles none 88 77 84 Kiln fill reddish brown sandy silt - occasional fine/coarse none 85 75 angular pebbles, occasional angular small stones, moderate flecks of burnt orange clay 85 Kiln fill brown sandy silt - occasional sub-angular peb- none 86 84 bles and angular small stones, occasional flecks and small pieces of charcoal, moderate flecks of burnt lining 86 Kiln fill bluish brown sandy silt - occasional angular none 87 85 pebbles, occasional flecks of charcoal and burnt lining 87 Kiln fill brown sandy silt - moderate angular fine peb- none 126 86 bles, occasional sub-rounded coarse pebbles and small stones, occasional flecks of charcoal and burnt natural 88 Flue fill mottled sandy silt - frequent angular/sub-angu- none 111 83 lar fine/medium pebbles, occasional charcoal flecks 89 Kiln fill reddish brown sandy silt - moderate angular fine none 90 85 pebbles, occasional sub-rounded coarse pebbles, occasional flecks of charcoal 90 Kiln fill dark bluish black clayey silt - frequent angular/ none 110 85 sub-angular fine pebbles, moderate angular/sub- angular medium pebbles and occasional sub-an- gular coarse pebbles and flecks of charcoal 91 Kiln fill light greenish grey silty clay - frequent angular/ none 110 76 sub-angular fine pebbles, moderate sub-angular stones, frequent small pieces and flecks of mor- tar, moderate flecks of charcoal. 92 deposit redposted natural - dark brownish orange silty yes 140 137 clay with moderate stones and pebbles and charcoal flecks (and small pieces). Also included moderate small pieces/flecks of burnt clay 93 deposit charcoal - black silty clay with moderate pebbles pot? 137 82 and freq small charcoal 94 Kiln fill mid orange silty sand - moderate sub-angular none 136 112 pebbles, occasional sub-angular small stones, frequent large pieces of mortar, occasional flecks of charcoal 95 Flue fill bluish grey sandy silt - frequent angular/sub-an- none - 88 gular pebbles, moderate small pieces of charcoal 96 pit fill (C.97) brownish grey silty clay with occasional small none 97 59 stones Permalink: http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/e0476-bricketstown-co-wexford/ 44
  • 00E0476 Bricketstown, Co. Wexford ISSUE 4: Eachtra Journal - ISSN 2009-2237 C. No. Type Description Finds Over Under 97 Pit cut circular cut with steep sides none Nat 96 98 stakehole fill mid brown silty clay with small stones unsorted none 99 - 99 Stakehole cut sub-circular cut none Nat 98 100 stakehole fill mid reddish brown silty clay with small angular none 101 - stones 101 Stakehole cut circular cut none Nat 101 102 stakehole fill mid brown silty clay with moderate small angu- none 103 - lar stones and occasion charcoal 103 Stakehole cut oval cut none Nat 102 104 stakehole fill reddish brown silty clay with occasional charcoal none 105 - flecks and moderate angular stones 105 Stakehole cut circular cut none Nat 104 106 stakehole fill mid brown silty clay with occasional small none 107 - angular stones 107 Stakehole cut oblong cut none Nat 106 108 stakehole fill light brown silty clay with v. occasional charcoal none 109 - and occasional small sub-angular stones 109 Stakehole cut sub-circular cut none Nat 108 110 Kiln fill brownish orange silty sand - moderate sub-an- none 116 90 gular pebbles, occasional small angular stones, frequent flecks of charcoal 111 Flue fill light greenish yellow, moderate sub-angular fine none - 88 pebbles, occasional angular medium pebbles 112 Kiln fill dark reddish brown sandy silt - frequent angular/ none - 110 sub-angular fine pebbles, occasional sub-angular medium pebbles 113 Kiln fill dark orangish brown sandy silt - moderate angu- none 117 110 lar/sub-angular fine pebbles, occasional angular coarse pebbles/small stones, frequent small pieces and flecks of charcoal 114 Flue Stone lined and linteled flue running under and none - 162 into kiln 115 Kiln fill dark brownish black sandy silt - occasional none - 110 angular medium pebbles/ small stones, frequent fine angular/sub-angular pebbles, moderate sangular/sub-angular medium stones, occasional charcoal flecks 116 Kiln fill reddish orange sandy silt - moderate angular none 134 110 fine/medium pebbles, occasional sub-rounded coarse pebbles/small stones, frequent charcoal flecks 117 Kiln fill grey sandy silt - occasional sub-angular pebbles, none - 113 very occasional sub-rounded stones, occasional flecks of charcoal and burnt lining 122 stakehole fill reddish brown gravel with some silty clay and none 123 - occasional charcoal flecks 123 Stakehole cut sub-circular cut none 59 122 124 Fill of flue plug bluish brown sandy silt - frequent sub-angular none - - pebbles, occasional sub-angular small stones and flecks of burnt soil 125 Flue fill red sandy silt - frequent fine angular pebbles, none 139 95 occasional medium sized clinker 126 Fill of flue plug light yellowish brown sandy silt - moderate none 87 124 angular/sub-angular pebbles, occasional small/ medium sub-angular stones, moderate charcoal flecks Permalink: http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/e0476-bricketstown-co-wexford/ 45
  • 00E0476 Bricketstown, Co. Wexford ISSUE 4: Eachtra Journal - ISSN 2009-2237 C. No. Type Description Finds Over Under 127 Fill of flue plug light brown sandy silt - moderate angular/sub- none 114 126 angular pebbles, occasional sub-rounded small stones, moderate charcoal flecks and small pieces of burnt lining 128 stakehole fill dark brown silty clay with moderate charcoal none 129 - flecks and occasional small angular stones 129 Stakehole cut sub-circular cut none Nat 128 130 stakehole fill light reddish brown silty clay with occasional none 131 - slate fragments and small angular stones 131 Stakehole cut circular cut none Nat 130 132 stakehole fill mid brown silty clay with occasional small angu- none 133 - lar stones and charcoal flecks 133 Stakehole cut circular cut none Nat 132 134 Small fill yellowish orange silty sand - moderate sub-angu- none - 116 lar pebbles and flecks of charcoal 135 Kiln fill brownish orange silty sand - moderate sub- none - 116 angular pebbles, occasional small sub-angular stones,moderate flecks of charcoal 136 Kiln fill (basal stones) yellowish orange silty pebbles - moderate small none - 117 pieces and flecks of charcoal and moderate mor- tar pieces of all sizes 137 Burnt clay dark orangish red silty clay with moderate peb- none 92 93 bles and occasional charcoal 138 Area of hearth activity orangish red silty sand - moderate sub-angular none 54 125 fine/medium pebbles, moderate flecks and small pieces of charcoal 139 Charcoal spread black silty sand - moderate fine sub-angular none 54 125 pebbles 140 deposit burnt clay - dark orangish red silty clay with none 143 92 moderate pebbles and small stones and occa- sional charcoal 141 Possible cut N-S sub-circular cut none Nat 140 142 Stone layer first layer of medium/large mostly sub-angular none - 134 stones 143 charcoal spread dark brownish black silty clay with moderate none Nat 140 pebbles and frequent charcoal 144 Flue plug fill reddish brown sandy silt - occasional sub-angu- none - - lar pebbles 145 Flue plug fill light brownish yellow sandy silt - moderate sub- none - 144 angular pebbles, occasional sub-angular small stones 146 Flue plug fill reddish brown sandy silt - moderate sub-angular none - 145 pebbles and small stones, moderate flecks and small pieces of burnt lining 148 deposit brown silty clay with occasional small stones none 157 114 153 stakehole fill orangish red silty clay with fine/medium pebbles none 154 140 154 Stakehole cut circular cut none Nat 153 155 Channel fill N/W orangish brown sandy silt - occasional sub-angu- none 157 160 lar fine pebbles, frequent small pieces/flecks of lime mortar, moderate flecks of charcoal 156 Channel fill S/W orangish brown sandy silt - occasional sub-angu- none 157 160 lar fine pebbles, frequent small pieces/flecks of lime mortar, moderate flecks of charcoal 157 Cut of circular channel circular cut none - - 158 Fill of circular channel orangish brown sandy silt - occasional sub-angu- none 157 160 lar fine pebbles, frequent small pieces/flecks of lime mortar, moderate flecks of charcoal Permalink: http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/e0476-bricketstown-co-wexford/ 46
  • 00E0476 Bricketstown, Co. Wexford ISSUE 4: Eachtra Journal - ISSN 2009-2237 C. No. Type Description Finds Over Under 159 Cut of cross channel crossed linear none - - 160 Circular layer stones sub-angular/angular stones none 155 - 161 fill (C.159) orangish brown sandy silt - frequent large pieces none - 159 of mortar 162 Stone Lintel two substantial stones which collapsed none 148 134? 167 ditch fill brown silty clay with freq small angular stones Pot sherd 168 1 168 Ditch cut E-W linear cut none Nat 167 169 Kiln fill/lining dark greyish black sandy silt none - - 170 Kiln material dark bluish reddish brown sandy silt - moderate none 171 - sub-angular fine pebbles and small stones, mod- erate small pieces of burnt lining and charcoal flecks 171 Re-cut sub-circular cut none - 170 172 Spread within flue black silty clay - moderate angular fine/medium none 54 138 pebbles 173 Mottled spread in kiln mottled sandy silt - frequent angular/sub-an- none 19 0 gular fine/medium pebles, frequent flecks to medium pieces of charcoal Permalink: http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/e0476-bricketstown-co-wexford/ 47
  • 00E0476 Bricketstown, Co. Wexford ISSUE 4: Eachtra Journal - ISSN 2009-2237 14.2 Appendix 2: Stratigraphic Matrix Please see attached CD for Stratigraphic Matrix Permalink: http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/e0476-bricketstown-co-wexford/ 48
  • 00E0476 Bricketstown, Co. Wexford ISSUE 4: Eachtra Journal - ISSN 2009-2237 14.3 Appendix 3: Finds register Licence No. Context No. Find No. Material Description Comments 00E0476 1 1 Pottery Body sherd Find from monitoring 00E0476 1 2 Pottery Body sherd Find from monitoring 00E0476 1 3 Pottery Body sherd Find from monitoring 00E0476 1 4 Pottery Body sherd Find from monitoring 00E0476 1 5 Pottery Body sherd Find from monitoring 00E0476 1 6 Pottery Body sherd Find from monitoring 00E0476 1 7 Pottery Body sherd Find from monitoring 00E0476 1 8 Pottery Body sherd Find from monitoring 00E0476 1 9 Pottery Body sherd Find from monitoring 00E0476 1 10 Pottery Body sherd Find from monitoring 00E0476 1 11 Pottery Body sherd Find from monitoring 00E0476 1 12 Pottery Body sherd Find from monitoring 00E0476 1 13 Pottery Body sherd Find from monitoring 00E0476 1 14 Pottery Body sherd Find from monitoring 00E0476 1 15 Pottery Body sherd Find from monitoring 00E0476 1 16 Pottery Body sherd Find from monitoring 00E0476 1 17 Pottery Body sherd Find from monitoring 00E0476 1 18 Stone Millstone fragment Find from monitoring 00E0476 1 19 Stone Millstone fragment Find from monitoring 00E0476 2 1 Pottery Body sherd 00E0476 13 1 Pottery Rim sherd from cooking jar decorated with external pinching 00E0476 48 1 Pottery Body sherd 00E0476 48 2 Pottery Body sherd 00E0476 48 3 Pottery Body sherd 00E0476 48 4 Pottery Base sherd 00E0476 48 5 Pottery Crumbs (x2) 00E0476 48 6 Pottery Body sherd 00E0476 48 7 Pottery Body sherd 00E0476 48 8 Pottery Rim sherd 00E0476 48 9 Pottery Body sherd Lamp sherd (Class 1) 00E0476 48 10 Pottery Body sherd 00E0476 48 11 Pottery Rim sherd from a short-necked cooking jar 00E0476 48 12 Pottery Crumbs (x12) 00E0476 48 13 Pottery Body sherd 00E0476 48 14 Pottery Body sherd 00E0476 48 15 Pottery Body sherd 00E0476 48 16 Pottery Body sherd 00E0476 48 17 Pottery Body sherd 00E0476 48 18 Pottery Body sherd 00E0476 49 1 Pottery Body sherd 00E0476 49 2 Pottery Body sherd 00E0476 49 3 Pottery Base sherd 00E0476 49 4 Pottery Body sherd 00E0476 49 5 Pottery Body sherd 00E0476 50 1 Pottery Body sherd 00E0476 50 2 Pottery Body sherd 00E0476 50 3 Pottery Base sherd 00E0476 50 4 Pottery Base sherd 00E0476 50 5 Pottery Rim sherd 00E0476 50 6 Pottery Rim sherd 00E0476 50 7 Pottery Crumbs (x7) 00E0476 50 8 Pottery Body sherd Permalink: http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/e0476-bricketstown-co-wexford/ 49
  • 00E0476 Bricketstown, Co. Wexford ISSUE 4: Eachtra Journal - ISSN 2009-2237 Licence No. Context No. Find No. Material Description Comments 00E0476 50 9 Pottery Body sherd 00E0476 50 10 Pottery Body sherd 00E0476 50 11 Pottery Body sherd 00E0476 50 12 Pottery Body sherd 00E0476 50 13 Pottery Body sherd 00E0476 50 14 Pottery Body sherd 00E0476 50 15 Pottery Body sherd 00E0476 50 16 Pottery Body sherd 00E0476 50 17 Pottery Base sherd 00E0476 50 18 Pottery Base sherd 00E0476 50 19 Pottery Rim sherd 00E0476 50 20 Pottery Rim sherd 00E0476 82 1 Pottery Crumbs (x20) 00E0476 82 2 Pottery Body sherd 00E0476 82 3 Pottery Body sherd 00E0476 82 4 Pottery Body sherd 00E0476 82 5 Pottery Body sherd 00E0476 82 6 Pottery Body sherd 00E0476 82 7 Pottery Body sherd 00E0476 82 8 Pottery Body sherd 00E0476 82 9 Pottery Body sherd 00E0476 82 10 Pottery Body sherd 00E0476 82 11 Pottery Body sherd 00E0476 82 12 Pottery Body sherd 00E0476 82 13 Pottery Body sherd 00E0476 82 14 Pottery Body sherd 00E0476 82 15 Pottery Body sherd 00E0476 82 16 Pottery Body sherd 00E0476 82 17 Pottery Body sherd 00E0476 82 18 Pottery Body sherd 00E0476 82 19 Pottery Body sherd 00E0476 82 20 Pottery Body sherd 00E0476 82 21 Pottery Body sherd 00E0476 82 22 Pottery Body sherd 00E0476 82 23 Pottery Body sherd 00E0476 82 24 Pottery Body sherd 00E0476 82 25 Pottery Body sherd 00E0476 82 26 Pottery Body sherd 00E0476 82 27 Pottery Body sherd 00E0476 82 28 Pottery Body sherd 00E0476 82 29 Pottery Body sherd 00E0476 82 30 Pottery Body sherd 00E0476 82 31 Pottery Body sherd 00E0476 82 32 Pottery Body sherd 00E0476 82 33 Pottery Body sherd 00E0476 82 34 Pottery Body sherd 00E0476 82 35 Pottery Body sherd 00E0476 82 36 Pottery Body sherd 00E0476 82 37 Pottery Body sherd 00E0476 82 38 Pottery Body sherd 00E0476 82 39 Pottery Body sherd 00E0476 82 40 Pottery Body sherd 00E0476 82 41 Pottery Body sherd 00E0476 82 42 Pottery Body sherd 00E0476 82 43 Pottery Crumbs (x5) Permalink: http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/e0476-bricketstown-co-wexford/ 50
  • 00E0476 Bricketstown, Co. Wexford ISSUE 4: Eachtra Journal - ISSN 2009-2237 Licence No. Context No. Find No. Material Description Comments 00E0476 82 44 Pottery Body sherd 00E0476 82 45 Pottery Body sherd 00E0476 82 46 Pottery Body sherd 00E0476 82 47 Pottery Body sherd 00E0476 82 48 Pottery Body sherd 00E0476 82 49 Pottery Body sherd 00E0476 82 50 Pottery Body sherd 00E0476 82 51 Pottery Body sherd 00E0476 82 52 Pottery Body sherd 00E0476 82 53 Pottery Body sherd 00E0476 82 54 Pottery Body sherd 00E0476 82 55 Pottery Body sherd 00E0476 82 56 Pottery Body sherd 00E0476 82 57 Pottery Body sherd 00E0476 82 58 Pottery Body sherd 00E0476 82 59 Pottery Body sherd 00E0476 82 60 Pottery Body sherd 00E0476 82 61 Pottery Body sherd 00E0476 82 62 Pottery Body sherd 00E0476 82 63 Pottery Body sherd 00E0476 82 64 Pottery Body sherd 00E0476 82 65 Pottery Body sherd 00E0476 82 66 Pottery Body sherd 00E0476 82 67 Pottery Body sherd 00E0476 82 68 Pottery Body sherd 00E0476 82 69 Pottery Body sherd 00E0476 82 70 Pottery Body sherd 00E0476 82 71 Pottery Body sherd 00E0476 82 72 Pottery Body sherd 00E0476 82 73 Pottery Body sherd 00E0476 82 74 Pottery Body sherd 00E0476 82 75 Pottery Rim sherd 00E0476 82 76 Pottery Rim sherd 00E0476 82 77 Pottery Rim sherd 00E0476 82 78 Pottery Rim sherd 00E0476 82 79 Pottery Rim sherd 00E0476 82 80 Pottery Body sherd 00E0476 82 81 Pottery Body sherd 00E0476 82 82 Pottery Base sherd 00E0476 82 83 Pottery Base sherd 00E0476 82 84 Pottery Base sherd 00E0476 82 85 Pottery Base sherd 00E0476 82 86 Pottery Base sherd 00E0476 82 87 Pottery Base sherd 00E0476 82 88 Pottery Base sherd 00E0476 92 1 Pottery Rim sherd 00E0476 92 2 Pottery Crumbs (x7) 00E0476 92 3 Pottery Body sherd 00E0476 92 4 Pottery Body sherd 00E0476 92 5 Pottery Body sherd 00E0476 92 6 Pottery Body sherd 00E0476 92 7 Pottery Body sherd 00E0476 92 8 Pottery Body sherd 00E0476 92 9 Pottery Body sherd 00E0476 92 10 Pottery Body sherd Permalink: http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/e0476-bricketstown-co-wexford/ 51
  • 00E0476 Bricketstown, Co. Wexford ISSUE 4: Eachtra Journal - ISSN 2009-2237 Licence No. Context No. Find No. Material Description Comments 00E0476 92 11 Pottery Body sherd 00E0476 92 12 Pottery Body sherd 00E0476 92 13 Pottery Body sherd 00E0476 92 14 Pottery Body sherd 00E0476 92 15 Pottery Body sherd 00E0476 92 16 Pottery Body sherd 00E0476 92 17 Pottery Body sherd 00E0476 92 18 Pottery Body sherd 00E0476 92 19 Pottery Body sherd 00E0476 92 20 Pottery Base sherd 00E0476 92 21 Pottery Base sherd 00E0476 92 22 Pottery Rim sherd 00E0476 92 23 Pottery Rim sherd 00E0476 92 24 Pottery Body sherd 00E0476 92 25 Pottery Body sherd 00E0476 92 26 Pottery Body sherd 00E0476 92 27 Pottery Body sherd 00E0476 92 28 Pottery Body sherd 00E0476 92 29 Pottery Body sherd 00E0476 92 30 Pottery Rim sherd 00E0476 92 31 Pottery Base sherd 00E0476 92 32 Pottery Base sherd 00E0476 92 33 Pottery Base sherd 00E0476 92 34 Pottery Base sherd 00E0476 92 35 Pottery Base sherd 00E0476 93 1 Pottery Crumbs (x3) 00E0476 93 2 Pottery Body sherd 00E0476 93 3 Pottery Body sherd 00E0476 93 4 Pottery Body sherd 00E0476 93 5 Pottery Body sherd 00E0476 93 6 Pottery Body sherd 00E0476 93 7 Pottery Body sherd 00E0476 93 8 Pottery Body sherd 00E0476 93 9 Pottery Body sherd 00E0476 93 10 Pottery Body sherd 00E0476 93 11 Pottery Body sherd 00E0476 93 12 Pottery Body sherd 00E0476 93 13 Pottery Body sherd 00E0476 93 14 Pottery Body sherd 00E0476 93 15 Pottery Body sherd 00E0476 93 16 Pottery Body sherd 00E0476 93 17 Pottery Body sherd 00E0476 93 18 Pottery Body sherd 00E0476 93 19 Pottery Body sherd 00E0476 93 20 Pottery Body sherd 00E0476 93 21 Pottery Body sherd 00E0476 93 22 Pottery Body sherd 00E0476 93 23 Pottery Body sherd 00E0476 93 24 Pottery Body sherd 00E0476 93 25 Pottery Body sherd 00E0476 93 26 Pottery Body sherd 00E0476 93 27 Pottery Body sherd 00E0476 93 28 Pottery Body sherd 00E0476 93 29 Pottery Body sherd Possible platter or thick, flat slab used as a serving dish Permalink: http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/e0476-bricketstown-co-wexford/ 52
  • 00E0476 Bricketstown, Co. Wexford ISSUE 4: Eachtra Journal - ISSN 2009-2237 Licence No. Context No. Find No. Material Description Comments 00E0476 93 30 Pottery Body sherd 00E0476 93 31 Pottery Rim sherd 00E0476 93 32 Pottery Body sherd 00E0476 93 33 Pottery Body sherd 00E0476 93 34 Pottery Body sherd 00E0476 93 35 Pottery Body sherd 00E0476 93 36 Pottery Body sherd 00E0476 93 37 Pottery Base sherd 00E0476 93 38 Pottery Base sherd 00E0476 93 39 Pottery Handle sherd 00E0476 167 1 Pottery Body sherd Permalink: http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/e0476-bricketstown-co-wexford/ 53
  • 00E0476 Bricketstown, Co. Wexford ISSUE 4: Eachtra Journal - ISSN 2009-2237 14.4 Appendix 4: The medieval pottery from Bricketstown, Taghmon By Clare McCutcheon MA MIAI Introduction A total of 225 sherds of pottery were presented for study. During the numbering process, many sherds had been reassembled but following some further reassembly within and between contexts, this was reduced to 202 sherds. All of the pottery from this site consists of Leinster Cooking Ware. Methodology The sherds have been identified visually and the information entered on a database table (Access for- mat) as per the requirements of the National Museum of Ireland, the body responsible for the material remains from excavations within the state. The database shows the licence, context and finds number; the links of reassembled sherds within and between contexts; the category and type of material i.e. ce- ramic and pottery; the identification of the fabric type and the diagnostic description i.e. rim, handle etc. This is followed by two location fields, the first of which shows the box number where each sherd is stored. The second is a blank field for the use of the National Museum of Ireland to show the location of the box within their storage system. The database is easily searchable for particular types of pottery, vessels parts etc. and is also appropriate for all other small finds recovered from the site. The two fields showing links and description are not specifically required by the National Museum of Ireland but have been inserted by this researcher in the course of considerable work on small finds from urban ex- cavations, including pottery. They fulfil the necessity of indicating the diagnostic part of the vessel re- covered but can also be useful to indicate stick pin type, nail type etc. in the case of metal artefacts. The Site The site is located approximately 2 miles north of Taghmon village, and is described as an area of agri- cultural activity with a limekiln to the north. While seventeen sherds were recovered from monitoring in Fields 45, and three sherds from ditch fills, the balance of 182 sherds was recovered from the clay and charcoal surface and subsequent furrows in the work area thought to be associated with the kiln. Leinster Cooking Ware This is the most widely found fabric type in medieval Ireland (Ó Floinn 1988) with vessels found from Dundalk to Wexford and from Dungarvan through to Cashel. The fabric is very distinctive with quartz and feldspar but primarily characterised by visible mica platelets. While similar clay can be found in Dublin-type cooking ware and other locally-made cooking wares of the period, the method of construction and firing leaves the typical Leinster Cooking Ware vessels with an easily recognisable sand-pitted base. The primary vessel type is the standard cooking jar, with everted rim, ovoid body and sagging, sand- pitted base. Two cooking jars are represented, based on the profile of the surviving rim sherds. One rim Permalink: http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/e0476-bricketstown-co-wexford/ 54
  • 00E0476 Bricketstown, Co. Wexford ISSUE 4: Eachtra Journal - ISSN 2009-2237 sherd (00E0476:48:11) has a short neck while all others have very similar longer necks. One rim sherd was decorated with external pinching (00E0476:13:1) but this may be part of one of the two cooking jars, as decoration on rims was often spaced or intermittent rather than continuous. The second vessel type recorded is a lamp, represented by a single sherd (00E0476:48:9), in a shape based on the imported cresset lamps (Moore 1987). The shape of the Class 1 lamps is that of a column with flared top and base and with no discernible shaft. Some of the Leinster Cooking Ware lamps have been hollowed out at one end with slight cup at the other. The shallow dish is the end used for the wick and light and the longer hollowing would not have allowed for a flame but was probably used to reduce the drying time of the clay and to assist in firing. This was not entirely successful, however, and many lamp sherds are recognisable only as crumbly underfired clay lumps. These parts come from the centre of the lamp, while the exterior can be recognised by the smoothed surface. A large number of such fragments were recovered from an excavation at Coolamurry townland, Co. Wexford (Mc- Cutcheon forthcoming). The final different sherd (00E0476:93:29) may represent a platter or thick, flat slab, possibly used as a serving dish. Context Grid square Context description Sherd numbers Sherd quantity 0 Field 45 Monitoring Feature 11: 1-5 5 0 Field 45 Monitoring Feature 12: 6-17 12 2 71 Fill of ditch (C.8) 1 1 13 58 Fill of ditch (C.15) 1 1 48 38 Clay layer over C.82 1-4 4 48 39 Clay layer over C.82 5-11 7 48 35 Clay layer over C.82 12-18 6 49 34 Fill of furrow (C.80) 1-2 2 49 35 Fill of furrow (C.80) 3-5 2 50 39 Fill of furrow (C.81) 1-6 6 50 38 Fill of furrow (C.81) 7-20 13 82 38 Clay layer over C.93 1-42 39 82 39 Clay layer over C.93 43-88 39 92 39 Redeposited natural 1, 24-35 13 92 38 Redeposited natural 2-23 17 93 38 Charcoal spread over C.92 1-22 18 93 39 Charcoal spread over C.92 23-39 16 167 51 Fill of ditch 1 1 225 202 Table 2: Pottery quantities by context. Bibliography McCutcheon, C. forthcoming ‘The pottery’ in Excavations at Coolamurry 4, Co. Wexford. Moore, M. 1984 ‘Irish cresset-stones’, Journal of the Royal Society of Antiquaries of Ireland 104, 98- 116. Ó Floinn, R. 1988 ‘Handmade medieval pottery in S E Ireland’Leinster ware’ in G. Mac Niocaill & P.F. Wallace (eds), Kemelia, 325-49. Galway. Permalink: http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/e0476-bricketstown-co-wexford/ 55
  • 00E0476 Bricketstown, Co. Wexford ISSUE 4: Eachtra Journal - ISSN 2009-2237 Appendix5: Table of Radiocarbon Results from Bricketstown, Co. 14.5 Appendix 5: Radiocarbon dates Wexford (00E0476) Analysis by Beta Analytic Inc. Lab 13C/12C Radiocarbon 2 Sigma Context Sample Identification code Ratio Age Calibration Diffuse porous wood charcoal Beta -25.3 350 +/- 40 cal AD 69 61 (Alnus/Salix/Populus/ 219132 o/oo BP 1450-1650 Betula/Corylus/Prunus/ Ilex/Pomoideae) C A LIB R AT IO N O F R A D IO C A R B O N A G E T O C AL EN D AR Y EA R S (Variables: C1 3/C12=-25.3:lab. m ult=1) La borato ry num ber: Beta-219 132 C onventio nal radio ca rbon ag e: 350 ±40 BP 2 Sigm a calibra ted result: Ca l A D 1 450 to 1 650 (Ca l BP 5 00 to 3 00) (95% pro ba bility) In tercept data Intercep ts o f radiocarbo n ag e w ith calibratio n cu rve: Cal A D 15 10 (Cal BP 4 40) and Cal A D 16 00 (Cal BP 3 50) and Cal A D 16 20 (Cal BP 3 30) 1 Sigm a calibrated resu lts: Cal A D 14 70 to 153 0 (Cal BP 48 0 to 4 20) and (68% probability) Cal A D 15 50 to 163 0 (Cal BP 40 0 to 3 20) 3 5 0 ± 40 B P C h a rre d m a te ri a l 480 460 440 420 400 380 Radiocarbon age (BP) 360 340 320 300 280 260 240 220 200 1420 1 4 40 1460 1480 1500 1520 1 54 0 1560 1580 1600 1620 16 4 0 1660 Cal A D References: D atabase use d I NT CA L98 Cal ibration D atabase Edi torial C omme nt Stui ve r, M., v an der P l icht, H ., 1998, R adioc arbon 40( 3), px ii- xi ii IN T CAL 98 Radi ocarbon Age Calibrat ion Stui ve r, M., e t. al., 1998, R adi ocarbon 40( 3), p1041 -1083 M ath em atic s A S impl ifi ed App roach to Cali bratin g C14 D ates T alm a, A. S., Voge l, J . C., 1993, R adioc arbon 35(2) , p317- 322 B e ta A n a ly tic R a d ioc a rb o n D a ting La b or ato ry 4 98 5 S .W . 7 4th Co u rt, M ia m i, F lor id a 33 1 55 • T el: (3 0 5) 66 7- 51 67 • Fa x: ( 30 5) 66 3 -09 6 4 • E -M ail: beta @r a dio ca r bo n.co m Permalink: http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/e0476-bricketstown-co-wexford/ 56
  • 00E0476 Bricketstown, Co. Wexford ISSUE 4: Eachtra Journal - ISSN 2009-2237 14.6 Appendix 6: Archaeobotanical Assessment Report on the Charred Plant remains from Bricketstown By Martha Tierney Non-technical summary The ecofact analysis of the samples from this site does not permit a definite interpretation of the func- tion of the site. The presence of only traces of charred seeds cannot be taken to indicate that cereal grains were not processed in this structure as it was only in the course of an accidental fire (perhaps sparks from the hearth at the mouth of the flue catching the thatched roof on the superstructure) that a cereal crop could become charred. And even if an accidental fire took place the kilns were likely to be cleaned out after the fire took place. The charred seeds found in the assemblage are interpreted as crop processing chaff used as a firestarter in a hearth found between the kiln and the work area. Introduction This assessment report details the analysis of charred plant remains from soil samples taken during excavations at Bricketstown, Co. Wexford. The site comprised of several archaeological features, early ditches, a kiln, an industrial work area, hearths and stakeholes with field boundaries and plough fur- rows. Despite the apparent good potential of the archaeological features the archaeobotanical content of the samples was poor. Methodology The samples were collected on site as bulk soil samples. In the laboratory the sample volume, colour and texture were recorded. The samples were processed using a simple flotation method, where each sample was soaked in water to allow carbonised plant material to float; this ‘flot’ was then poured into a stack of sieves (2 mm, 1 mm, 500 microns, 250 microns). When all of the carbonised material was collected the flot was air-dried prior to storage. The samples were scanned for organic content under a low-powered magnification and the organic remains were recorded in terms of abundance. Results A total of 45 samples from 44 contexts were analysed. Of these eighteen produced macroplant material which makes this one of the richest sites from this scheme. Permalink: http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/e0476-bricketstown-co-wexford/ 57
  • 00E0476 Bricketstown, Co. Wexford ISSUE 4: Eachtra Journal - ISSN 2009-2237 The kiln bowl A total of 9 soil samples from fills associated with the keyhole shaped kiln were examined. Only 5 of these deposits produced plant remains (C. 71, 85, 91, 112 and 115). Early burning episodes associated with the kiln context, both of which were rich in charcoal, did not produce charred plant remains. Fills C.112 & 115 are interpreted as kiln bowl fills which had collapsed into the chamber. Both showed evidence of being either directly or indirectly affected by heat, possibly illustrating heat related sub- sidence above the bowl. The one grain found in C.112 and the two indeterminate fragments of weed seeds in C.115 were poorly preserved. A fill located on the side of the flue (C.85), produced a couple of modern blackberry seed fragments. C. 71 contained a few poorly preserved indeterminate cereal frag- ments, while another kiln fill C.91 contained 3 indeterminate grain fragments. The flue A total of 9 fills from the flue were sampled and scanned (C. 16, 29, 38, 45, 61, 63, 77, 83, 95). The flue was backfilled by these fills putting the flue out of use. Of the nine flue fills only two (C. 45 & 95) produced plant remains. Charcoal flecks were found along with small fragments of burnt bone in one of the flue fills (C. 45) but no seeds were found. This deposit was interpreted by the excavators as the remains of an early kiln hearth rakeout event. Another flue fill (C. 95) contained modern blackberry seed fragments. Hearth and stakeholes Of the nine stakehole fills scanned, six contained charred grains (C. 98, 100, 104, 108, 130 & 153). These stakehole fills were located immediately north of the hearth and generally inclined towards a central point. C. 98 contained possible barley fragments (cf. Hordeum sp.). C. 100 included hazelnut shell fragments (Corylus avellana) and a possible wheat grain (cf. Triticum sp.), with no identifiable cereal fragments. Stakehole fills (C. 104, 108, 130 & 153) included indeterminate cereal grain frag- ments with possible oat rgains also found in C.104 (cf. Avena spp.). No plant remains were found in hearth deposit C.138. The position of the hearth and stakeholes between the kiln and the working surface suggests that the hearth relates to associated activity. The recovery of cereal grains in the stakeholes suggests that the crop processing waste was used a tinder and that the charred remnants of this waste was blown against the upright stakes and subsequently trickled into the stakeholes. Industrial work surface An area to the south of the kiln has been interpreted as a work surface. During the monitoring of topsoil stripping in this area millstone fragments were found and the associated soil samples produced two poorly preserved indeterminate grass seed fragments (Avena sp.) along with cereal straw nodes and glume base rachis fragments. Permalink: http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/e0476-bricketstown-co-wexford/ 58
  • 00E0476 Bricketstown, Co. Wexford ISSUE 4: Eachtra Journal - ISSN 2009-2237 No strong evidence of crop processing such as winnowing was found; indeed none would be expected as winnowing does not normally involve exposure to fire. However it is hypothesised that the work area was functionally related to the kiln found to the north. Later land divisions Three ditches enclosing ridge and furrow agriculture were excavated. Three ditch fills were analysed for plant remains contents (C. 25, C.27, C. 167). Context 27 was the basal fill of ditch C.35 and produced poorly preserved cereal fragments and 1 indeterminate knotgrass seed was found. C. 25 did not contain plant remains while C.167 contained 2 barley (cf. Hordeum vulgare) grains, 1 possible oat grain (cf. Avena sp.), 2 indeterminate knotgrasses (Polygonaceae) and 3 modern blackberry seeds. The charred seeds appear to represent the background noise of domestic refuse normally found on archaeological sites. Discussion It was hoped that this assessment would throw light on the function of the kiln in particular; ie. whether it served as a corn drying kiln or as a lime kiln. Charred cereal remains and weed seeds associated with disturbed arable lands were present in some of the samples taken from deposits associated with the bowl and flue. However, with this kiln the samples were from contexts which represented backfilling from the sides of the bowl and flue walls. However, large quantities of cereal grain and other such remains are unlikely to be found within the bowl as the process of drying cereal grains, when done correctly, does not result in charred grains. The macroplant evidence to suggest that the kiln was a lime kiln is even less substantial. Only one sample produced samples of lime residues, c.155, one of the flue fills. The later land boundaries produced plant remains quite typical of backfilled ditches of the late me- dieval period ie. with low counts of poorly preserved charred cereal grains along with weed seeds of disturbed arable ground. Conclusions This is a low count assemblage of charred plant remains from a kiln and an adjeacent work surface. The macrofossil evidence suggests that the kiln was more likely to have functioned as a corn drying kiln rather than as a limekiln. The charred plant assemblage contains cereals ie. barley and oats. Most of the remains were so poorly preserved and fragmented that they could only be placed in the indeterminate category. Very low counts of cereal and weed seeds were associated with the industrial work area. As neither corn drying kilns or winnowing areas would have resulted in charred seeds so the wider inter- pretation must depend on other archaeological evidence. Permalink: http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/e0476-bricketstown-co-wexford/ 59
  • 00E0476 Bricketstown, Co. Wexford ISSUE 4: Eachtra Journal - ISSN 2009-2237 Discussion insert The general absence of plant remains from the samples from both the kiln bowl and the flue suggests that the interpretation of the kiln as a corn drier may not be supported. Corn drying kilns which have suffered a catastrophic fire interrupting the drying process often produce very high quantities of charred plant remains eg. Brehons Chair, Taylorsgrange, Co. Dublin. At Ballynaraha, Co. Tipperary and Kilferagh, Co. Kilkenny, where samples were contained from just outside the kiln and from other features close by, the incidence of charred plant remains was quite high. Recommendations No further analysis is required for these samples. Permalink: http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/e0476-bricketstown-co-wexford/ 60
  • Lic No. Table 1 List of notable sample contents Sample No. Context No. Charcoal Seeds Finds Comments 11 16 + - - - 19 25 + - - - 21 27 ++ + - Indeterminate knotgrass. 2 indeterminate cereal grain frag- Eachtra Archaeological Projects ments 25 29 + - - - 24 31 - - - - 31 38 - - - - 51 45 ++ - - Frags of burnt bone 38 46 + - - - 43 51 + + - 2 indet. Grasses, Avena-type 4 indet. Cereal grain frags 53 61 - - - - 59 63 - - - - 56 65 - - - - 61 69 - - - - 63 71 + + - A few indet. Cereal grain frags 69 77 - - - - 72 83 - - - - 75 85 - + - Modern blackberry seeds 79 89 - - - - 81 91 + + - 3 indet. Cereal grain frags 86 95 - + - Modern blackberry seeds 87 96 - - - - 88 98 + + - 4 barley grains (cf. Hordeum sp.) 89 100 + + - Hazelnut shell fragments 1 poss wheat grain (cf. Triticum sp.) 90 102 - + - 2 Modern indet. Weed seeds 91 104 - + - 2 poss oat grain frags 3 indet. Cereal grain frags 92 106 - - - - 93 108 + + - 2 indet. Cereal grain frags 96 112 + + - 1 indet cereal grain frag 61 Header
  • Lic No. Sample No. Context No. Charcoal Seeds Finds Comments 98 115 + + - 2 indet weed seed frags 104 122 + - - - 108 127 + + - 2 indet weed seed frags 110 130 + + - 1 indet cereal grain frags 114 136 ++ - - - Eachtra Archaeological Projects 116 138 + - - - 118 139 + - - - 122 144 + - - - 124 146 + - - - 125/126 148 + + - 1 indet cereal grain frags. 2 indet weed seed frags 1 poss oat grain seed. 129 153 - + - 4 indet cereal grains 2 indet cereal grain frags 132 155 + - - A limey deposit. Some land snail frags. 133 156 + - - - 138 167 + + - 1 poss oat grain. 2 poss indet barley grains 2 indet knotgrass seeds 3 modern blackberry seeds 143 172 +++ - - - 143 173 +++ - - - 62 Header
  • 00E0476 Bricketstown, Co. Wexford ISSUE 4: Eachtra Journal - ISSN 2009-2237 14.7 Appendix 7: Geological Identification of Stone Artefacts from Bricketstown By Richard Unitt Geological and Geoarchaeological Services, Tig na gClocha, Carrigadrohid, County Cork, Tel: 087 6847622, Email: r.unitt@ucc.ie Introduction The region to the east of New Ross, County Wexford, is underlain by Lower Palaeozoic, Ordovician rocks (488-443 million years old). These are bordered to the southeast by older Cambrian rocks of the Cahore Group and to the west by younger rocks of Devonian and Carboniferous age. The Ordovician rocks are also intruded by the younger Caledonian granites of the Blackstairs Mountains. The Ordovician rocks consist of the older Ribband Group and the younger Duncannon Group. The Ribband Group were deposited mainly in deep waters and consist of grey to black slaty mudstone (some graphitic) and grey-green slate and sandstones. When the rocks are adjacent to the local granite they are altered to phyllites and mica schists. Volcanic activity is represented by andesitic lavas and tuffs some metamorphosed to amphibolites and chlorite schists. These rocks have been deformed by the Lower Ordovician, Monian Orogeny before the deposition of the Upper Ordovician Duncannon Group. The Duncannon Group represents a chain of volcanic islands that once extended from Waterford through Wales and on into the English Lake District. The rocks consist of limestone and black mud- stone with rhyolitic volcanics (including rhyolites, rhyolitic tuffs andesitic lavas and tuffs, dolerite/gab- bro intrusions) and subordinate sandstone. The volcanics and intrusions tend to be harder to weather than the sediments and as a result isolated hills in these regions tend to be underlain by the volcanic rocks. Volcanic activity was ended by the collision of continental masses during the Caledonian Orogeny. This resulted in the formation of large mountain ranges cored by granitic masses such as the Leinster Granite. Weathering of the newly created mountain ranges during the Devonian period resulted in the forma- tion of numerous coarse deposits of conglomerate, such as the Carrigmaclea Formation, which rests unconformably on the older rocks. The conglomerates often contain fragments derived from the un- derlying strata, although their composition tends to be dominated by clasts of vein quartz. Stone Artefacts Bricketstown 00E0476:1:19 2x Millstone Fragments – Red-brown, clast supported, immature conglomerate. Clasts dominated by vein quartz with minor rhyolite and mudstone. Provenance: Devonian conglomerate – possibly the Carrigmaclea Formation. Permalink: http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/e0476-bricketstown-co-wexford/ 63
  • 00E0476 Bricketstown, Co. Wexford ISSUE 4: Eachtra Journal - ISSN 2009-2237 Plate 1 – This view of the millstone fragment displays the angular nature of the clasts. Plate 2 – A section through the millstone fragment displays the dominant component, vein quartz (white clasts). Permalink: http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/e0476-bricketstown-co-wexford/ 64
  • 00E0476 Bricketstown, Co. Wexford ISSUE 4: Eachtra Journal - ISSN 2009-2237 Catalogue description of stone artefacts By Sara Camplese Millstone (00E0476:1:18) L. (maximum across) 340mm., Th. 60.7mm. Broken. Part of a millstone. Roughly triangular shape. Link with 00E0476:1:19 Millstone (00E0476:1:19) L. (maximum across) 320mm., Th. 60.7mm. Broken. Part of a millstone. Roughly triangular shape. Link with 00E0476:1:18 Permalink: http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/e0476-bricketstown-co-wexford/ 65
  • 00E0476 14.8 Appendix 8: Industrial residues SASAA 245a and 245b October 2006 Q -RAF ANALYSIS SASAA 245a: Dungeer Industrial Waste Examination & Analysis SASAA 245b: Bricketstown Industrial Waste Examination & Analysis Bricketstown, Co. Wexford Introduction SASAA received four samples of slag from Eachtra Archaeological Projects for analytical assessment. The samples were excavated from Dungeer, Co. Wexford (Licence No. 00E0475) and Bricketstown, Co, Wexford – N25 Realignment (Rathsillagh-Harristown) (Licence No. 00E0476). Three of these four were chosen for examination (Table 1). Permalink: http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/e0476-bricketstown-co-wexford/ Table 1. Industrial waste samples. SASAA No. Context Pit No. Site Site Code Description Analysis 245.01 92 1 Dungeer, Co. Wexford 00E0475 Slag SEM-EDAX 245.02 4 n/a Bricketstown, Co. Wexford 00E0476 Slag SEM-EDAX 245.03 3 2 Dungeer, Co. Wexford 00E0475 Slag SEM-EDAX Dungeer (Co. Wexford) The site comprised two small metalworking pits, located close to each other (Figure 3 - left). There was evidence for oxidisation within the cuts of both pits, suggesting in situ burning or exposure to extreme heat. Both were filled with charcoal rich deposits with stone and slag inclusions. The similarities between the cuts and the fills of both pits, and their proximity to each other, indicates that they were related and it seems likely they served a single function (Eachtra 2006). No dates have been reported for this site. • Pit C3: circular in plan. Diameter = 0.27m. Depth = 0.07m. One fill = dark black silty clay with occasional small sub-angular stones, iron slag (177g) and charcoal. • Pit C4: 0.12m S of C3. Sub-circular in plan. 0.2m x 0.25m dimensions. Depth = 0.08m. One fill = dark black silty clay with many angular and sub- angular pebble and stone, frequent charcoal flecks and slag (178g). 1 66 ISSUE 4: Eachtra Journal - ISSN 2009-2237
  • 00E0476 Bricketstown (Co. Wexford) The site comprised a kiln, ditches, furrows, hearth, stake-holes and a working surface. C92 was a large layer of re-deposited natural, containing numerous pottery sherds and iron slag. It formed a surface of unknown function on which three lenses of burnt clay were deposited (not in situ). Below the surface was a charcoal filled pit, sealed with a thick fill of orangey red clay (hearth material). A charcoal spread lay above the surface C92. A succession of burning (both in situ and ex situ) took place on site, and working surfaces were constructed. Pottery was identified as 12-14th century and C-14 dates from the site were late medieval (Eachtra 2006). Sample Preparation and Analysis Bricketstown, Co. Wexford Three fragments of slag were chosen, one from Bricketstown and two from Dungeer, for SEM-EDAX analysis; they were mounted in resin and ground and polished with 6micron and 3micron diamond pastes. They were subsequently carbon-coated for SEM-EDAX analysis. The SEM facility used is a FEI Quanta 200F Environmental SEM. Results are normalised (calibrated to 100%). Quantitative SEM-EDAX analyses are undertaken first on the entire surface of the polished block (area analyses) at different locations within the sample, and subsequently on each of the different mineralogical phases observed (spot analyses). It is important to report both area and spot analyses, since it is the individual phases that can shed light into the conditions applicable within the furnace, the ore used, the rates of cooling of the slag. All SEM images reproduced here are BS (backscattered electron) images to reflect sample composition. A second type of image referred to as ‘Mixed,’ is a computer generated image formed by overlaying the secondary emission image with the backscattered Permalink: http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/e0476-bricketstown-co-wexford/ one. It is included here only as a means of enhancing the secondary emission image. 2 67 ISSUE 4: Eachtra Journal - ISSN 2009-2237
  • 00E0476 Results Table 2. Analyses. SEM-EDAX Data for samples SASAA 245.01, .02 and .03. Please note that iron can occur in both the Fe2+ and the Fe3+ state. It is reported here as Fe3+ and represents total iron present. Sample 245.01, C4 Pit 1 Dungeer Sample Description Na2O MgO Al2O3 SiO2 P2O5 SO3 Cl2O K2O CaO TiO2 MnO Fe2O3 Total 245.01 area analysis (mean) 0.16 0.34 8.84 15.21 0.81 0.15 nd 0.30 0.38 nd 5.51 68.56 100 245.01 wustite 0.23 0.24 0.87 2.16 0.79 0.32 nd 0.15 nd nd 2.73 92.52 100 Bricketstown, Co. Wexford 245.01 fayalite 0.19 0.49 1.24 27.70 0.47 0.00 nd 0.09 nd nd 7.81 62.01 100 245.01 hercynite 0.16 0.84 50.12 0.67 0.20 0.00 nd 0.16 nd nd 2.80 45.05 100 245.01 Interstitial glass 0.11 0.22 25.60 50.45 0.23 0.00 nd 18.46 nd nd 0.39 4.55 100 Sample 245.02 from C92 Bricketstown Sample Description Na2O MgO Al2O3 SiO2 P2O5 SO3 Cl2O K2O CaO TiO2 MnO Fe2O3 Total 245.02 area analysis (mean) 0.25 0.64 5.39 23.22 0.33 0.43 nd 0.95 0.77 nd 0.34 67.70 100 245.02 fayalite 0.14 1.17 0.52 27.22 0.11 0.23 nd 0.15 0.36 nd 0.42 69.68 100 245.02 interstitial glass, phase 1, Na,Ca, K-rich alumino-silicate 3.16 0.00 19.73 42.11 0.66 0.25 nd 5.83 7.78 nd 0.10 20.38 100 Permalink: http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/e0476-bricketstown-co-wexford/ 245.02 Interstitial glass, phase 2 K-rich alumino-silicate 0.86 0.07 25.05 53.06 0.19 0.16 0.10 19.11 0.08 nd 0.05 1.27 100 245.02 iron oxide ‘ore’ 0.10 0.39 6.61 9.47 0.00 0.47 0.30 0.19 0.17 nd 0.57 81.72 100 Sample 245.03 from C3, Dungeer Sample Description Na2O MgO Al2O3 SiO2 P2O5 SO3 Cl2O K2O CaO TiO2 MnO Fe2O3 Total 245.03 area analysis 0.56 0.25 10.35 25.40 0.54 0.23 0.06 1.29 0.45 0.50 5.46 54.92 100 245.03 fayalite 0.32 0.61 0.31 26.75 0.29 0.27 0.15 0.19 0.35 nd 8.06 62.69 100 245.03 fine fayalite growing within glass; it also has Mn 0.16 0.68 0.95 25.93 0.39 0.17 0.11 0.11 0.23 0.40 8.28 62.60 100 245.03 hercynite 0.00 0.26 41.78 1.70 0.19 0.48 0.25 0.22 0.20 1.67 3.04 50.20 100 245.03 Interstitial glass, a K-rich aluminosilicate 3.05 0.00 22.83 40.26 3.02 0.31 0.00 14.98 1.42 0.76 0.89 12.47 100 245.03 ‘ore’ at the beginning of reduction to iron oxide and fayalite 0.30 0.18 6.09 15.61 2.00 1.21 0.06 0.27 0.16 0.14 1.00 72.98 100 3 68 ISSUE 4: Eachtra Journal - ISSN 2009-2237
  • 00E0476 Figure 1. SEM-EDAX images of samples 245.01 and 245.03 (Dungeer). Bricketstown, Co. Wexford SASAA 245.01.4: SEM-BS image showing the four phases at SASAA 245.01.3: SEM-BS image showing four phases, major higher magnification than the photograph to the left; hercynite SASAA 245.03.3: SEM-BS image showing bands of solidification on phase is fayalite, minor phases include wustite, hercynite and appears to ex-solve out of fayalite, in an attempt to accommodate the surface of the slag fragment. Permalink: http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/e0476-bricketstown-co-wexford/ interstitial glass. the excess alumina present in the ore. SASAA 245.03.4: SEM-BS image showing a close-up of the two SASAA 245.03.1: SEM-BS image showing a close up of angular zones of solidification; the interior has been subjected to fast SASAA 245.03.2: SEM-BS image showing well formed needles of hercynite amidst the fayalite and the interstitial glass (black). The cooling, while the exterior shows well grown fayalite with fayalite with interstitial glass and angular hercynite. pitting on the surface is the result of weathering during burial. hercynite growing in between. 4 69 ISSUE 4: Eachtra Journal - ISSN 2009-2237
  • 00E0476 Figure 2. SEM-EDAX images of samples 245.02 (Bricketstown). Bricketstown, Co. Wexford Permalink: http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/e0476-bricketstown-co-wexford/ SASAA 245.02.5: SEM-BS image showing another area SASAA 245.02.4: SEM-BS image showing partially reduced ore SASAA 245.02.2: SEM-BS image showing dendrites of wustite in the highlighting the reduction process; it should be emphasised that amidst the fayalite and interstitial glass; the analysis showed iron course of formation. Analysis of individual dendrites show alumina some of the areas which appear ‘reduced’ might be the result of silica and alumina with some phosphorus. and silica as well as iron reflecting the original ore. combined reduction and weathering. 70 ISSUE 4: Eachtra Journal - ISSN 2009-2237 5
  • 00E0476 Discussion On slag mineralogy: Dungeer The two samples of slag analysed (SASAA 245.01 and SASAA 245.03) are similar in typology (amorphous, black, dense and porous) but not in mineralogy. With reference to SASAA 245.03, four phases are evident: the predominant phase is fayalite, an iron silicate, (2FeO.SiO2); minor phases are hercynite, (Al2O3.FeO), an aluminium iron oxide, wustite, an iron oxide (FeO) and interstitial glass. Some traces of metallic iron are also evident. The co- existence of the four phases points to the slags being of the smelting type; hercynite probably derives either from the ore or the lining of the furnace, or a combination of both. The slags cooled slowly within the furnace, (they were not tapped), as suggested by the well-formed fayalite; they may have been removed in the process of bloom extraction and forging and perhaps – given the absence of slag scatter or indeed any other feature in the immediate vicinity- Bricketstown, Co. Wexford they were thrown back in it after the bloom was removed. In reference to SASAA 245.01, four phases are evident: the predominant phase is fayalite, an iron silicate, (2FeO.SiO2); minor phases are hercynite, (Al2O3.FeO), an aluminium iron oxide; wustite, an iron oxide (FeO) and interstitial glass. Some traces of metallic iron are also evident. The co-existence of the four phases points to the slag being of the smelting type as described in the other Dungeer (SASAA 245.03) example above. The ore used was almost certainly of the bog ore variety, where iron exists as a non-crystalline oxy-hydroxide (Hall and Photos-Jones 1998). Manganese would have been added in the form of manganese oxide nodules, as flux to make the slag free running. Manganese oxides nodules have been found in Permalink: http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/e0476-bricketstown-co-wexford/ association with metal working sites (Photos-Jones 2006). Bog iron ore is elusive (Hall and Photos-Jones 1998), primarily on account of the fact that it is regenerative; in other words it reproduces itself (probably ‘quietly’ even today) at different locations, over a number of years. We are currently analysing some of these “modern” sources at a site presently under investigation. The similarities in mineralogy between the two fragments of slag from Dungeer suggest smelting slags. They have been recovered from two different pits; it does not, however, necessarily follow that both pits were smelting pits (see section below). On furnace description: Dungeer Pits C3 and C4 were indeed bowl furnaces used in the making of iron. There is no evidence of copper melting or smelting within the samples examined. Each furnace contains only a single fill. The presence of slag in both furnaces and the observed heating of the pit walls indicate that both pits were used for metalworking. Two-bowl (see Figure 3, middle) or even three-bowl furnace clusters are beginning to be increasingly evident in Ireland like the one at Derrinsallagh 4, Co Laois, excavated by ACS Ltd earlier this year, (A-M Lennon, pers comm.). Magnetic susceptibility measurements of one such two-pit bowl furnace within this site showed that the temperatures reached within were different (Wilson 2006); it follows that the function of the two bowls was different. This may or may have not been the case at Dungeer. We suggest that it is difficult to conclude whether two bowls situated next to each other may have been part of a cluster, each dedicated to a specific function or whether they represent two different trials without the use of ancillary scientific testing. As bowl furnaces, the Dungeer ones survive to an exceptionally shallow depth (7-8cm). Normally bowl furnaces would be expected to have a depth of c.30cm below the area where the tuyere would have been positioned. For example, the furnace at AR29 (Figure 3 right) survived to a depth that reflects closely the original one (the upper width of the furnace was c.50cm). The small amount of slag and charcoal recovered from the Dungeer furnaces suggests 6 71 ISSUE 4: Eachtra Journal - ISSN 2009-2237
  • 00E0476 demolition/truncation either by the smith himself or as part of a later event. While there were no archaeological indications of above ground structures around these pits, it is possible that a low clay wall (rather than a dome) was used to contain the charcoal and to ‘secure’ the positioning of the tuyere. On slag mineralogy: Bricketstown With reference to SASAA 245.02 two main phases are obvious, fayalite and interstitial glass; wustite is scarce and hercynite is absent. The phases that appear as wustite shown in the SEM images of Figure 2, we suggest are wustite ‘in the making’ i.e. in the process of formation. We had originally assumed that this was wustite which had undergone severe weathering; however closer SEM-EDAX analysis showed that the ‘wustite in the making’ areas contain a considerable amount of silica and alumina which must reflect the original ore. It is suggested that this slag formed as part of the roasting - more accurately drying /consolidating - of the alumina-rich ferruginous materials that formed the raw material for this smelt. The ore would have contained amorphous iron Bricketstown, Co. Wexford oxide, goethite. The slag is also devoid of manganese. Given that only one sample was available for examination from the above site, it is not possible to ascertain how metalworking practices at Bricketown would have differed from those at Dungeer. There is no reported associated furnace feature with this sample (Eachtra 2006). Permalink: http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/e0476-bricketstown-co-wexford/ Figure 3. Left: Pits C3 and C4 at Dungeer, Co. Wexford (Eachtra 2006). Compare with (centre) double furnace (C5) at Derrinsallagh 4, Co. Laois (Wilson 2006) and (right) typical furnace fills in Feature 5, AR 29, Trantstown (N8 Glanmire-Watergrasshill Road Scheme) (Sherlock 2001). 7 72 ISSUE 4: Eachtra Journal - ISSN 2009-2237
  • 00E0476 Future work Although slag analysis from within a furnace can in principle identify the nature of the activities within, it merely ‘scratches’ the proverbial ‘surface’; slag analysis can only take the archaeological evidence so far – analysis of the associated soils, be they the silts/clays, can shed light into the raw materials used. In Dungeer, both pits contained ‘dark black silty clay with many angular and sub-angular pebble and stones’. Are these silty clays merely post depositional or do they contain information that might prove vital to the interpretation of the workings within the furnace and by extension practices lost? It is unfortunate that metallurgical waste analysis traditionally focuses on slag alone. It is suggested that soil micromorphology takes place (sampling using a Kubiena tin), next time a similar feature is excavated. Having said that, it is acknowledged that the shallowness of the pits C3 and C4 at Dungeer points to considerable disturbance, rendering the results of any detailed investigation rather unreliable. Bricketstown, Co. Wexford Please note: photographs and drawings originating from sources other than SASAA are not to be reproduced in any form without the written permission of SASAA. E. Photos-Jones SASAA Permalink: http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/e0476-bricketstown-co-wexford/ Glasgow, October 2006 8 73 ISSUE 4: Eachtra Journal - ISSN 2009-2237
  • 00E0476 Acknowledgements SASAA would like to acknowledge the assistance of the following people in preparation of this report: • Gert Petersen (SASAA). • Peter Chung (Dept of Earth Sciences, University of Glasgow). References Eachtra Archaeological Projects. 2006. Background information on Dungeer and Bricketstown, Co. Wexford. Eachtra, unpublished information. Bricketstown, Co. Wexford Sherlock R. 2001. N8 Glanmire – Watergrasshill Road Scheme: Archaeological Excavation at Killydonoghoe, Ballinvinny North & Trantstown, Co Cork, Site Numbers AR 3, AR 4, AR 5, AR 6, AR 10, AR 11, AR 12, AR 13, AR 26 & AR 29, Sheila Lane & Associates Consultant Archaeologists’ Interim Report: December 2001, Licence Number 01E0501. Photos-Jones E. 2006. Stepaside, Kilgobbin: Industrial Waste Examination & Analysis. SASAA Report 227. Wilson L. 2006. Derrinsallagh 4, Co. Laois, Eire (Site Licence 05E2180): In-Situ Magnetic Susceptibility Data Collection: A Preliminary Report. SASAA Permalink: http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/e0476-bricketstown-co-wexford/ Report 204.1. 7 Belgrave Terrace| Glasgow | G12 8JD | Scotland |UK +44(0)141 337 2623 | enquiries@sasaa.co.uk | www.sasaa.co.uk 9 74 ISSUE 4: Eachtra Journal - ISSN 2009-2237
  • 00E0476 Bricketstown, Co. Wexford ISSUE 4: Eachtra Journal - ISSN 2009-2237 14.9 Appendix 9: Charcoal assessment Bricketstown, Co. Wexford (00E0476) Charcoal assessed by Mary Dillon Context Sample Charcoal 69 61 Diffuse-porous twig 83 72 Diffuse-porous twig Permalink: http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/e0476-bricketstown-co-wexford/ 75