Eachtra Journal

Issue 4                                               [ISSN 2009-2237]



           Archaeological Excav...
Archaeological Excavation Report,
N25 Rathsillagh to Harristown Realignment
Bricketstown
Co. Wexford

Kiln, field systems,...
00E0476                  Bricketstown, Co. Wexford                                                                    ISSU...
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00E0476                Bricketstown, Co. Wexford                                                                     ISSUE...
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Archaeological Excavation Report E0476 - Bricketstown, Co. Wexford, Ireland - EAP Journal
Archaeological Excavation Report E0476 - Bricketstown, Co. Wexford, Ireland - EAP Journal
Archaeological Excavation Report E0476 - Bricketstown, Co. Wexford, Ireland - EAP Journal
Archaeological Excavation Report E0476 - Bricketstown, Co. Wexford, Ireland - EAP Journal
Archaeological Excavation Report E0476 - Bricketstown, Co. Wexford, Ireland - EAP Journal
Archaeological Excavation Report E0476 - Bricketstown, Co. Wexford, Ireland - EAP Journal
Archaeological Excavation Report E0476 - Bricketstown, Co. Wexford, Ireland - EAP Journal
Archaeological Excavation Report E0476 - Bricketstown, Co. Wexford, Ireland - EAP Journal
Archaeological Excavation Report E0476 - Bricketstown, Co. Wexford, Ireland - EAP Journal
Archaeological Excavation Report E0476 - Bricketstown, Co. Wexford, Ireland - EAP Journal
Archaeological Excavation Report E0476 - Bricketstown, Co. Wexford, Ireland - EAP Journal
Archaeological Excavation Report E0476 - Bricketstown, Co. Wexford, Ireland - EAP Journal
Archaeological Excavation Report E0476 - Bricketstown, Co. Wexford, Ireland - EAP Journal
Archaeological Excavation Report E0476 - Bricketstown, Co. Wexford, Ireland - EAP Journal
Archaeological Excavation Report E0476 - Bricketstown, Co. Wexford, Ireland - EAP Journal
Archaeological Excavation Report E0476 - Bricketstown, Co. Wexford, Ireland - EAP Journal
Archaeological Excavation Report E0476 - Bricketstown, Co. Wexford, Ireland - EAP Journal
Archaeological Excavation Report E0476 - Bricketstown, Co. Wexford, Ireland - EAP Journal
Archaeological Excavation Report E0476 - Bricketstown, Co. Wexford, Ireland - EAP Journal
Archaeological Excavation Report E0476 - Bricketstown, Co. Wexford, Ireland - EAP Journal
Archaeological Excavation Report E0476 - Bricketstown, Co. Wexford, Ireland - EAP Journal
Archaeological Excavation Report E0476 - Bricketstown, Co. Wexford, Ireland - EAP Journal
Archaeological Excavation Report E0476 - Bricketstown, Co. Wexford, Ireland - EAP Journal
Archaeological Excavation Report E0476 - Bricketstown, Co. Wexford, Ireland - EAP Journal
Archaeological Excavation Report E0476 - Bricketstown, Co. Wexford, Ireland - EAP Journal
Archaeological Excavation Report E0476 - Bricketstown, Co. Wexford, Ireland - EAP Journal
Archaeological Excavation Report E0476 - Bricketstown, Co. Wexford, Ireland - EAP Journal
Archaeological Excavation Report E0476 - Bricketstown, Co. Wexford, Ireland - EAP Journal
Archaeological Excavation Report E0476 - Bricketstown, Co. Wexford, Ireland - EAP Journal
Archaeological Excavation Report E0476 - Bricketstown, Co. Wexford, Ireland - EAP Journal
Archaeological Excavation Report E0476 - Bricketstown, Co. Wexford, Ireland - EAP Journal
Archaeological Excavation Report E0476 - Bricketstown, Co. Wexford, Ireland - EAP Journal
Archaeological Excavation Report E0476 - Bricketstown, Co. Wexford, Ireland - EAP Journal
Archaeological Excavation Report E0476 - Bricketstown, Co. Wexford, Ireland - EAP Journal
Archaeological Excavation Report E0476 - Bricketstown, Co. Wexford, Ireland - EAP Journal
Archaeological Excavation Report E0476 - Bricketstown, Co. Wexford, Ireland - EAP Journal
Archaeological Excavation Report E0476 - Bricketstown, Co. Wexford, Ireland - EAP Journal
Archaeological Excavation Report E0476 - Bricketstown, Co. Wexford, Ireland - EAP Journal
Archaeological Excavation Report E0476 - Bricketstown, Co. Wexford, Ireland - EAP Journal
Archaeological Excavation Report E0476 - Bricketstown, Co. Wexford, Ireland - EAP Journal
Archaeological Excavation Report E0476 - Bricketstown, Co. Wexford, Ireland - EAP Journal
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Archaeological Excavation Report E0476 - Bricketstown, Co. Wexford, Ireland - EAP Journal

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In Bricketstown townland a number of agricultural features were exposed including a limekiln, land divisions, hearth and stakeholes, a platform with medieval waste and evidence of ridge and furrow cultivation. The main features of the sites included early land divisions (ditches), a work surface with residues from various industrial activities, a hearth surrounded by stakeholes/hearth furniture, later land divisions (ditches) that enclosed ridges and furrows and a kiln. The archaeological evidence from the site is generally indicative of activity associated with agriculture, incorporating a kiln, furrows, boundaries and drainage ditches.

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Archaeological Excavation Report E0476 - Bricketstown, Co. Wexford, Ireland - EAP Journal

  1. 1. Eachtra Journal Issue 4 [ISSN 2009-2237] Archaeological Excavation Report E0476 - Bricketstown, Co. Wexford Kiln, field systems, hearth, work surface
  2. 2. Archaeological Excavation Report, N25 Rathsillagh to Harristown Realignment Bricketstown Co. Wexford Kiln, field systems, hearth, work surface December 2009 Client: Wexford County Council, c/o Tramore House Road Design Office, Tramore, Co. Wexford Licence No.: 00E0476 Licensee: Daniel Noonan Contact details: The Forge, Innishannon, Co. Cork. Written by: Daniel Noonan and Penny Johnston Tel.: 021 470 16 16 Fax: 021 470 16 28 E-mail: info@eachtra.ie Web Site: www.eachtra.ie
  3. 3. 00E0476 Bricketstown, Co. Wexford ISSUE 4: Eachtra Journal - ISSN 2009-2237 Table of Contents 1 Summary ............................................................................................................1 2 Introduction .......................................................................................................1 3 Description of Development ...............................................................................1 4 Background to the excavation area......................................................................1 5 Archaeological & Historical Background............................................................2 5.1 Mesolithic 7000-4000 BC............................................................................2 5.2 Neolithic 4000-2500 BC ..............................................................................2 5.3 Bronze Age 2500-500 BC.............................................................................3 5.4 Iron Age 500 BC-500 AD ............................................................................3 5.5 Early Medieval 500 AD-1169 AD ................................................................4 5.6 Later Medieval 1169 AD-1600 AD...............................................................4 5.7 Post-Medieval (after 1600 AD) .....................................................................5 6 Results of Archaeological Excavation .................................................................6 6.1 Early Land Division - Ditches ......................................................................6 6.2 The Kiln .......................................................................................................7 6.3 Industrial Area - Work Surface ....................................................................11 6.4 Hearth and Stakeholes ................................................................................12 6.5 Later Land Division - Ditches ....................................................................13 6.6 Furrows .......................................................................................................14 7 Artefacts and Industrial Waste........................................................................... 15 8 Environmental Remains .................................................................................... 15 9 Discussion ......................................................................................................... 15 10 Summary ........................................................................................................... 19 11 References ..........................................................................................................20 11.1 Websites ......................................................................................................22 12 Figures ............................................................................................................... 23 13 Plates ................................................................................................................. 36 14 Appendices ........................................................................................................41 14.1 Appendix 1: Context Register ......................................................................41 14.2 Appendix 2: Stratigraphic Matrix ...............................................................48 14.3 Appendix 3: Finds register ...........................................................................49 14.4 Appendix 4: The medieval pottery from Bricketstown, Taghmon ................54 Permalink: http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/e0476-bricketstown-co-wexford/ iii
  4. 4. 00E0476 Bricketstown, Co. Wexford ISSUE 4: Eachtra Journal - ISSN 2009-2237 Table of contents cont. 14.5 Appendix 5: Radiocarbon dates ...................................................................56 14.6 Appendix 6: Archaeobotanical Assessment Report on the Charred Plant remains from Bricketstown .............................................................................................................57 14.7 Appendix 7: Geological Identification of Stone Artefacts from Bricketstown63 14.8 Appendix 8: Industrial residues ...................................................................66 14.9 Appendix 9: Charcoal assessment Bricketstown, Co. Wexford (00E0476) ...75 Permalink: http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/e0476-bricketstown-co-wexford/ iv
  5. 5. 00E0476 Bricketstown, Co. Wexford ISSUE 4: Eachtra Journal - ISSN 2009-2237 List of Figures Figure 1: Discovery map showing the route of the N25 Rathsillagh-Harristown road ..........................23 Figure 2: Ordnance Survey 1st edition showing the route of the N25 Rathsillagh-Harristown road ... 24 Figure 3: RMP sheet showing the route of the N25 Rathsillagh-Harristown road ...............................25 Figure 4: Route of new road with all excavated sites displayed .............................................................26 Figure 5: Plan of excavated area within the context of modern field and road boundaries ....................27 Figure 6: Plan of the excavated area showing the three main areas of archaeological activity (kiln, hearth and stakeholes, the working surface) and ditches .................................................................................28 Figure 7: Sections through early land division ditches (C.5 and C.8) ...................................................29 Figure 8: Post-excavation plan of the kiln bowl and flue (C.54 and C.19) ............................................30 Figure 9: Mid-excavation plan of the kiln bowl and flue (C.54 and C.19) ...........................................31 Figure 10: Earliest activity at the medieval work surface (C.154 and C.141).........................................32 Figure 11: Work surface truncated by furrows (C.80 and C.81) ..........................................................33 Figure 12: Area with hearth (C.97) and stakeholes ............................................................................34 Figure 13: Section through later land division ditch (C.15) .................................................................35 List of Plates Plate 1: Pre-excavation of kiln and ditches showing the kiln flue cutting the early ditch .......................36 Plate 2: Stone-lined flue at the base of the kiln bowl .............................................................................36 Plate 3: Lime residues at the base of the kiln bowl.................................................................................37 Plate 4: Layers of burnt clay and charcoal within the kiln flue ..............................................................37 Plate 5: Rake-out banked onto the southeast side of the flue .................................................................38 Plate 6: Re-cut of the kiln bowl.............................................................................................................38 Plate 7: Pre-excavation shot of parallel furrows traversing the site..........................................................39 Plate 8: Millstone fragments recovered during topsoil removal ..............................................................39 Plate 9: Mid excavation of kiln showing splayed flue ............................................................................ 40 Plate 10: Post-excavation of kiln bowl showing baked substratum in kiln ............................................ 40 Permalink: http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/e0476-bricketstown-co-wexford/ v
  6. 6. 00E0476 Bricketstown, Co. Wexford ISSUE 4: Eachtra Journal - ISSN 2009-2237 1 Summary County Wexford Townland Bricketstown Parish Kilgarvan Civil Parish Whitechurchglynn Barony Bantry National Grid Co-ordinates 29177 12290 (219800 122947) Chainage 7010 East-West 400-1200 North-South (Adamstown to Taghmon Road) Site Type Kiln, ditches, furrows, hearth, stake-holes and a working surface Excavation Licence Number 00E0476 2 Introduction Archaeological testing was conducted by Eachtra Archaeological Projects along the proposed route of the N25 realignment from Rathsillagh to Harristown, Co. Wexford. The proposed routeway was stripped by machine (under licence 00E0379) and in Bricketstown townland a number of agricultural features were exposed including a limekiln, land divisions, hearth and stakeholes, a platform with me- dieval waste and evidence of ridge and furrow cultivation. The site was close to the intersection of the Adamstown to Taghmon road and the main route, at chainage 7020. Following consultation with the DoEHLG (then Dúchas) and Wexford County Council a strategy of total excavation under licence 00E0476 was decided upon. The site represented a segment of the proposed road intake and was 180 m long and a maximum of 21 m wide. 3 Description of Development The N25 is the main southern east to west route, traversing the counties of Cork, Waterford, Kilkenny and Wexford. It links the port of Rosslare Harbour with Cork City, via New Ross, Waterford City, Dungarvan and Youghal. A section of the N25 route between the townlands of Rathsillagh and Har- ristown Little was selected for upgrading, as the old road comprised a single carriageway in either direction, with several ‘blind’ junctions, and in many cases only a hedge separating farmland from the road. The new route sought to straighten and level out the N25 and to provide a wider single car- riageway with hard shoulder in either direction, in keeping with the Barntown scheme completed in 1998 (Fig.1). 4 Background to the excavation area The 8.5 km route of the new road crosses a series of low, undulating hills, to the south of the old N25 route, and is situated at a height of between 45 m and 80 m above sea level. The landscape here is characterised by small hills interspersed with many small streams; these eventually flow into the River Corock to the southwest, into the Slaney to the northwest, as well as feeding into Ballyteige Bay to the south. From its western beginning in Rathsillagh townland the routeway climbs gently, running parallel and to the south of the old N25. It then continues through Assagart, Ballyvergin, Shanowle, Permalink: http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/e0476-bricketstown-co-wexford/ 1
  7. 7. 00E0476 Bricketstown, Co. Wexford ISSUE 4: Eachtra Journal - ISSN 2009-2237 Camaross, Carrowreagh, Dungeer, Bricketstown and through into Harristown Little, eventually exit- ing in Harristown Big townland and tying into the Barntown improvement which opened in 1998 (Figs. 1-3). The higher ground was lush pasture, well drained, and gave spectacular views all around. Sites on this part of the route included prehistoric settlement activity and a series of limekilns. Conversely, the lower ground in Camaross, Carrowreagh and Dungeer was quite marshy and prone to growth of gorse. Sites traditionally associated with low-lying ground were found in these townlands, for example a burnt mound at Dungeer and a moated site at Carrowreagh (Fig. 4). 5 Archaeological & Historical Background There are thirteen recorded archaeological monument sites within 1 km either side of the development; one is a church and graveyard site, nine are listed as enclosure sites of between 30 m and 60 m in di- ameter and three are moated sites (two of which are destroyed). The ecclesiastical site apparently dates to the medieval period as there is a fragment of a medieval grave cover in the graveyard and the site was originally surrounded by a circular bank (Moore 1996, 129). The enclosures most likely represent the raths and ringforts of the early medieval period (Moore 1996, 28). Prior to these excavations, the known archaeological remains in the locality were all medieval and post-medieval but several prehis- toric sites were identified during the course of this programme of excavation along the N25 route-way, including Neolithic material at Harristown Big, Bronze Age sites at Dungeer, Ballyvergin and Har- ristown Big and Iron Age activity at two sites in Bricketstown. 5.1 Mesolithic 7000-4000 BC The earliest known human occupation of Ireland dates to the Mesolithic period (c. 7000-4000 BC). Lithic scatters from the period have been found along the banks of the Barrow river in counties Wex- ford and Waterford (Green and Zvelebil 1990). Some diagnostic Mesolithic stone artefacts were also found in Camolin, in north Wexford, and along the eastern coastline between Carnsore and Kilm- ichael point (Stout 1987, 3). However, most activity is identified in resource-rich locations by riversides and coastlines and there is no known evidence for Mesolithic activity within the area affected by the roadtake. 5.2 Neolithic 4000-2500 BC There is piecemeal evidence for Neolithic occupation in County Wexford. Stout’s (1987) distribution map of Neolithic remains includes evidence for one single burial site, fifteen find spots for flint and stone atefacts, two portal tombs and seven other possible megalithic tombs. Work on the Archaeologi- cal Survey of Ireland reduced the number of other possible megaliths from seven to five (Moore 1996). Subsequent excavation work has increased the extent of knowledge concerning Neolithic settlement in the county. Early Neolithic pottery was found by McLoughlin (2004) at Kerlogue (02E0606) and at a pit and a hearth excavated under licence 00E0630 at Courtlands East (Purcell 2002). Later Neolithic activity in the county is indicated by Sandhills ware, discovered during an excavation (02E0434) in a Permalink: http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/e0476-bricketstown-co-wexford/ 2
  8. 8. 00E0476 Bricketstown, Co. Wexford ISSUE 4: Eachtra Journal - ISSN 2009-2237 pit at St. Vogues (Purcell 2004). An undated excavation at MacMurroughs (1985:59) also uncovered a number of flints and a ground stone axe, associated with a hearth and pit may also be Neolithic in date (Cotter 1986). Some evidence for Neolithic activity was found as part of this project at Harristown Big (00E0424) where Neolithic pottery was discovered at a site where various pits and stakeholes were excavated. Early Neolithic and possible Middle Neolithic wares were found. 5.3 Bronze Age 2500-500 BC Some of the earliest Bronze Age finds from Co. Wexford are three chance finds of Beaker gold discs (only one with a provenance). Other Bronze Age metal finds from the county includes hoards of both Early and Late Bronze Age artefacts, e.g. at Cahore Point, a cave at Nash, Ballyvadden, Enniscorthy, Forth Commons and New Ross (Stout 1987, 9-10, 22). At Ballyvadden the Late Bronze Age metal ob- jects were found within a ceramic container, a unique feature in Irish hoards, but apparently common on the continent during the period (Stout 1987, 22). Burnt mounds are the most common Bronze Age site-types found in Ireland and sixty-three such sites were identified in the Archaeological Inventory for the county (Moore 1996) and since the survey work several have been excavated in the county; examples were found at Strandfield (McCarthy 2004) and along the routes of the N30 (Enniscorthy to Clonroche) and the N11 (Arklow to Gorey) roads (www. nra.ie). Only one burnt mound was excavated during works on the Rathsillagh-Harristown realign- ment of the N25; this was found at Dungeer 00E0474. Much of our evidence for Bronze Age activity in Wexford to date has come from burials. There is a recognised concentration of cist-type burials in Co. Wexford; these are commonly thought to date to the Early Bronze Age. Stout (1987) identified more than thirty-seven identified but many were not well documented and Moore (1996) could only pinpoint the locations of only twenty-five cist and pit burials in total. Several other burials with diagnostic Bronze Age pottery have since been found during excavation: there was a cordoned urn burial at Ballintubbrid, vase urn burials at Coolnaboy, Gorey Corporation Lands and Kilmurry, a cist with a tripartite bowl at Knockbrack and a ring ditch with cremation burials at Ferns Lower (Bennett 2004-5). Another ring-ditch was found at Kerlogue Sites 4 and 5 and a large round house excavated at Kerlogue Site 2 was probably also of Bronze Age date (McLoughlin 2004). The excavations from the Rathsillagh-Harristown road scheme included one Early-Middle Bronze Age site at Ballyvergin where hot-stone technology was used in association with metalworking. Another metalworking site was found at Harristown Big (00E0425) where a series of Late Bronze Age metalworking pits and crucibles were found and the Late Bronze Age burnt mound site at Dungeer (00E0474). 5.4 Iron Age 500 BC-500 AD In common with much of Ireland there is very little evidence for Iron Age activity in Co. Wexford. Hillforts and promontory forts have possible construction dates in the Late Bronze Age or Early Iron Age and there are two hillforts and five promontory forts in the county (Moore 1996). The artefactual Permalink: http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/e0476-bricketstown-co-wexford/ 3
  9. 9. 00E0476 Bricketstown, Co. Wexford ISSUE 4: Eachtra Journal - ISSN 2009-2237 evidence for this period in Wexford includes two pins that are of probable Iron Age date and two pos- sible Iron Age stone heads recovered from Duncormick (Stout 1987, 29-30). Two of the sites excavated along the route of the Rathsillagh-Harristown road produced Iron Age radiocarbon dates, both were from Bricketstown and one was a small cremation cemetery (00E0623), the second was a small hearth (00E0624). 5.5 Early Medieval 500 AD-1169 AD The beginnings of Christianity are evident in the remains of seventeen early ecclesiastical sites in Co. Wexford (Moore 1996). One of the earliest excavated examples from Co. Wexford was at St. Vogues, at Carnsore, where a wooden church preceded a stone building (O’Kelly 1975). One of the closest known early church sites to the roadtake is located approximately 3 km to the south at the church of Poulmarl/Taghmon, the monastery founded by St. Munna in the seventh century. The list of abbots from this site continues to the end of the tenth century and there is a record of a Viking raid in 917 AD (Moore 1996, 160). By this time the Norse town of Weisford, later to become Wexford, was already established, having been established by the end of the ninth century (Colfer 1990-1991). Evidence for settlement in the county during the early medieval period comes from ringforts, typical monuments of the period. These were circular or subcircular enclosures made from earthen banks that surrounded areas roughly between 25 and 40 metres in diameter. Excavated examples have demon- strated that they generally surrounded single farmstead-type settlement sites. One hundred and fifty- three examples are known from the county (Moore 1996). Of these only two were located within close proximity to the area of the new Rathsillagh-Harristown road (at Haystown, c. 3 km to the north of the new road and at Cullenstown c. 2 km to the south). There are also numerous circular enclosure sites that probably represent ringforts; thirteen of them appear on the RMP Sheet 36 (covering the area of the new road-take) for Co. Wexford. 5.6 Later Medieval 1169 AD-1600 AD The Anglo-Normans first landed in Ireland in Co. Wexford in 1169. The county was within their initial land-grab zone between AD 1169 and AD 1190 (Mitchell & Ryan 1997, 305) and was sub-infeudated in the early stages of Anglo-Norman activity in Ireland (Colfer 1987). Wexford county was one of the first twelve counties created by the English Kings in the 12th to 13th centuries, from the original Prov- inces and lesser Territories of the Irish Tuatha (Howarth 1911, 161). By the thirteenth century much of the area covered by the Rathsillagh-Harristown road-take was a frontier zone and the archaeological landscape of these areas is characterised by moated sites: there are ten known sites on RMP Sheet 36 for Co. Wexford, the area covered by the new road, and one moated site at Carrowreagh was found along the line of the new road. Moated sites were distributed at the peripheries of the colonial organi- sation centres and probably represent an attempt at secondary colonisation (O’Keeffe 2000, 73-75). There are almost 130 moated sites known in County Wexford (Moore 1996, 95). However, by the end of the fourteenth century, much of the Anglo-Norman settlement in Co. Wexford had retreated to a southeastern stronghold in the baronies of Forth and Bargy, a pattern that Colfer (1987) suggests was Permalink: http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/e0476-bricketstown-co-wexford/ 4
  10. 10. 00E0476 Bricketstown, Co. Wexford ISSUE 4: Eachtra Journal - ISSN 2009-2237 reminiscent of the “Pale of county Wexford”. Excavations of medieval sites in the county include the remains of a medieval house were excavated at Ballyanne (Moran 2000), with pottery indicative of oc- cupation in the 12th to 14th centuries, and excavations at Ferns, Hook Head, Newtown, Tintern, Tagh- mon, New Ross and Wexford town all produced medieval archaeological remains (Bennett 2004-5). Along the route of the Rathsillagh-Harristown road the moated site at Carrowreagh (excavated under licence no. 00E0476) was the largest medieval site excavated. A spread of medieval occupation material was also excavated at Bricketwtown (00E0476) and this was rich in the remains of medieval pottery. It is also possible that the limekilns at Bricketstown (00E0476) and Harristown Little (00E0417) were in use at the very end of the medieval period. 5.7 Post-Medieval (after 1600 AD) A few excavations of post-medieval archaeological sites have been carried out in Wexford county, in- cluding Brideswell Big, Duncannon Fort, and excavations in Wexford and Ennisorthy town (Bennett 2004-5). Some of the excavations from the Rathsillagh to Harristown road scheme were probably used during this time, in particular the limekilns at Bricketstown (00E0476, 00E0626) and Harristown Little (00E0417) were probably in use at this period. There is Jacobean house site in Dungeer, one of the townlands affected by the roadtake. References to the house/castle date to the early seventeenth century (Moore 1996). Permalink: http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/e0476-bricketstown-co-wexford/ 5
  11. 11. 00E0476 Bricketstown, Co. Wexford ISSUE 4: Eachtra Journal - ISSN 2009-2237 6 Results of Archaeological Excavation The site comprised six archaeological parts; early land divisions (ditches), a kiln, a working surface, a hearth with stakeholes, later land divisions (ditches) and furrows (Fig. 5 and 6). The latest features were furrows, bound by ditches which acted as field divisions and/or drains. Underlying the furrows two separate areas of activity were encountered. The first of these consisted of a number of stakeholes and a hearth, while the second was a working surface. The kiln, which post-dated one of the field bounda- ries, was also excavated. The context register, with full contextual details, is found in Appendix 1, the stratigrpahic matrix is in Appendix 2 and the finds register is in Appendix 3. 6.1 Early Land Division - Ditches Two parallel ditches (C.5 and C.8), orientated roughly northeast-southwest, ran across the northern end of the site (Fig. 6). The northeastern of the two (C.5) was also the longest, with 56.5 m of the ditch exposed. It was 1 m wide with a maximum remaining depth of 0.14 m. The northwestern edge of the ditch sloped gradually to an irregular, but flattish base. The opposite side was almost vertical. This ditch was filled by two deposits (C.3 and C.10), both were probably a product of natural processes and their ‘tip lines’ seemed to indicate this infill occurred from the southeastern side (Fig. 7). The basal fill (C.10) was a redeposited natural while the upper fill (C.3) was darker with more characteristics of a surface soil. The redeposited natural in C.10 may have slumped from a bank located to the southeast. At an average distance of 1.5 m to the southeast was the parallel ditch (C.8) which was exposed over a length of 37 m. This ditch was 1.2 m wide and 0.32 m deep. The ditch cut had moderately sloping sides, convex on the northwest and concave on the southeast, with a flat base (Fig. 7). Three fills (C.2, C.6 and C.7) had been deposited in the cut (C.8). The basal fill (C.7) was the thickest of these and was overlain by redeposited subsoil (C.6) which was similar to the basal fill (C.10) of the other ditch (C.5). These were redeposited natural sediments and may have been slump from a bank of redeposited natural that filled the area between the two ditches. The tip lines in both sections (Fig. 7) also suggest that infilling occurred from the area between the two ditches, again suggesting a bank. The upper fill of ditch C.8 was C.2, a fill almost identical to C.7, the basal fill. A fragment of pottery was recovered from C.2 (Find 00E0476:2:1). This was identified as medieval Leinster Cooking Ware (Appendix 4), which is the same type as the pottery recovered from the work surface situated c. 30 m to the southwest and its deposition here may indicate that the activity at both areas of the site were more or less contemporaneous. However, this could also indicate material from a medieval context that was disturbed and redeposited in the ditch fill at a much later date. Two of the fills from C.8 (C.7 and C.2) were very similar to the upper fill of the previous ditch (C.3 in ditch C.5). As the fills within both ditches are quite similar it is likely that they fell into disuse at approximately the same time. All the indicators suggest that these two ditches were the remains of one field boundary, also originally in- corporating a bank. The southeastern ditch (C.8) travelled southwest to a point where it was truncated by another ditch (C.15) and it did not continue further beyond this. In contrast, the other parallel ditch (C.5) was truncated by two ditches to the south (C.15 and C.35) but continued beyond them and beyond the excavated area. This ditch (C.5) was also cut by the flue of the kiln (Plate 1 shows the kiln Permalink: http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/e0476-bricketstown-co-wexford/ 6
  12. 12. 00E0476 Bricketstown, Co. Wexford ISSUE 4: Eachtra Journal - ISSN 2009-2237 and nearby ditches before excavation with the kiln flue clearly truncating the ditch). 6.2 The Kiln The kiln was located towards the northern end of the excavated area (Fig. 6). It consisted of a relatively large circular bowl cut (C.54) with a flue (C.19) extending to the southwest. It was the flue cut which truncated the field boundary ditch (C.5) (Plate 1). The bowl (C.54) measured 2.72 m east-west, 2.87 m north-south. It had almost vertical straight sides which came to a flat base, producing a sizable pit to a depth of about 0.7 m (Fig. 8). The flue (C.19) was orientated northeast-southwest and entered the bowl on the southern side where the opening was cut to a width of 0.84 m. The base of the flue rose steadily from the base of the bowl to just over 4 m away where it terminated at ground level. As the base became shallower, the sides of the flue cut also splayed - changing from vertical to gently sloping– and widened to over 2.6 m. In total, the bowl and flue denoted a structure of approximately 7 m in length. Once the main cutting of the kiln had been completed it is possible that the builders tested the mer- its of the location they had chosen and the depth of their kiln. In this instance, a trampled charcoal spread (C.173) may be explained as the result of use of the kiln before its construction was finished; it lay at the centre of the base of the bowl and may be associated with the earliest ephemeral burning deposits within the flue (C.172). Subsequent alterations were made after this phase of burning and the subsoil was removed from the side of the bowl to the east and west of the flue aperture. This cut (C.171) created an overhang on the western side of the bowl. The void behind the stone lining around the bowl (C.136) was filled by a sandy silt (C.170). The circumference of the base of the bowl was lined with stones (C.136), the only break being at the flue opening (Plate 2). Within this circle of stones the base was divided into quadrants, each one filled with stones (C.136) covered in lime residue (Plate 3). The stone-rows within the kiln bowl were separated from each other by up to 0.2 m and laid in a cruciform pattern, continuing the line of the flue, and defining quadrants within the bowl. The conduits between each quadrant were coarsely lintelled (C.142 and C.160) to create a complex air circulation system throughout the kiln. These air ducts (C.59 and C.57) were filled with debris (C.155, C.156, C.158 and C.161) and materials which indicated kiln use, such as charcoal and burnt lime. Three of the relatively solid quadrants (or quar- ter-circles C.136) each had further consolidating deposits laid above them. These (C.94, C.134 and C.135) were of orange silty sand, were of substantial extent and all had been heat altered. The fourth quadrant in the northeast had a small deposit (C.117) which consisted of ashy grey sandy silt that was probably related to the use of the kiln. Although it is possible the orange deposits (C.94, C.134 and C.135) related to a working platform as was hypothesised during excavation, it is more likely that these deposits provided mass to which latent heat transferred and thus aided a prolonged heating process. Furthermore, the fact that a consolidation Permalink: http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/e0476-bricketstown-co-wexford/ 7
  13. 13. 00E0476 Bricketstown, Co. Wexford ISSUE 4: Eachtra Journal - ISSN 2009-2237 layer was absent from the quadrant furthest to the rear of the bowl (C.54) may have allowed the air to funnel through to the back of the kiln, thus balancing the heat distribution throughout. At the aperture of the flue the stone lining (C.136) gave way to redeposited topsoil (C.148) which had been packed on each side of the flue. This was covered by lintel stones (C.162) which would have se- cured the opening but had definitely subsided over time. The remainder of the flue cut (C.19) evidently had side stones (C.114) but only a few of these remained (Fig. 9). The fact that the capstones (C.162) had shifted somewhat was evidenced by a patchwork of deposits above the stones; overlying the lintels were two deposits (C.146 and C.144) of redeposited and scorched naturals and above these were three further deposits (C.127, C.125 and C.124) of sandy silt, each sealing the flue canal. (The complexity of this series of deposits is illustrated in the mid-excavation plan Fig. 9). The flue cut (C.19) to the southwest of the lintels (C.162) was the location of multiple burning epi- sodes, including several deposits indicative of raking out of ashes and burnt soil. At the southwestern end of the flue (C.19), as it splayed out at ground level, a charcoal stained spread (C.139) signified these episodes of ash removal. Approximately half way down the external part of the flue, a hearth spread (C.138) remained, which consisted of burnt clays and charcoal (Plate 4 and Fig. 9). This comprised lenses of ashy material which probably represented a sequence of firings with only short time periods separating each event. It occupied the entire floor of the northern half of the flue. Both the hearth (C.138) and the rake-out (C.139) were covered by a layer of further raked/disturbed material (C.125). This red sandy silt (C.125) was heavily oxidised and littered with residue from burning and so was re- lated to hearths and previous firings. It had been disturbed - probably raked – and banked up against the southeast side of the flue (Plate 5). This was probably to clear the northwest side of the flue chan- nel so that the kiln could be used without entirely removing previous hearth material. This remaining channel was later partially backfilled with two deposits (C.95 and C.111). Both were about 0.1 m thick and had sparse evidence for burning activity. One (C.95) closed the start of the flue at the southwest, while the other (C.111) covered the remainder of the hearth (C.138) further down the flue. The largest of the surviving side stones (C.114) of the flue then collapsed over the latter deposit (C.111). To put the flue beyond use it was backfilled with a mottled friable material (C.88) which contained occasional charcoal and covered the entire northwestern side of the flue. Within the bowl, changes had also occurred during the lifespan of the kiln. A number of fills had col- lapsed into the chamber, filling it slowly from all sides. Immediately overlying the quadrants (C.136) and their sand packing (C.94, C.134 and C.135) were four fills (C.112, C.113, C.115 and C.116) (Fig. 9). On the southeastern side, a small deposit (C.112) had been indirectly heat affected. Similarly, a much larger deposit (C.113) on the eastern side produced evidence of indirect heating. It was also likely that this fill had been deposited before the final firing of the kiln as small pieces of charcoal were frequent in its composition. On the western side a fill (C.115) was found to show the same residual evidence and a small deposit (C.116) to the north was almost identical. These fills (C.112, C.113, C.115 and C.116) were all a product of kiln use and collectively illustrate heat related subsidence from all Permalink: http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/e0476-bricketstown-co-wexford/ 8
  14. 14. 00E0476 Bricketstown, Co. Wexford ISSUE 4: Eachtra Journal - ISSN 2009-2237 sides above the kiln. The relatively insubstantial amounts concerned did not block the air flow through the kiln. Overlying these initial fills was a more substantial crescent-shaped deposit (C.110) which was thickest over the flue entrance and presumably collapsed from this side, as it was absent from the northern side. This was a discoloured, charcoal flecked, residual layer from when the kiln was active and, although substantial, it would not have prevented heat circulation within the kiln. The kiln appeared to fall into disuse beyond this period and most of the fills within the bowl repre- sented the destruction of chamber or related material. Overlying the fill within the bowl (C.110), an un-burnt fill (C.87) was found which only occasionally produced charcoal flecks and scorched natu- ral. At the same time a greenish grey clay deposit (C.91), containing frequent mortar and moderate charcoal flecks, was backfilled over the central point of the cruciform flue system and effectively put this system out of use. Allied to this was clayey silt (C.90) deposited on the southern side. This was a compacted mottled layer that suggested that kiln material, probably rake-out, was used in the purpose- ful backfill of the bowl. A less mottled deposit (C.89) was dumped above this and further up the side of the bowl. On the side nearest the flue, three similar fills (C.84, C.85 and C.86) of brown silt, all with inclusions of burnt lining (baked natural), were identified high on the edge. These were distinct deposits and C.85 and C.86 were divided by a much darker silt spread (C.79) to the west. This dark deposit (C.79) produced some burnt stone but nothing else indicative of heat transfer. There was a subsequent central backfill of the bowl characterised by a firm sandy silt (C.76) with pebbles as well as pieces of weathered limestone and charcoal flecks. A further dump of dark silt (C.75) was deposited on the southern slope of the bowl and contained occasional charcoal and burnt stone. A spread of material (C.73) was tipped from the east edge and was similar to that which had been tipped from the south (C.75). Both were probably originally cleared from the flue before being backfilled at a later date. On the south side a further layer (C.72) was deposited, again indicating deliberate backfilling, but with less evidence that the soil was previously an active component within the kiln. These were covered by deposits C.71, an un-sorted, sterile brown pebbly silt that did not indicate any association with use of the kiln and C.70, a green sandy silt which also seems unlikely to have been connected with any direct kiln activity. A dark broad fill (C.69) of sandy silt with charcoal flecks covered these layers and most of the southern and eastern sides of the pit. The deposit was disturbed and so was not burned in situ, but this fill indicates a period of activity in the late medieval/post-medieval period, as some charcoal in the deposit returned a radiocarbon date of cal AD 1450-1650 (Beta-219132, see Appendix 5). The opposite side of the bowl appeared to be backfilled with comparatively few deposits. High on the north edge, a previously heated sandy silt (C.68) was dumped. At approximately the same time a large reddish brown deposit (C.67) was tipped from the southern side. Another backfilled deposit (C.66) was dumped on top from the southwest side; it included layers of broken shale which suggest that this material originated as subsoil, perhaps removed when the kiln was constructed. A smaller deposit (C.65) to the south also included shale. An additional grey pebbly crescent shaped deposit (C.64) was found high on the southwestern edge. It was overlain by a layer (C.62) of black silt with occasional flecks of charcoal. Following this, natural subsoil (C.60), most likely from the original cutting of the Permalink: http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/e0476-bricketstown-co-wexford/ 9
  15. 15. 00E0476 Bricketstown, Co. Wexford ISSUE 4: Eachtra Journal - ISSN 2009-2237 kiln (C.54), was backfilled from the west. Yet another fill (C.56) of black silt that contained evidence of burning was then tipped in from the west, over which still more natural subsoil (C.55) was deposited. A small patch of strongly cemented pebbly sand (C.53) was found to have been dumped high on the southwest edge and this had been covered by a layer (C.52) of yellowish orange clay. An insubstantial dark silt (C.47) was then deposited on this followed by a further pebbly deposit (C.46). The southern half of the remaining kiln hollow was then covered with natural subsoil (C.44) which almost certainly originated from the kiln cut (C.54) as this subsoil had charcoal flecking. On the north side of the kiln redeposited natural subsoil (C.42) was tipped (backfilled) from the west. Two dark burnt soils (C.41 and C.40) were then dumped on top of this. Both areas of redeposited natural (C.42 and C.44) were then covered with a broad burnt deposit of sandy silt (C.39) which contained inclusions of charcoal and possible burnt kiln lining which may have originated from a kiln cleaning episode. Backfilling continued at the western side of the kiln, and two more burnt brown silt deposits (C.37 and C.36) were tipped from the western edge. C.36 was then covered with a sequence of pebbles (C.34 and C.32) and more burnt sandy silts (C.33, C.31, C.28 and C.20). This sequence was sealed beneath a broad fill of stony redeposited natural subsoil (C.30) which had been dumped in from the southwest. A dark reddish black sand (C.26) was then deposited on C.30. Across the southern side a final large fill of brown stony silt (C.23) was dumped. The final fills evident in the kiln bowl (C.54) were less substantial (C.16, C.17, C.18 and C.20), all produced evidence of burning. The flue cut (C.19), while put beyond use by a substantial fill (C.88), would still have remained as a depression. At the end nearest the flue aperture, this depression was backfilled further with brown silty clay (C.83). Above this and to the southwest, light ashy silt (C.77) was deposited before burnt mottled silt (C.74) was banked up on the flue aperture. The fills at the northern end of the flue were then cov- ered with mottled redeposited natural (C.63) which had probably originated from the cutting of the flue (C.19). At the southwest end of the flue three deposits (C.45, C.43 and C.38) backfilled the west side. All produced charcoal flecks and probably represented earlier ‘rake-outs’ events which were later redeposited. A large brownish red deposit (C.61) with inclusions of charcoal was banked up against the southeastern side of the flue (C.19). Finally, the flue (C.19) was completely levelled out by a deposit (C.29) of assorted topsoil, natural subsoil and charcoal flecks. The bowl section of the kiln (C.54), once filled, was cut into at some later date. This was a sub-circu- lar pit (C.12), approximately 2 m in diameter with moderate concave sides, with the exception of the northern side which was almost vertical (Plate 6). It was dug to a depth of 0.44 m and the base was irregular. The sides of the cut were not oxidised and they were not burned in situ. The primary fill (C.11) of the pit only represented previous backfills of the kiln bowl which had been cut through and then redeposited. The uppermost fill (C.9) was brown sandy silt with occasional flecks of burnt natural and charcoal, but again not indicative of a function for the pit (C.12). This late pit cut may suggest that the site was intended to be reopened and that this task had commenced and was then abandoned before completion. Permalink: http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/e0476-bricketstown-co-wexford/ 10
  16. 16. 00E0476 Bricketstown, Co. Wexford ISSUE 4: Eachtra Journal - ISSN 2009-2237 Eighteen samples from the kiln were examined for plant remains and for the extraction of material from the heavy residues left after flotation. Limited quantities of charred macroplant fragments were discovered in the samples (see Appendix 6) and these may have been used as fuel or tinder in the kiln. Weathered limestone (identified by R. Unitt) was found in three contexts associated with the kiln bowl (C.136, C.155 and C.156) and this may have been a raw material for kiln use if lime was prepared. Any residual lime from use as a limekiln would have quickly dissolved in water and would not necessarily leave a trace (R. Unitt, pers. comm.). 6.3 Industrial Area - Work Surface Approximately 30 m to the south of the kiln an area of intense archaeological activity was interpreted as a work surface (Fig.6). This was recorded as twelve layers of archaeological deposits. These layers were partially truncated by furrows (C.80 and C.81). The earliest activity encountered was represented by two cuts; C.154 and C.141 (Fig. 10). The eastern of the two (C.154) was a relatively shallow stakehole, which tapered and inclined towards the south. This was filled by an orangey red clay deposit (C.153 – similar to C.140 detailed below). The other feature (C.141) was a sub-circular pit with a cut that had a steep side at the west, while elsewhere the sides sloped gently to a blunt rounded base. The first deposit in the sequence (C.143) partially filled this pit cut (C.141), although most of it was found to the east of the stakehole (C.154). This spread was not found over the stakehole and it is possible that the timber stake was still in place when charcoal spread was deposited. The charcoal spread (C.143) comprised black clay with stones and frequent char- coal, probably hearth material removed from the pit cut (C.141). A thick fill (C.140) of orangey red clay filled the remainder of the pit and also sealed the charcoal spread and the stakehole. This material (C.140) contained no finds but was probably hearth related material from elsewhere. A large layer (C.92) of redeposited natural overlay this, and extended in all directions beyond the previ- ous contexts. It contained numerous pottery fragments (Finds 00E0476:92:1-35) and after refitting by the pottery specialist these were identified as thirty sherds of Leinster Cooking Ware (Appendix 4). A piece of iron slag, a possible furnace bottom, was also found in this deposit. This layer formed a surface of unknown function. Three small lenses of burnt clay (C.137) were deposited on top of this surface; the burnt clay produced no finds and was not in situ. Overlying this was an elongated (east-west) charcoal spread (C.93) which contained many pottery fragments (00E0476:93:1-39), refitted to form thirty-four sherds of Leinster Cooking Ware (Appendix 4). The deposit appeared to have been scattered here as it was very thin with poorly defined edges. Another large layer (C.82) covered the charcoal and more or less mirrored the extent of the previous layer. It comprised dark brown clay with moderate amounts of charcoal and burnt clay and large amounts of Leinster Cooking Ware (00E0476:82:1-88), which were refitted to produce seventy-eight sherds (Appendix 4). A further large layer of dark brown silty clay with moder- ate charcoal inclusions (C.48) was deposited directly on the surface (Fig. 11) and it also produced sev- eral pottery fragments (00E0476:1-18), possibly residual from the lower layer (C.82). Also above C.82, Permalink: http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/e0476-bricketstown-co-wexford/ 11
  17. 17. 00E0476 Bricketstown, Co. Wexford ISSUE 4: Eachtra Journal - ISSN 2009-2237 in the northeast, was a crescent shaped deposit (C.78) that consisted of black silty clay with frequent charcoal. This was probably hearth material raked to the side of a hearth (C.51), which was defined by an area of burnt clay and edged by the crescent shaped deposit (C.78) at its southeastern extent. This hearth (C.51) was on the interface with the topsoil and so had been partially truncated by agricul- tural activity. Millstone fragments (Appendix 7) were recovered from this location during monitoring of topsoil removal within the development site (Finds no. 00E0476:1:18-19). These finds suggest the possibility that the hearth was associated with processing cereals (heat is often required to harden grain and facilitate grinding). Indeterminate fragments of grains and grasses were retrieved from a sample of the hearth (Appendix 6). It is also possible that the millstones were part of general waste that was dumped at this part of the site, representing domestic (pottery) and industrial (slag) activities. The surfaces and layers at this part of the site may have been deliberately laid work surfaces that were constructed by moving waste and debris from other areas of activity, or perhaps the remains signify a sequence of dumping, rather than deliberate deposition, in one area. Either way, the hearth laid at the very highest level of these layers may have been for work or for waste disposal purposes. 6.4 Hearth and Stakeholes Between the kiln and the working area there was another small area of archaeological activity that comprised numerous stakeholes and a circular pit (Fig. 12). The pit (C.97) contained two fills (C.96 and C.59), with the basal fill (C.96) identified as redeposited natural subsoil which contained no arte- facts or archaeobotanical material (Appendix 6) and there was no evidence to indicate its origin. Both fills contained moderate amounts of broken slate and the upper fill (C.59) resembled hearth material. As a consequence the pit has been interpreted as a hearth. A stake had been inserted into the northern part of this hearth (C.59). The sub-circular stakehole (C.123) tapered to a point and inclined to the northeast. This stakehole (C.123) was filled with reddish brown gravel (C.122). Immediately north of the hearth five stakeholes (C.101, C.129, C.131, C.133 and C.103) were found clustered together (Fig. 12). Three of these (C.101, C.131 and C.133) were circular, one oval (C.103) and one sub-circular (C.129). All were roughly the same depth (c. 0.1 m) except for the central stakehole (C.133) which was shallower (0.05 m) and set completely vertical. The others (C.101, C.129, C.131, and C.103) were generally inclined towards a central point (east, southwest, southwest and northeast respectively). These contained separate but similar fills (C.100, C.102, C.128, C.130 and C.132) of reddish brown silty clay with inclusions of fine pebbles and charcoal. No artefacts were recovered. Approximately 0.6 m north of the latter group, an isolated sub-circular stakehole (C.99), which was ‘U-shaped’ and set vertically, contained a fill (C.98) identical to those identified in the other stake- holes. Permalink: http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/e0476-bricketstown-co-wexford/ 12
  18. 18. 00E0476 Bricketstown, Co. Wexford ISSUE 4: Eachtra Journal - ISSN 2009-2237 Three further stakeholes (C.105, C.107 and C.109) were located to the south of the hearth (C.59). The western-most of these (C.105) was a circular stakehole of similar depth to those elsewhere; it leant slightly away from the hearth (to the southwest). This was filled by C.104, the same reddish brown silty clay encountered in stakeholes to the north of the hearth. Directly south of the hearth, an ovate stakehole (C.107) orientated southwest-northeast was excavated. This was shallow (0.05 m) but filled with the similar brown silty clay (C.106). The stake here would have inclined to the southeast. Finally, the third stakehole (C.109) south of the hearth was sub-circular and inclined to the southwest. This was filled with light brown silty clay (C.108) with only very occasional charcoal inclusions. This isolated area of archaeology must be interpreted as a hearth with associated spit or cooking furniture. Although there were no connections between any of the stakeholes they were probably all broadly contemporary. The stakes were generally aligned north/northwest to south/southeast across the hearth, some clustered together at the north. This was the only area of the site where cereal grains were relatively frequent (mostly identified as oats and barley, see Appendix 6) and it is an area that may have been used for cooking or processing grain. However, there was no evidence for the date of this activity at the site and it is difficult to relate it to either the kiln to the north or the medieval deposits to the south. 6.5 Later Land Division - Ditches Two ditches (C.15 and C.35) traversed the site and these encompassed and were aligned with the later furrows. These ditches ran parallel to one another and were orientated east-west (Fig. 6). They both truncated earlier ditches (C.5 and C.8). The northern of the two ditches (C.15), contained three fills; C.4, C.13 and C.14 (Fig. 13). Both sides of the ditch cut (C.15) were stepped, but the northern side was slightly steeper. The primary fill (C.14) consisted of burnt clay with high instances of charcoal. It appeared that wood and scrub had been burned in places intermittently along the base of the ditch. This was in turn covered by a fill (C.13) of orange silty clay which was probably redeposited natural subsoil and it may represent the collapse, or purposeful backfill, of a field bank. One fragment of Leinster Cooking Ware (Find 00E0476:13:1, identified in Appendix 4) was also incorporated into the fill. A sherd was also recovered from the ear- lier ditch (C.8). Disturbance and truncation probably led to the redeposition of earlier pottery into the fills of both ditches. The upper fill (C.4) of the ditch was brown silty clay, formed primarily through natural silting of the ditch, perhaps accelerated by agricultural activity in the vicinity, evidenced by the presence of furrows to the south (see below). Another ditch (C.35) ran parallel to the south. It was approximately half as wide and only half as deep as C.15 and it had moderate concave sides sloping to a flat base. The basal fill (C.27) was brownish orange silty clay, comparable to the middle fill of the northern ditch (C.13). It also had inclusions of charcoal, again suggesting intermittent burning activity. The ditch was finally filled with a dark brown Permalink: http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/e0476-bricketstown-co-wexford/ 13
  19. 19. 00E0476 Bricketstown, Co. Wexford ISSUE 4: Eachtra Journal - ISSN 2009-2237 deposit (C.24) comparable to the upper fill of ditch C.15. Although the ditch cuts (C.15 and C.35) were quite different, the fills indicate similar formation processes, and they were probably back-filled simultaneously. The redeposited fills C.13 and C.27 suggest a bank had been built between the ditches from the up-cast of the cuts. These ditches signify the enclosing of land which contained the evidence for ridge and furrow agricul- ture. 6.6 Furrows Approximately 25 furrows traversed the site and survived in various degrees of preservation (Plate 7). They were all roughly parallel to one another and were orientated north-northwest – south-southeast (Fig. 6). These were recorded diligently where it was suspected that the line of the furrow truncated earlier activity. As these were homogeneous, the furrows at locations with no underlying archaeology will not be discussed here. Only two furrows (C.80 and C.81) passed over archaeology (the working area C.48). Both were of a shallow depth and were filled with brown silty clay (C.49 and C.50 respectively). These fills contained charcoal and pottery (Finds 00E0476: 49:1-5 and 00E0476:50:1-20), after refitting these were identi- fied by the pottery specialist as twenty-three sherds of Leinster Cooking Ware (Appendix 4) which were probably disturbed from the underlying layer (C.48). Permalink: http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/e0476-bricketstown-co-wexford/ 14
  20. 20. 00E0476 Bricketstown, Co. Wexford ISSUE 4: Eachtra Journal - ISSN 2009-2237 7 Artefacts and Industrial Waste The most common artefacts retrieved from this site were fragments of ceramic pottery which were ex- amined by Clare McCutcheon (Appendix 4). These were primarily retrieved from contexts that made up the work surface. After refitting were two hundred and two sherds of Leinster Cooking Ware were identified, with four vessel noted: two cooking jars, a lamp and a platter or slab that was probably used as a serving dish. These were all domestic wares. Industrial waste from the site was analysed by Effie Photos-Jones (Appendix 8). This comprised one lump of slag that was found in the layers that made up the work surface and it was identified as slag that formed after roasting, possibly in preparation for a smelt. Fragments from millstone (Plate 8) were recovered during topsoil monitoring at the site and these were the subject of a visual examination by the geologist Richard Unitt (Appendix 7). It was identified as Red-brown, clast supported, immature conglomerate and the granular stone was probably deliberately chosen as a raw material for the millstone since its rough texture created a good grinding surface (R. Unitt pers. comm.). This stone is described in Appendix 7. These finds are catalogued in the Finds Register in Appendix 3. The pottery and slag were retrieved from the work surface and the millstone fragments were retrieved from topsoil during monitoring. 8 Environmental Remains Charcoal was only found in two of the samples from the site and this was assessed by Mary Dillon in advance of radiocarbon dating (Appendix 9). Martha Tierney examined forty-five samples for plant remains from the site but no charred seeds were found in any of the samples (see Appendix 6). 9 Discussion The main features of the sites included early land divisions (ditches), a work surface with residues from various industrial activities, a hearth surrounded by stakeholes/hearth furniture, later land divisions (ditches) that enclosed ridges and furrows and a kiln. The archaeological evidence from the site is gen- erally indicative of activity associated with agriculture, incorporating a kiln, furrows, boundaries and drainage ditches. The hearth and a work/industrial surface to the south of the site do not appear to be related and their purpose or function remains puzzling. The most complex sequence of archaeological deposits at the site was excavated at the kiln, which can be summarised as follows: a bowl and flue cut, with the flue splayed at its entrance (see Plate 9). The base of the flue was inclined, with the highest point at the flue entrance and the lowest at the point where it met the base of the bowl. Stone-lined air conduits in a cruciform pattern were found at the base of the bowl and they continued from the line of the flue and allowed the efficient distribution of heat within the kiln. There was evidence for successive firings and rake-outs from the bowl. At the end of its use the kiln flue was apparently deliberately blocked, although there was some evidence to suggests that there may have been attempts to recut the bowl. However, this was not successful and kiln was abandoned. Permalink: http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/e0476-bricketstown-co-wexford/ 15
  21. 21. 00E0476 Bricketstown, Co. Wexford ISSUE 4: Eachtra Journal - ISSN 2009-2237 This site was initially interpreted as a grain drying kiln and appears in a gazetteer of excavated grain drying kilns (Monk and Kelleher 2005, 109). It now appears that this classification is mistaken. The absence of large quantities grain or plant remains in any of the kiln deposits (Appendix 6) is one argu- ment against the interpretation of the site as a grain drying kiln. In addition, the series of kilns exca- vated during this project were significantly bigger than the usual size of excavated keyhole shape grain drying kilns; chamber diameters ranged from 0.32 m to 1.6 m in most surveyed examples (Monk and Kelleher 2005, 81), while the chamber at this site was c. 2.8 m in diameter, in line with the sizes noted for the few excavated examples of late medieval/early post-medieval limekilns known from Ireland (see comparative table below). Table of comparative details for excavated examples of Irish limekilns Site County Orientation Total length Bowl Length Bowl Width Bowl Depth Flue length Flue width Ballymount Great 97E0316 Dublin 1.2 0.71 (Conway 1998) Laurence’s Street, Drogheda Louth 3.4 3.4 98E0544 (Murphy 2000) Custom House 97E0028 ext Galway NW-SE 3.5 3.5 >1 (Delaney 2000) Nicholas Street Site F Dublin N-S Bowl and 1.88 1.8 1.55 No flue N/A (Walsh 1997) stokehole found c.2.2 m Danecastle, Carrick-on-Bannow Wexford NNW-SSE Not fully 3.48 1.64 5.04 4.35-1.35 04E0855 excavated (Ó Drisceoil 2004-5) Bohercrow road, Murgasty Tipperary E-W 8.5 c. 3.5? 3.48 1.2 c. 5? 97E0026 (Cummins 1999) Bricketstown 00E0476 Wexford NE-SW 7 2.87 2.72 0.7 4 0.84 to 2.6 Bricketstown 00E0626 Wexford NNE-SSW 7 c. 3 c. 3 1.25 4 1 to 2 Harristown Little 00E0417 * Wexford NNE-SSW 3.7 * 2.7 2.7 0.52 1* 1 * indicates truncation, full extent unknown ? indicates that measurements are estimates based on summary measurements given Other excavated limekilns include Drogheda (Campbell 1987) and Tullyallen 5 (Campbell 2001) in Co. Louth, Kilkenny Castle (Sweetman 1976) and Callan (Moran 2001) in Co. Kilkenny, two lime kilns at Mondaniel (03E1094), Co. Cork (Quinn 2006) and one limekiln at 8-9 Lower Abbey St., Sligo 98E0216 ext (Hayden 1999). Additional suggestions that this was a limekiln come from the structural remains at Bricketstown (00E0476), in particular the air vent at the base of the kiln bowl. This was constructed from stones and arranged in a cruciform pattern to allow an even distribution of air through the kiln. The constant distribution of air during lime burning was crucial as this ensured that the procedure occurred evenly (Bick 1984) and ventilation channels would have promoted good results from the kiln. This facility was more impressive than the simple earth cut channel found at the base of the other Bricketstown kiln (00E0626). A kiln similar to the Bricketstown example was found at Dromthacker, Co. Kerry (Cleary 1998) with cruciform air vents at the base. These vents were earth-cut rather than stone lined Permalink: http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/e0476-bricketstown-co-wexford/ 16
  22. 22. 00E0476 Bricketstown, Co. Wexford ISSUE 4: Eachtra Journal - ISSN 2009-2237 flues and although no radiocarbon date was obtained the structure was interpreted as a nineteenth century limekiln. The baked substratum found at each of these Wexford kilns indicated extreme heat, and at Brckets- town (00E0476) there was evidence that the walls of the kiln, cut into the subsoil, had been subject to extremely high temperatures (see Plate 10 of post-ex of kiln bowl). This is comparable to the results from another excavation in Co. Wexford; at Danecastle, Carrick-on-Bannow Ó Drisceoil (2004-5) noted that a limekiln was lined with a mixture of clay and crushed sandstone which had baked rock- hard in the heat of the kiln. Temperatures inducing such baking must have been far in excess of the requirements for drying grain and hard-baked subsoil is not usually a noted feature of grain drying kilns. Temperatures reached during experimental firings of grain drying kilns were never in excess of 65ºC (Monk and Kelleher 2005, 97-100) while the temperatures required for making lime is usually near the 900ºC mark (Stowell 1963, 10; Hale et al. 2003). A more recent limekiln was recorded along the route of the Harristown-Rathsillagh realignment, within the townland of Ballyvergin, which was shown on the 1st edition OS map and was said to have been in use only 70 years prior to its destruction (Elder 2001). It was located 2 km northwest of the site at Bricketstown. This kiln appears to have been a successor to the earlier examples excavated at Harrisown Little and Bricketstown. It’s existence is proof of the availability of suitable raw materials for lime burning in the general area. The post-medieval example from Ballyvergin was cut into a field boundary and in this it resembles the other kiln sites (at Bricketstown 00E0626 and 00E0476 and at Harristown Little 00E0417), which are all associated with ditch complexes that have been interpreted as relict field boundaries. Permanent structure limekilns fall into two basic types, draw kilns or flare kilns. The type found at Bricketstown (00E0476) fits into descriptions of flare kilns. These kilns were operated by placing a single consignment of stones (such as limestone, marble or chalk) and interspersed with fuel such as fuel and charcoal. These were loaded from the top of the kiln. These stones contain calcite (calcium carbonate) which can be heated to produce calcined lime or quicklime (CaCO3 + heat → CaO + CO2). The heat source came from the hearth which was lit at the base of the kiln. These needed to be big fires as heating only at low temperatures causes a reversible reaction, and allows the re-absorption of atmos- pheric carbon dioxide. The process is only reversible if temperatures have exceeded 900ºC, releasing all the carbon dioxide. Once the fire was lit it required several days of burning before the limestone was calcined. The end product, quicklime, was retrieved from the bottom of the kiln. The entire procedure of lime burning was “more an art than a science”, being dependent on the weather (wind strength and direction) and the quality of both raw materials and fuel supplied (Bick 1984). Quicklime is an alkaline crystalline solid which is caustic but it has several uses; used in building work as a bonding agent (an ingredient in mortar), in render, in whitewash, and as fertiliser (Rynne 1999), although its use for the latter purpose in Ireland generally dates to the period around the mid Permalink: http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/e0476-bricketstown-co-wexford/ 17
  23. 23. 00E0476 Bricketstown, Co. Wexford ISSUE 4: Eachtra Journal - ISSN 2009-2237 seventeenth century (Ó Drisceoil 2004-5). The date returned from charcoal in this Bricketstown kiln may overlap with this (cal AD 1450-1650). Rynne (1999, 29) notes that most small limekilns, citing as example a stone-built kiln with a 2.2 m diameter bowl (Power et al. 1994, 334), were probably used only intermittently for the production of small quantities of lime to be used for agricultural purposes. The bowl of this Bricketstown kiln was a similar small size, perhaps indicating that its primary use was for the production of agricultural lime. By the late seventeenth century thousands of acres in Ireland had been improved by manuring and liming, including areas of Co. Wexford, where “all sorts of excellent bread, corn, grain, orchards, fruits, sweet herbs, meadows, pastures for all sorts of cattle” were the produce of land that was “not naturally fertile” (Molyneux 1680s, cited in Clarkson and Crawford 2001, 15-16). By the late eight- eenth century Young (1780) commented that the Irish farmers were accomplished lime burners, and that this was the primary form of “manure” or fertiliser that they used. The working surface, situated 30 m south of the kiln, was identified as an earlier, feature based on the assemblage of medieval pottery (Leinster Cooking Ware, see Appendix 4). Numerous sherds of Leinster Cooking Ware were also found during excavation of the moated site at Carrowreagh, 1.3 km northwest, and three contexts associated with this pottery type produced radiocarbon dates from cal AD 1300-1430. This suggests that the work surface at Bricketstown may have predated use of the kiln (use dated to between cal AD 1450-1650 (Beta 219132). However, the deposit that the pottery was taken from resembles a dump of material (slag was also found) and it may simply represent the clearing away of waste from an earlier settlement or industrial area. The kiln was associated with several ditches, probably relict field boundaries and it truncated one of these, indicating that construction of the kiln predated the enclosure of the land and the formation of some of the boundaries. These marked property boundaries, protected arable fields against wild and domestic animals, enclosed domestic animals to protect from predators, and provided shelter, etc. (see Groenman-van Waateringe 1981). Some of the field boundary ditches evidently enclosed the furrows that ran northwest-southeast across the southern part of the site. All of the limekilns excavated along the route of the N25 Rathsillagh-Harristown road were associated with ditches that have been inter- preted as field boundaries. Kilns are often associated with boundaries as they were frequently cut into banks to provide shelter during firing and to facilitate top loading of the kiln. Permalink: http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/e0476-bricketstown-co-wexford/ 18
  24. 24. 00E0476 Bricketstown, Co. Wexford ISSUE 4: Eachtra Journal - ISSN 2009-2237 10 Summary The site comprised six archaeological parts; early land divisions (ditches), a limekiln, a working surface, a hearth with stakeholes, later land divisions (ditches) and furrows. The latest features were ridge and furrows, they were bound by ditches which acted as field divisions and/or drains. Underlying the fur- rows two separate areas of activity were encountered. The first of these consisted of a number of stake- holes and a hearth, while the second was a working surface. The kiln, which post-dated one of the field boundaries, was also excavated. The archaeological excavation at this site indicates continuous agrarian and quasi-industrial activity in the area from the late medieval period onwards. The division of land, through the use of ditches and implied banks, both before and after use of the kiln, draws attention to the sub-division and consolidation of property through time. Permalink: http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/e0476-bricketstown-co-wexford/ 19
  25. 25. 00E0476 Bricketstown, Co. Wexford ISSUE 4: Eachtra Journal - ISSN 2009-2237 11 References Bennett, I. 2004-5. ‘Archaeological Excavations in Co. Wexford’, Journal of the Wexford Historical Society 20, 184-196. Bick, D. 1984. ‘Limekiln on the Gloucestershire-Herefordshire border’, Industrial Archaeology Review VII (1), 85-93. Campbell, K. 1987 ‘The archaeology of medieval Drogheda’, Archaeology Ireland 2. Campbell, K. 2001 ‘Tullyallen 5, Co. Meath’, in Bennett, I. (ed.) Excavations 1998. Bray, Wordwell. Clarkson, L.A. and Crawford, E.M. 2001. Feast and Famine. Food and Nutrition in Ireland 1500- 1920. Oxford, Oxford University Press. Cleary, R.M. 1998. ‘Dromthacker’, pp. 85-86 in I. Bennett (ed.) Excavations 1997. Bray, Wordwell. Colfer, B. 1987. ‘Anglo-Norman Settlement in County Wexford’, pp. 65-101 in Whelan, K. (ed.) Wexford History and Society. Interdisciplinary essays on the history of an Irish county. Dublin, Geography Publications. Colfer, B. 1990-1991. ‘Medieval Wexford’, Journal of the Wexford Historical Society 13, 4-29. Conway, M. 1998. ‘Ballymount Great, Co. Dublin’, in Bennett, I. (ed.) Excavations 1997. No. 079. Cotter, C. 1986. ‘MacMurroughs, Co. Wexford’, in Cotter, C. (ed.) Excavations 1985. Dublin, Irish Academic Publication for Organisation of Irish Archaeologists. Cummins, T. 1999. ‘Bohercrow Road, Murgasty, Co. Tipperary’ in Bennett, I. (ed.) Excavations 1998. Bray, Wordwell. Delaney, D. 2000. ‘Custom House, Flood Street/Courthouse Lane, Galway’, in Bennett, I. (ed.) Excavations 1999. Bray, Wordwell. Elder, S. 2001. ‘Archaeological Monitoring Report 00E0379’, Unpublished report for Eachtra Archaeological Projects. Green, S. W. and Zvelebil, M. 1990. ‘The Mesolithic colonisation and agricultural transition of south- east Ireland’, Proceedings of the Prehistoric Society 56, 57-88. Groenman-van Waateringe, W. 1981. ‘Field boundaries in Ireland’, pp. 285-290 in Ó Corráin (ed.) Irish Antiquity. Dublin, Four Courts Press. Hale, J., Heinemeier, J., Lancaster, L., Lindroos, A. and Ringbom, A. 2003. ‘Dating ancient mortar’, American Scientist 91 (2). Permalink: http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/e0476-bricketstown-co-wexford/ 20
  26. 26. 00E0476 Bricketstown, Co. Wexford ISSUE 4: Eachtra Journal - ISSN 2009-2237 Hayden, A. 1999. ‘8-9 Lower Abbey Street Sligo’, in Bennett, I. (ed.) Excavations 1998. Bray, Wordwell. Howarth, O.J.R. 1911. A Geography of Ireland. London, Oxford Geographies. McCarthy, M. 2004. ‘Strandfield, Co. Wexford’, pp. 520-521 in Bennett, I. (ed.) Excavations 2002. Bray, Wordwell. McLoughlin, C. 2004. ‘Kerlogue’, pp.517-518 in Bennet, I. (ed.) Excavations 2002. Bray, Wordwell. Mitchell, F. and Ryan, M. 1997. Reading the Irish Landscape. Dublin, Town House. Monk, M. and Kelleher, E. 2005. ‘An assessment of the archaeological evidence fro Irish corn-drying kilns in the light of the results of archaeological experiments and archaeobotanical studies’, Journal of Irish Archaeology XIV. Moore, M. 1996. Archaeological Inventory of County Wexford. The Stationary Office, Dublin. Moran, J. 2000. ‘Ballyanne, Co. Wexford’, in Bennett, I. (ed.) Excavations 1998. Bray, Wordwell. Moran, J. 2001. ‘Tinnamoona, Chapel Lane, Callan’, in Bennett, I. (ed.) Excavations 2000. Bray, Wordwell. Murphy, D. 2000. ‘Former Drogheda Grammar School, Laurence’s Street, Drogheda’, in I. Bennett (ed.) Excavations 1999. Bray, Wordwell. Ó Drisceoil, C. 2004-5. ‘Excavation of a Limerkiln at Danceastle, Carrick-on-Bannow’, Journal of the Wexford Historical Society 20, 203-208. O’Keeffe, T. 2000. Medieval Ireland, An Archaeology. Stroud, Tempus. O’Kelly, M.J. 1975. ‘Archaeological Survey and Excavation of St. Vogue’s Church, Enclosure and Other Monuments st Carnsore, Co. Wexford’, Unpublished excavation report for the Electricity Supply Board. Power, D., Lane, S., Byrne, E., Egan, U., Sleeman, M., Cotter, E. and Monk, J. 2000. Archaeological Inventory of County Cork Vol. 4 Part 2. Dublin, The Stationery Office. Purcell, J. 2004. ‘St. Vogue’s’, p.520 in Bennet, I. (ed.) Excavations 2002. Bray, Wordwell. Purcell, A. 2002. ‘Courtlands East, Co. Wexford’, in Bennett, I. (ed.) Excavations 2000. Bray, Wordwell. Quinn, A. 2006. ‘Mondaniel 3 03E1094 Co. Cork’, in Bennett, I. (ed.) Excavations 2003. Bray, Permalink: http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/e0476-bricketstown-co-wexford/ 21
  27. 27. 00E0476 Bricketstown, Co. Wexford ISSUE 4: Eachtra Journal - ISSN 2009-2237 Wordwell. Rynne, C. 1999. The Industrial Archaeology of Cork City and its Environs. Dublin, Government of Ireland. Stout, G. 1987. ‘Wexford in Prehistory 5000 B.C. to 300 A.D.’, pp.1-39 in Whelan, K. (ed.) Wexford History and Society. Interdisciplinary essays on the history of an Irish county. Dublin, Geography Publications. Stowell, F.P. 1963. Limestone as a raw material. Oxford, Oxford University Press. Sweetman, P.D. 1976. ‘Kilkenny’, in Delaney, T. (ed.) Excavations 1975. Walsh, C. 1997. Archaeolgical Excavations at Patrick, Nicholas and Winetavern Streets, Dublin. Kerry, Brandon. Young, A. 1780. A Tour in Ireland. Dublin. 11.1 Websites www.nra.ie/Archaeology/LeafletandPosterSeries Maps reproduced under licence where appropriate Ordnance Survey Ireland Licence No. AU 0005603 © Government of Ireland Permalink: http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/e0476-bricketstown-co-wexford/ 22
  28. 28. 00E0476 Bricketstown, Co. Wexford ISSUE 4: Eachtra Journal - ISSN 2009-2237 12 Figures Figure 1: Discovery map showing the route of the N25 Rathsillagh-Harristown road Permalink: http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/e0476-bricketstown-co-wexford/ 23
  29. 29. 00E0476 Bricketstown, Co. Wexford Permalink: http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/e0476-bricketstown-co-wexford/ 00E0471 00E0474 00E0473 00E0626 00E0424 Legend 00E0623 00E0417 New Road 00E0475 Existing N25 00E0625 New Archaeological Sites 00E0476 00E0624 00E0425 1km Figure 2: Ordnance Survey 1st edition showing the route of the N25 Rathsillagh-Harristown road 24 ISSUE 4: Eachtra Journal - ISSN 2009-2237
  30. 30. 00E0476 Bricketstown, Co. Wexford DE 18 LIS TE1531 D 14 21 D 20 13 173131 EL IS 19 TE D 67 16 Permalink: http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/e0476-bricketstown-co-wexford/ 25 00E0471 24 00E0474 23 00E0473 00E0626 00E0424 00E0623 52 00E0417 Legend New Road 00E0475 Existing N25 D 00E0625 64 New Archaeological Sites EL 00E0476 IS 33 00E0624 00E0425 1km TE 58 D 3232 Figure 3: RMP sheet showing the route of the N25 Rathsillagh-Harristown road 25 ISSUE 4: Eachtra Journal - ISSN 2009-2237
  31. 31. 00E0476 Bricketstown, Co. Wexford ISSUE 4: Eachtra Journal - ISSN 2009-2237 Figure 4: Route of new road with all excavated sites displayed 500m 0m Permalink: http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/e0476-bricketstown-co-wexford/ 26
  32. 32. 00E0476 Bricketstown, Co. Wexford ISSUE 4: Eachtra Journal - ISSN 2009-2237 Figure 5: Plan of excavated area within the context of modern field and road boundaries Permalink: http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/e0476-bricketstown-co-wexford/ 27
  33. 33. 00E0476 Bricketstown, Co. Wexford ISSUE 4: Eachtra Journal - ISSN 2009-2237 Figure 6: Plan of the excavated area showing the three main areas of archaeological activity (kiln, hearth and stakeholes, the working surface) and ditches Permalink: http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/e0476-bricketstown-co-wexford/ 28
  34. 34. 00E0476 Bricketstown, Co. Wexford ISSUE 4: Eachtra Journal - ISSN 2009-2237 W 0m E 1.20m C. 3 C.10 Natural C.5 W 0m E 1.30m C.2 C.6 C.7 C.8 Natural 0 1m Figure 7: Sections through early land division ditches (C.5 and C.8) Permalink: http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/e0476-bricketstown-co-wexford/ 29
  35. 35. 00E0476 Bricketstown, Co. Wexford ISSUE 4: Eachtra Journal - ISSN 2009-2237 Figure 8: Post-excavation plan of the kiln bowl and flue (C.54 and C.19) Permalink: http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/e0476-bricketstown-co-wexford/ 30
  36. 36. 00E0476 Bricketstown, Co. Wexford ISSUE 4: Eachtra Journal - ISSN 2009-2237 Figure 9: Mid-excavation plan of the kiln bowl and flue (C.54 and C.19) Permalink: http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/e0476-bricketstown-co-wexford/ 31
  37. 37. 00E0476 Bricketstown, Co. Wexford ISSUE 4: Eachtra Journal - ISSN 2009-2237 C.143 C.154 C.143 C.141 0 1m Figure 10: Earliest activity at the medieval work surface (C.154 and C.141) Permalink: http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/e0476-bricketstown-co-wexford/ 32
  38. 38. 00E0476 Bricketstown, Co. Wexford ISSUE 4: Eachtra Journal - ISSN 2009-2237 Figure 11: Work surface truncated by furrows (C.80 and C.81) Permalink: http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/e0476-bricketstown-co-wexford/ 33
  39. 39. 00E0476 Bricketstown, Co. Wexford ISSUE 4: Eachtra Journal - ISSN 2009-2237 C.99 C.101 C.103 C.129 C.133 C.131 C.123 C.97 C.105 C.107 C.109 Figure 12: Area with hearth (C.97) and stakeholes Permalink: http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/e0476-bricketstown-co-wexford/ 34

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