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Archaeological Excavation Report E0471 - Carrowreagh, Co. Wexford, Ireland - EAP Journal
Archaeological Excavation Report E0471 - Carrowreagh, Co. Wexford, Ireland - EAP Journal
Archaeological Excavation Report E0471 - Carrowreagh, Co. Wexford, Ireland - EAP Journal
Archaeological Excavation Report E0471 - Carrowreagh, Co. Wexford, Ireland - EAP Journal
Archaeological Excavation Report E0471 - Carrowreagh, Co. Wexford, Ireland - EAP Journal
Archaeological Excavation Report E0471 - Carrowreagh, Co. Wexford, Ireland - EAP Journal
Archaeological Excavation Report E0471 - Carrowreagh, Co. Wexford, Ireland - EAP Journal
Archaeological Excavation Report E0471 - Carrowreagh, Co. Wexford, Ireland - EAP Journal
Archaeological Excavation Report E0471 - Carrowreagh, Co. Wexford, Ireland - EAP Journal
Archaeological Excavation Report E0471 - Carrowreagh, Co. Wexford, Ireland - EAP Journal
Archaeological Excavation Report E0471 - Carrowreagh, Co. Wexford, Ireland - EAP Journal
Archaeological Excavation Report E0471 - Carrowreagh, Co. Wexford, Ireland - EAP Journal
Archaeological Excavation Report E0471 - Carrowreagh, Co. Wexford, Ireland - EAP Journal
Archaeological Excavation Report E0471 - Carrowreagh, Co. Wexford, Ireland - EAP Journal
Archaeological Excavation Report E0471 - Carrowreagh, Co. Wexford, Ireland - EAP Journal
Archaeological Excavation Report E0471 - Carrowreagh, Co. Wexford, Ireland - EAP Journal
Archaeological Excavation Report E0471 - Carrowreagh, Co. Wexford, Ireland - EAP Journal
Archaeological Excavation Report E0471 - Carrowreagh, Co. Wexford, Ireland - EAP Journal
Archaeological Excavation Report E0471 - Carrowreagh, Co. Wexford, Ireland - EAP Journal
Archaeological Excavation Report E0471 - Carrowreagh, Co. Wexford, Ireland - EAP Journal
Archaeological Excavation Report E0471 - Carrowreagh, Co. Wexford, Ireland - EAP Journal
Archaeological Excavation Report E0471 - Carrowreagh, Co. Wexford, Ireland - EAP Journal
Archaeological Excavation Report E0471 - Carrowreagh, Co. Wexford, Ireland - EAP Journal
Archaeological Excavation Report E0471 - Carrowreagh, Co. Wexford, Ireland - EAP Journal
Archaeological Excavation Report E0471 - Carrowreagh, Co. Wexford, Ireland - EAP Journal
Archaeological Excavation Report E0471 - Carrowreagh, Co. Wexford, Ireland - EAP Journal
Archaeological Excavation Report E0471 - Carrowreagh, Co. Wexford, Ireland - EAP Journal
Archaeological Excavation Report E0471 - Carrowreagh, Co. Wexford, Ireland - EAP Journal
Archaeological Excavation Report E0471 - Carrowreagh, Co. Wexford, Ireland - EAP Journal
Archaeological Excavation Report E0471 - Carrowreagh, Co. Wexford, Ireland - EAP Journal
Archaeological Excavation Report E0471 - Carrowreagh, Co. Wexford, Ireland - EAP Journal
Archaeological Excavation Report E0471 - Carrowreagh, Co. Wexford, Ireland - EAP Journal
Archaeological Excavation Report E0471 - Carrowreagh, Co. Wexford, Ireland - EAP Journal
Archaeological Excavation Report E0471 - Carrowreagh, Co. Wexford, Ireland - EAP Journal
Archaeological Excavation Report E0471 - Carrowreagh, Co. Wexford, Ireland - EAP Journal
Archaeological Excavation Report E0471 - Carrowreagh, Co. Wexford, Ireland - EAP Journal
Archaeological Excavation Report E0471 - Carrowreagh, Co. Wexford, Ireland - EAP Journal
Archaeological Excavation Report E0471 - Carrowreagh, Co. Wexford, Ireland - EAP Journal
Archaeological Excavation Report E0471 - Carrowreagh, Co. Wexford, Ireland - EAP Journal
Archaeological Excavation Report E0471 - Carrowreagh, Co. Wexford, Ireland - EAP Journal
Archaeological Excavation Report E0471 - Carrowreagh, Co. Wexford, Ireland - EAP Journal
Archaeological Excavation Report E0471 - Carrowreagh, Co. Wexford, Ireland - EAP Journal
Archaeological Excavation Report E0471 - Carrowreagh, Co. Wexford, Ireland - EAP Journal
Archaeological Excavation Report E0471 - Carrowreagh, Co. Wexford, Ireland - EAP Journal
Archaeological Excavation Report E0471 - Carrowreagh, Co. Wexford, Ireland - EAP Journal
Archaeological Excavation Report E0471 - Carrowreagh, Co. Wexford, Ireland - EAP Journal
Archaeological Excavation Report E0471 - Carrowreagh, Co. Wexford, Ireland - EAP Journal
Archaeological Excavation Report E0471 - Carrowreagh, Co. Wexford, Ireland - EAP Journal
Archaeological Excavation Report E0471 - Carrowreagh, Co. Wexford, Ireland - EAP Journal
Archaeological Excavation Report E0471 - Carrowreagh, Co. Wexford, Ireland - EAP Journal
Archaeological Excavation Report E0471 - Carrowreagh, Co. Wexford, Ireland - EAP Journal
Archaeological Excavation Report E0471 - Carrowreagh, Co. Wexford, Ireland - EAP Journal
Archaeological Excavation Report E0471 - Carrowreagh, Co. Wexford, Ireland - EAP Journal
Archaeological Excavation Report E0471 - Carrowreagh, Co. Wexford, Ireland - EAP Journal
Archaeological Excavation Report E0471 - Carrowreagh, Co. Wexford, Ireland - EAP Journal
Archaeological Excavation Report E0471 - Carrowreagh, Co. Wexford, Ireland - EAP Journal
Archaeological Excavation Report E0471 - Carrowreagh, Co. Wexford, Ireland - EAP Journal
Archaeological Excavation Report E0471 - Carrowreagh, Co. Wexford, Ireland - EAP Journal
Archaeological Excavation Report E0471 - Carrowreagh, Co. Wexford, Ireland - EAP Journal
Archaeological Excavation Report E0471 - Carrowreagh, Co. Wexford, Ireland - EAP Journal
Archaeological Excavation Report E0471 - Carrowreagh, Co. Wexford, Ireland - EAP Journal
Archaeological Excavation Report E0471 - Carrowreagh, Co. Wexford, Ireland - EAP Journal
Archaeological Excavation Report E0471 - Carrowreagh, Co. Wexford, Ireland - EAP Journal
Archaeological Excavation Report E0471 - Carrowreagh, Co. Wexford, Ireland - EAP Journal
Archaeological Excavation Report E0471 - Carrowreagh, Co. Wexford, Ireland - EAP Journal
Archaeological Excavation Report E0471 - Carrowreagh, Co. Wexford, Ireland - EAP Journal
Archaeological Excavation Report E0471 - Carrowreagh, Co. Wexford, Ireland - EAP Journal
Archaeological Excavation Report E0471 - Carrowreagh, Co. Wexford, Ireland - EAP Journal
Archaeological Excavation Report E0471 - Carrowreagh, Co. Wexford, Ireland - EAP Journal
Archaeological Excavation Report E0471 - Carrowreagh, Co. Wexford, Ireland - EAP Journal
Archaeological Excavation Report E0471 - Carrowreagh, Co. Wexford, Ireland - EAP Journal
Archaeological Excavation Report E0471 - Carrowreagh, Co. Wexford, Ireland - EAP Journal
Archaeological Excavation Report E0471 - Carrowreagh, Co. Wexford, Ireland - EAP Journal
Archaeological Excavation Report E0471 - Carrowreagh, Co. Wexford, Ireland - EAP Journal
Archaeological Excavation Report E0471 - Carrowreagh, Co. Wexford, Ireland - EAP Journal
Archaeological Excavation Report E0471 - Carrowreagh, Co. Wexford, Ireland - EAP Journal
Archaeological Excavation Report E0471 - Carrowreagh, Co. Wexford, Ireland - EAP Journal
Archaeological Excavation Report E0471 - Carrowreagh, Co. Wexford, Ireland - EAP Journal
Archaeological Excavation Report E0471 - Carrowreagh, Co. Wexford, Ireland - EAP Journal
Archaeological Excavation Report E0471 - Carrowreagh, Co. Wexford, Ireland - EAP Journal
Archaeological Excavation Report E0471 - Carrowreagh, Co. Wexford, Ireland - EAP Journal
Archaeological Excavation Report E0471 - Carrowreagh, Co. Wexford, Ireland - EAP Journal
Archaeological Excavation Report E0471 - Carrowreagh, Co. Wexford, Ireland - EAP Journal
Archaeological Excavation Report E0471 - Carrowreagh, Co. Wexford, Ireland - EAP Journal
Archaeological Excavation Report E0471 - Carrowreagh, Co. Wexford, Ireland - EAP Journal
Archaeological Excavation Report E0471 - Carrowreagh, Co. Wexford, Ireland - EAP Journal
Archaeological Excavation Report E0471 - Carrowreagh, Co. Wexford, Ireland - EAP Journal
Archaeological Excavation Report E0471 - Carrowreagh, Co. Wexford, Ireland - EAP Journal
Archaeological Excavation Report E0471 - Carrowreagh, Co. Wexford, Ireland - EAP Journal
Archaeological Excavation Report E0471 - Carrowreagh, Co. Wexford, Ireland - EAP Journal
Archaeological Excavation Report E0471 - Carrowreagh, Co. Wexford, Ireland - EAP Journal
Archaeological Excavation Report E0471 - Carrowreagh, Co. Wexford, Ireland - EAP Journal
Archaeological Excavation Report E0471 - Carrowreagh, Co. Wexford, Ireland - EAP Journal
Archaeological Excavation Report E0471 - Carrowreagh, Co. Wexford, Ireland - EAP Journal
Archaeological Excavation Report E0471 - Carrowreagh, Co. Wexford, Ireland - EAP Journal
Archaeological Excavation Report E0471 - Carrowreagh, Co. Wexford, Ireland - EAP Journal
Archaeological Excavation Report E0471 - Carrowreagh, Co. Wexford, Ireland - EAP Journal
Archaeological Excavation Report E0471 - Carrowreagh, Co. Wexford, Ireland - EAP Journal
Archaeological Excavation Report E0471 - Carrowreagh, Co. Wexford, Ireland - EAP Journal
Archaeological Excavation Report E0471 - Carrowreagh, Co. Wexford, Ireland - EAP Journal
Archaeological Excavation Report E0471 - Carrowreagh, Co. Wexford, Ireland - EAP Journal
Archaeological Excavation Report E0471 - Carrowreagh, Co. Wexford, Ireland - EAP Journal
Archaeological Excavation Report E0471 - Carrowreagh, Co. Wexford, Ireland - EAP Journal
Archaeological Excavation Report E0471 - Carrowreagh, Co. Wexford, Ireland - EAP Journal
Archaeological Excavation Report E0471 - Carrowreagh, Co. Wexford, Ireland - EAP Journal
Archaeological Excavation Report E0471 - Carrowreagh, Co. Wexford, Ireland - EAP Journal
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Archaeological Excavation Report E0471 - Carrowreagh, Co. Wexford, Ireland - EAP Journal

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The moated site comprised a rectangular moated area with an inside bank, a sub-rectangular building, and extensive evidence for activity outside the moat including numerous field boundaries, drains, …

The moated site comprised a rectangular moated area with an inside bank, a sub-rectangular building, and extensive evidence for activity outside the moat including numerous field boundaries, drains, furrows, working areas, a pottery kiln and a possible bisque firing kiln.

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  • 1. Eachtra Journal Issue 4 [ISSN 2009-2237] Archaeological Excavation Report E0471 - Carrowreagh, Co. Wexford Medieval moated site and pottery kiln
  • 2. Archaeological Excavation Report Carrowreagh N25 Harristown to Rathsillagh Co. Wexford Medieval moated site and pottery kiln December 2009 Client: Wexford County Council c/o Tramore House Road Design Office Tramore Co. Wexford Licence No.: 00E0471 Licensee: Michael Tierney Contact details: The Forge, Innishannon, Co. Cork. Written by: Michael Tierney Tel.: 021 470 16 16 Fax: 021 470 16 28 Penny Johnston E-mail: info@eachtra.ie Web Site: www.eachtra.ie
  • 3. 00E0471 Carrowreagh, Co. Wexford ISSUE 4: Eachtra Journal - ISSN 2009-2237 Table of Contents i. Acknowledgements ...........................................................................................................v 1. Summary ..........................................................................................................................1 2. Introduction .....................................................................................................................1 3. Description of Development .............................................................................................1 4. Background to the Survey Area ........................................................................................1 5. Archaeological & Historical Background..........................................................................2 5.1 Mesolithic 7000-4000 BC..........................................................................................2 5.2 Neolithic 4000-2500 BC ............................................................................................2 5.3 Bronze Age 2500-500 BC...........................................................................................3 5.4 Iron Age 500 BC-500 AD ..........................................................................................4 5.5 Early Medieval 500 AD-1169 AD ..............................................................................4 5.6 Later Medieval 1169 AD-1600 AD.............................................................................4 5.7 Post-Medieval (after 1600 AD) ...................................................................................5 6. Site Location and Topography ..........................................................................................5 7. Description of the excavated remains ...............................................................................6 7.1 The Moat ...................................................................................................................6 7.2 Inside the Moat .........................................................................................................10 7.3 Outside the Moat ......................................................................................................12 8. Artefacts ..........................................................................................................................16 9. Environmental Remains ..................................................................................................17 10. Discussion .......................................................................................................................17 11. Summary .........................................................................................................................20 12. Bibliography ....................................................................................................................21 13. Figures .............................................................................................................................24 14. Plates ...............................................................................................................................38 15. Appendices ......................................................................................................................47 15.1 Appendix 1: Context Register ....................................................................................47 15.2 Appendix 2: Finds Register .......................................................................................47 15.3 Appendix 3: Medieval and Post-medieval pottery from Carrowreagh ........................48 15.4 Appendix 4: Radiocarbon Dates ...............................................................................72 15.5 Appendix 5: Catalogue of bone from Carrowreagh ....................................................78 15.6 Appendix 6: Charred plant remains from Carrowreagh .............................................79 Permalink: http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/e0471-carrowreagh-co-wexford/ iii
  • 4. 00E0471 Carrowreagh, Co. Wexford ISSUE 4: Eachtra Journal - ISSN 2009-2237 Table of contents cont. 15.7 Appendix 7: Timbers from Carrowreagh, Co. Wexford (00E0471) ...........................91 15.8 Appendix 8: Charcoal assessment Carrowreagh .........................................................93 15.9 Appendix 9: Specialist pottery catalogue ...................................................................96 15.10 Appendix 10: Flint and stone report ..........................................................................97 15.11 Appendix 11: Metal Artefacts Catalogue ..................................................................100 Permalink: http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/e0471-carrowreagh-co-wexford/ iv
  • 5. 00E0471 Carrowreagh, Co. Wexford ISSUE 4: Eachtra Journal - ISSN 2009-2237 List of Figures Figure 1: Discovery map showing the route of the N25 Rathsillagh-Harristown road .......................... 24 Figure 2: Ordnance Survey 1st edition showing the route of the N25 Rathsillagh-Harristown Road ....25 Figure 3: RMP Sheet 36 showing the route of the N25 Rathsillagh-Harristown Road .........................26 Figure 4: Route of the new road with the excavated site displayed .........................................................27 Figure 5: Post excavation plan of the site at Carrowreagh (00E0471) ....................................................28 Figure 6: Section through the western portion of the moat (Drawing 159) ...........................................29 Figure 7: Section through the western portion of the moat (Drawing 125) ...........................................30 Figure 8: Section through the northern portion of the moat (Drawing 211) ..........................................31 Figure 9: Section through the eastern portion of the moat (Drawing 137) ............................................32 Figure 10: Detail of the house within the moat .....................................................................................33 Figure 11: Post-excavation plan of the pottery kiln and possible bisque-firing pit ..................................34 Figure 12: Illustration of one of the gaming pieces found at the site (00E0471:284:1) ...........................35 Figure 13: Illustration of a spindle whorl retrieved from the moated site (00E0471:241:260) ................36 Figure 14: Working area to the northeast of the moated site .................................................................37 List of Plates Plate 1: Pre-excavation shot of the moated site at Carrowreagh, facing southeast ..................................38 Plate 2: The moat after excavation .........................................................................................................38 Plate 3: Section through the ditch C.120 ..............................................................................................39 Plate 4: Possible leat as a water source for the moat ...............................................................................39 Plate 5: View of the medieval house and destruction layers within the moat during excavation, facing west ............................................................................................................................................. 40 Plate 6: House destruction layers showing the charred remains of structural elements from the house . 40 Plate 7: Pottery fragments from the destruction layers in the house .......................................................41 Plate 8: Metalled area and drain at the west of the house before excavation ..........................................41 Plate 9: Pottery kiln during excavation showing location of possible saggars ........................................ 42 Plate 10: The pottery kiln after excavation ........................................................................................... 42 Plate 11: Possible bisque-firing pit .........................................................................................................43 Plate 12: Drains as evidence for agricultural features in the area outside the moat (C.167)....................43 Plate 13: Leinster Cooking Ware Jug from C.241 with applied frills below rim (Photograph by John Sun- derland) ............................................................................................................................................. 44 Plate 14: Interior of thumb pot fragment from C.240 that may have been used as an aquamanile (Photo- graph by John Sunderland) .................................................................................................................. 44 Plate 15: Possible roof tile fragment from C.336 (Photograph by John Sunderland) ..............................45 Plate 16: Fragment from jug made in the Redcliffe style from C.206 (Photograph by John Sunderland)45 Plate 17: Fragments of locally made wares that copy the Ham Green style from C.241 (Photograph by John Sunderland) ................................................................................................................................. 46 Plate 18: Fragment from a waster found in C.141 (Photograph by John Sunderland) ........................... 46 Permalink: http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/e0471-carrowreagh-co-wexford/ v
  • 6. 00E0471 Carrowreagh, Co. Wexford ISSUE 4: Eachtra Journal - ISSN 2009-2237 i. Acknowledgements Project Manager Michael Tierney Licensee Michael Tierney Fieldwork Brian McDomhnaill, William Frazer, Ben Middleton, Tim Allen, Stuart Noon, Antonia Scanlon, Aaron Johnston, John O’ Callaghan, Joanne O’ Meadhra, Ben Middleton, Tom Janes, Brian Halpin, Vera Power, Cathy Fisher, Tony Bartlett, Frieda Kearns, Marie Dowling, Conor Dineen, Gerry Breen, Karen Buckley, Aoife Kavanagh, Rebecca Lesaux, Kieran Power, Laurence Fenton, Helen Finnegan, Ronan O’ Donoghue. Also, JR, BA,DA, PB, OB, BR, SM, KM, RCS, UP, AP, JJ, BAD, Lisa J and Alex O’ K. Research Stuart Elder, Simon Ó Faoláin, Penny Johnston Text Penny Johnston Illustrations Enda O’ Mahony, John Sunderland, Fiachra Dunne Specialists Niamh Doyle, Beta Analytic Inc., Margaret McCarthy, Penny Johnston, Martha Tierney, Mary Dillon, Sara Camplese, Susannah Kelly, Farina Sternke This project was funded solely by Wexford County Council under the National Development Plan. Permalink: http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/e0471-carrowreagh-co-wexford/ vi
  • 7. 00E0471 Carrowreagh, Co. Wexford ISSUE 4: Eachtra Journal - ISSN 2009-2237 1. Summary County Wexford Town land Carrowreagh Parish Kilgarvan Civil Parish Kilgarvan Barony Shelmaliere West National Grid Co-ordinates 28835 12375 Chainage 4340 Site Type Moated site Excavation Licence Number 00E0471 2. Introduction The Rathsillagh to Harristown Little N25 realignment scheme in Co. Wexford has resulted in the discovery of several archaeological sites. The moated site was found in Carrowreagh town land (at Chainage 4340) and excavated under licence number 00E0471. It comprised a rectangular moated area with an inside bank, a sub-rectangular building, and extensive evidence for activity outside the moat including numerous field boundaries, drains, furrows, working areas, a pottery kiln and a pos- sible bisque firing kiln. Only a handful of genuine moated sites have thus far been excavated in Ireland; Ballinvinny South (Cotter 2005), Kilmagoura and Rigsdale in Co. Cork, Kilferagh, Co. Kilkenny, Ballyveelish, Co. Tipperary (O’Conor 1998, 70-71) and Coolamurray, Co. Wexford (Fegan 2005). 3. Description of Development A section of the N25 route between the town lands of Rathsillagh and Harristown Little was selected for upgrading, as the old road comprised a single carriageway in either direction, with several ‘blind’ junctions, and in many cases only a hedge separating farmland from the road. The new route would not only seek to straighten and level out the N25, but to provide a wider single carriageway with hard shoulder in either direction, in keeping with the Barntown scheme completed in 1998. 4. Background to the Survey Area The N25 road is the main east/west route in the south, traversing the counties of Cork, Waterford, Kilkenny and Wexford. It links the port of Rosslare Harbour with Cork City via New Ross, Waterford City, Dungarvan and Youghal. The 8.5 km route of the new road crosses a series of low, undulating hills, to the south of the old N25 route, at a height of between 45 m and 80 m above sea level. The landscape here is characterised by small hills interspersed with many small streams that eventually flow into the River Corock to the southwest and the Slaney to the northwest, in addition to feeding into Ballyteige Bay to the south. Beginning in Rathsillagh town land at the western end of the new route of the road, it climbs gently, running parallel and to the south of the old N25, before continuing through Assagart, Ballyvergin, Shanowle, Camaross, Carrowreagh, Dungeer, Bricketstown and through into Harristown Little, even- tually exiting in Harristown Big town land and tying into the Barntown improvement which opened Permalink: http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/e0471-carrowreagh-co-wexford/ 1
  • 8. 00E0471 Carrowreagh, Co. Wexford ISSUE 4: Eachtra Journal - ISSN 2009-2237 in 1998. The higher ground was lush pasture, well drained, and gave spectacular views all around. Conversely, the lower ground in Camaross, Carrowreagh and Dungeer town lands was quite marshy and prone to growth of gorse. One burnt mound was excavated in Dungeer town land, this was located on the eastern side of a small stream, at the base of a steep rise. The moated site was also situated on the lower ground. Sites on the higher ground included prehistoric settlement activity and a series of limekilns. In general Co. Wexford is characterised by Ordovician rocks which underlie a fertile, well-drained, lowland. The land is covered by surface drift from early periods of glaciation and is renowned for its long tradition of arable farming (Aalen et al. 1997). The soils are predominantly acid brown earths with wide land-use capabilities. 5. Archaeological & Historical Background There are thirteen recorded archaeological monument sites within 1 km either side of the development; one is a church and graveyard site, nine are listed as enclosure sites of between 30 m and 60 m in di- ameter and three are moated sites (two of which are destroyed). The ecclesiastical site apparently dates to the medieval period as there is a fragment of a medieval grave cover in the graveyard and the site was originally surrounded by a circular bank (Moore 1996, 129). The enclosures most likely represent the raths and ringforts of the early medieval period (Moore 1996, 28). Prior to these excavations, the known archaeological remains in the locality were all medieval and post-medieval but several prehis- toric sites were identified during the course of this programme of excavation along the N25 route-way, including Neolithic material at Harristown Big, Bronze Age sites at Dungeer, Ballyvergin and Har- ristown Big and Iron Age activity at two sites in Bricketstown. 5.1 Mesolithic 7000-4000 BC The earliest known human occupation of Ireland dates to the Mesolithic period (c. 7000-4000 BC). Lithic scatters from the period have been found along the banks of the Barrow river in counties Wex- ford and Waterford (Green and Zvelebil 1990). Some diagnostic Mesolithic stone artefacts were also found in Camolin, in north Wexford, and along the eastern coastline between Carnsore and Kilm- ichael point (Stout 1987, 3). However, most activity is identified in resource-rich locations by riversides and coastlines and there is no known evidence for Mesolithic archaeological within the area affected by the road take but a re-deposited Mesolithic blade point was recovered from the medieval moated site at Carrowreagh (00E0471). 5.2 Neolithic 4000-2500 BC There is piecemeal evidence for Neolithic occupation in County Wexford. Stout’s (1987) distribution map of Neolithic remains includes evidence for one single burial site, fifteen find spots for flint and stone artefacts, two portal tombs and seven other possible megalithic tombs. Work on the Archaeologi- cal Survey of Ireland reduced the number of other possible megaliths from seven to five (Moore 1996). Subsequent excavation work has increased the extent of knowledge concerning Neolithic settlement in the county. Early Neolithic pottery was found by McLoughlin (2004) at Kerlogue (02E0606) and at a Permalink: http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/e0471-carrowreagh-co-wexford/ 2
  • 9. 00E0471 Carrowreagh, Co. Wexford ISSUE 4: Eachtra Journal - ISSN 2009-2237 pit and a hearth excavated under licence 00E0630 at Courtlands East (Purcell 2001). Later Neolithic activity in the county is indicated by Sandhills ware, discovered during an excavation (02E0434) in a pit at St. Vogues (Purcell 2004). An undated excavation at MacMurroughs (1985:59) also uncovered a number of flints and a ground stone axe, associated with a hearth and pit may also be Neolithic in date (Cotter 1985). Some evidence for Neolithic activity was found as part of this project at Harristown Big (00E0424) where Neolithic pottery was discovered at a site where various pits and stake -holes were excavated. Early Neolithic and possible Middle Neolithic wares were found. 5.3 Bronze Age 2500-500 BC Some of the earliest Bronze Age finds from Co. Wexford are three chance finds of Beaker gold discs (only one with a provenance). Other Bronze Age metal finds from the county includes hoards of both Early and Late Bronze Age artefacts, e.g. at Cahore Point, a cave at Nash, Ballyvadden, Enniscorthy, Forth Commons and New Ross (Stout 1987, 9-10, 22). At Ballyvadden the Late Bronze Age metal ob- jects were found within a ceramic container, a unique feature in Irish hoards, but apparently common on the continent during the period (Stout 1987, 22). Burnt mounds are the most common Bronze Age site-types found in Ireland and sixty-three such sites were identified in the Archaeological Inventory for the county (Moore 1996) and since the survey work several have been excavated in the county; examples were found at Strandfield (McCarthy 2004) and along the routes of the N30 (Enniscorthy to Clonroche) and the N11 (Arklow to Gorey) roads (www. nra.ie/Archaeology/LeafletandPosterSeries). Only one burnt mound was excavated during works on the Rathsillagh-Harristown realignment of the N25; this was found at Dungeer 00E0474. Much of our evidence for Bronze Age activity in Wexford to date has come from burials. There is a recognised concentration of cist-type burials in Co. Wexford; these are commonly thought to date to the Early Bronze Age. Stout (1987) identified more than thirty-seven identified but many were not well documented and Moore (1996) could only pinpoint the locations of only twenty-five cist and pit burials in total. Several other burials with diagnostic Bronze Age pottery have since been found during excavation: there was a cordoned urn burial at Ballintubbrid, vase urn burials at Coolnaboy, Gorey Corporation Lands and Kilmurry, a cist with a tripartite bowl at Knockbrack and a ring ditch with cremation burials at Ferns Lower (Bennett 2004-5). Another ring-ditch was found at Kerlogue Sites 4 and 5 and a large round house excavated at Kerlogue Site 2 was probably also of Bronze Age date (McLoughlin 2004). The excavations from the Rathsillagh-Harristown road scheme included one Early-Middle Bronze Age site at Ballyvergin where hot-stone technology was used in association with metalworking. Another metalworking site was found at Harristown Big (00E0425) where a series of Late Bronze Age metalworking pits and crucibles were found and the Late Bronze Age burnt mound site at Dungeer (00E0474). Permalink: http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/e0471-carrowreagh-co-wexford/ 3
  • 10. 00E0471 Carrowreagh, Co. Wexford ISSUE 4: Eachtra Journal - ISSN 2009-2237 5.4 Iron Age 500 BC-500 AD In common with much of Ireland there is very little evidence for Iron Age activity in Co. Wexford. Hillforts and promontory forts have possible construction dates in the Late Bronze Age or Early Iron Age and there are two hillforts and five promontory forts in the county (Moore 1996). The artefactual evidence for this period in Wexford includes two pins that are of probable Iron Age date and two pos- sible Iron Age stone heads recovered from Duncormick (Stout 1987, 29-30). Two of the sites excavated along the route of the Rathsillagh-Harristown road produced Iron Age radiocarbon dates, both were from Bricketstown and one was a small cremation cemetery (00E0623), the second was a small hearth (00E0624). 5.5 Early Medieval 500 AD-1169 AD The beginnings of Christianity are evident in the remains of seventeen early ecclesiastical sites in Co. Wexford (Moore 1996). One of the earliest excavated examples from Co. Wexford was at St. Vogues, at Carnsore, where a wooden church preceded a stone building (O’Kelly 1975). One of the closest known early church sites to the road take is located approximately 3 km to the south at the church of Poulmarl/Taghmon, the monastery founded by St. Munna in the seventh century. The list of abbots from this site continues to the end of the tenth century and there is a record of a Viking raid in 917 AD (Moore 1996, 160). By this time the Norse town of Weisford, later to become Wexford, was already established, having been established by the end of the ninth century (Colfer 1990-1991). Evidence for settlement in the county during the early medieval period comes from ringforts, typical monuments of the period. These were circular or sub-circular enclosures made from earthen banks that surrounded areas roughly between 25 and 40 metres in diameter. Excavated examples have dem- onstrated that they generally surrounded single farmstead-type settlement sites. One hundred and fifty-three examples are known from the county (Moore 1996). Of these only two were located within close proximity to the area of the new Rathsillagh-Harristown road (at Haystown, c. 3 km to the north of the new road and at Cullenstown c. 2 km to the south). There are also numerous circular enclosure sites that probably represent ringforts; thirteen of them appear on the RMP Sheet 36 (covering the area of the new road-take) for Co. Wexford. 5.6 Later Medieval 1169 AD-1600 AD The Anglo-Normans first landed in Ireland in Co. Wexford in 1169. The county was within their initial land-grab zone between AD 1169 and AD 1190 (Mitchell & Ryan 1997, 305) and was sub-infeudated in the early stages of Anglo-Norman activity in Ireland (Colfer 1987). Wexford county was one of the first twelve counties created by the English Kings in the 12th to 13th centuries, from the original Prov- inces and lesser Territories of the Irish Tuatha (Howarth 1911, 161). By the thirteenth century much of the area covered by the Rathsillagh-Harristown road-take was a frontier zone and the archaeological landscape of these areas is characterised by moated sites: there are ten known sites on RMP Sheet 36 for Co. Wexford, the area covered by the new road, and one moated site at Carrowreagh was found along the line of the new road. Moated sites were distributed at the peripheries of the colonial organi- Permalink: http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/e0471-carrowreagh-co-wexford/ 4
  • 11. 00E0471 Carrowreagh, Co. Wexford ISSUE 4: Eachtra Journal - ISSN 2009-2237 sation centres and probably represent an attempt at secondary colonisation (O’Keefe 2000, 73-75). There are almost 130 moated sites known in County Wexford (Moore 1996, 95). However, by the end of the fourteenth century, much of the Anglo-Norman settlement in Co. Wexford had retreated to a south-eastern stronghold in the baronies of Forth and Bargy, a pattern that Colfer (1987) suggests was reminiscent of the “Pale of county Wexford”. Excavations of medieval sites in the county include the remains of a medieval house were excavated at Ballyanne (Moran 2000), with pottery indicative of oc- cupation in the 12th to 14th centuries, and excavations at Ferns, Hook Head, Newtown, Tintern, Tagh- mon, New Ross and Wexford town all produced medieval archaeological remains (Bennett 2004-5). Along the route of the Rathsillagh-Harristown road the moated site at Carrowreagh (excavated under licence no. 00E0476) was the largest medieval site excavated. A spread of medieval occupation material was also excavated at Bricketstown (00E0476) and this was rich in the remains of medieval pottery. It is also possible that the limekilns at Bricketstown (00E0476) and Harristown Little (00E0417) were in use at the very end of the medieval period. 5.7 Post-Medieval (after 1600 AD) A few excavations of post-medieval archaeological sites have been carried out in Wexford County, in- cluding Brideswell Big, Duncannon Fort, and excavations in Wexford and Ennisorthy town (Bennett 2004-5). Some of the excavations from the Rathsillagh to Harristown road scheme were probably used during this time, in particular the limekilns at Bricketstown (00E0476, 00E0626) and Harristown Little (00E0417) were probably in use at this period. There is Jacobean house site in Dungeer, one of the town lands affected by the road take. References to the house/castle date to the early seventeenth century (Moore 1996). 6. Site Location and Topography The site was situated on the eastern edge of Carrowreagh town land, on low-lying ground surrounded by gentle hills and overlooking an area of marshy ground. The longest axis of the moat was north- east/south-west. The northern part of the settlement was within the road-take, with the rest of the moat visible as slight depressions running under a modern road. The line of the southern end of the moat could be made out from a kink in the existing field boundary that preserves the outline of the settlement. Although the site was not known prior to monitoring carried out in 2000 under licence no. 00E0379, it was locally called the ‘ra’ or rath field, and the most recent landowner remembered a series of bumps across the field following the line of what was uncovered in the test-trench. These had been levelled in the past 40 years. Permalink: http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/e0471-carrowreagh-co-wexford/ 5
  • 12. 00E0471 Carrowreagh, Co. Wexford ISSUE 4: Eachtra Journal - ISSN 2009-2237 7. Description of the excavated remains Archaeological excavation of the site at Carrowreagh revealed the partial remains of a medieval moated site and associated external activity (Figure 5). Within the area of the road corridor three sides of the moat were partially exposed and excavated (Plate 1). The uncovered remains suggested that the entire site formed a rough trapezoid in plan, with much of its southern part remaining un-excavated beyond the limit of the road take. The moat enclosed a medieval longhouse and a series of metalled surfaces and drains. Of particular interest was the opportunity to excavate a large area of land outside the moat. A pottery kiln and many contexts associated with pottery manufacture were identified in the area around the moat. The extensive network of drains in the area suggested that there was some difficulty with drainage at the site and the evidence from field boundaries and furrows was also examined. In total 439 contexts were excavated and full contextual information is given in the context register (Ap- pendix 1) with listings of stratigraphic relationships. 7.1 The Moat Only the northern part of the moat was exposed for its full length, running for a distance of 32 m. It had an average width of c. 5 m and it was aligned northwest–southeast. The corners at both ends (where it joined with the western and eastern sides of the moat) formed an angle on the interior that was slightly more obtuse than 90˚. Some 30 m of the length of the western side were exposed, with its long axis running southwest–northeast and with an average width of c. 4.6 m. Only a relatively short length of the eastern side of the moat was exposed. With an average width of c. 4.5 m, this ran north- northeast–south-southwest for a distance of c. 13 m before disappearing beneath the southern baulk. Three large sections were excavated across the moat (C. 120), one on each of the exposed sides (Plate 2). It was substantial in both breadth and depth and safety concerns necessitated the cutting of gradual steps down through the moat. As a result some contexts cannot be accurately matched up between the sections above and below the steps (Plate 3). This creates a difficult stratigraphic sequence and complex matrices, complexity that is perhaps manufactured by the difficult excavation conditions rather than by the reality of the sequence of the ditch fills. The sections on the west and east sides contained similar numbers of deposits/fills (15 and 14 respectively), while the evidence from the north side contained nearly twice as many deposits/fills (27 in all). The moat cut (C.120) varied in width from 3.9 m to 4.8 m and in depth from 1.28 m to 1.77 m. In general it demonstrated a sharp break of slope at the top and relatively straight sides near the top, more gradual, sometimes stepped, towards the base. The base ranged from being flat to slightly concave. Some organic material was preserved in the waterlogged deposits at the very base of the ditch, some perhaps representing structural remains (a wooden stake in C.553 and wooden planks and pegs in C.210). There was evidence of a re-cut in all the sections through the moat, although the re-cut dem- onstrated a lot of variety in form and in the number of fills that it contained at different points across the moat. For example, re-cut (C.554) with a single fill (C.539) was far narrower and steeper than the original moat; it left the original stratigraphic sequence in the moat relatively intact. By contrast, the re-cut (C.556) contained 7 fills, appeared to have a similar profile and width to the original moat cut, and it had removed much of the preceding silted-up stratigraphy of the moat, including the external Permalink: http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/e0471-carrowreagh-co-wexford/ 6
  • 13. 00E0471 Carrowreagh, Co. Wexford ISSUE 4: Eachtra Journal - ISSN 2009-2237 side of the original moat cut. These evident differences suggest that the re-cut was carried out piece- meal, and was not a single preconceived programme of work that cleared out the moat in its entirety. 7.1.1 Western portion of the Moat (Figure 6) At this point the ditch cut (C.120) had a width of 3.9 m and a depth of 1.28 m, while the re-cut (C.556) had a width of 3.3 m and a depth of 1.08 m. Four fills from the original cut survived and there were 11 fills in the re-cut. The fills of the re-cut were C.320, C.321, C.322, C.323, C.332 & C.329. The re-cut (C.556) was characterised by irregular, stepped sides and a concave base, and it truncated sev- eral original ditch fills. On the eastern side of the section, C.556 cut through several deposits (C.324, C.325, C.326, C.327 and C.328) which appear to have slumped into the moat from the interior of the site. This evidence for slumping may suggest the existence of a bank on the moat interior. Below the slumped deposits there were two fills (C.331 and C.341) that apparently accumulated gradually within the moat and these were the basal deposits within the moat at this point. At this point C.120, the original cut of the moat, had a sharp break of slope at the top on the eastern side, with the eastern side being straight at the top. The upper part of the western side of the moat was absent due to trunca- tion by the field boundary ditch C.135 (filled by C.319). The lower part of the cut was stepped at the bottom on both sides and the base was flat. 7.1.2 Western portion of the Moat (Figure7) At this point the ditch (C.120) had a width of 4.20 m and a depth of 1.57 m, while the re-cut (C.554) had a width of 2.20 m and a depth of 1.23 m. The re-cut was cut through the central part of the moat, and truncated all the original ditch fills at this point of the moat. There was one fill in the re-cut (C.539) and 14 remaining below it in the original cut. The sides were gently sloped at the top, becom- ing almost vertical lower down, and giving way to a gradual break of slope at bottom with a concave base. Several deposits clearly matched up on either side of the re-cut (C.540, C.541 C.542 and C.543). Other deposits that were disturbed by the re-cut were C.544, C.545, C.546, C.551, C.552, C.553, C.543, C.547, C.548, C.549 and C.550. The original cut (C.120) at this section had a sharp break of slope at the top and straight, almost vertical upper side at the west, with a steeply sloping slightly concave upper side at the east. The lower sides were more gently curving and there was a gradual break of slope at bottom. The base was irregular and slightly concave. Only the lowest fill (C.553) contained any finds; 2 sherds of medieval pottery and several pieces of wood, including a sharpened stake. 7.1.3 Northern portion of the Moat (Figure 8) At this point ditch cut (C.120) had a width of 4.5 m and a depth of 1.77 m, while the re-cut (C.561) had a width of 3.88 m and a depth of 1.25 m. There were 13 fills in the re-cut (C.343, C.347, C.348, C.354, C.560, C.350, C.351, C.352, C.353, C.355, C.357, C.360 and C.362) and 14 remaining be- low it in the original cut. At this point the re-cut (C.561) had gently sloping sides [c. 30˚], although at one point on its northern side it was severe [nearly 90˚]. Its base appeared rounded with no notable break of slope. The original ditch fills were C.356, C.358, C.359, C.361, C.344, C.363, C.345, C.364, C.346, C.366, C.367, C.365, C.389 and C.390. At this point the moat cut (C.120) displayed a mod- Permalink: http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/e0471-carrowreagh-co-wexford/ 7
  • 14. 00E0471 Carrowreagh, Co. Wexford ISSUE 4: Eachtra Journal - ISSN 2009-2237 erate break of slope at top, with sides that were somewhat stepped and irregular towards the top, but more rounded and smooth towards the base on the southern side. There was no discernible break of slope at the bottom and the base was very slightly concave. Of the contexts recorded in this section, only the lowest two fills, C.389 and C.390, contained any finds. Some wood and possible fragments of slag were recovered from C.389, while C.390 yielded possible seeds, organic matter [possibly dung], charred wood, bone fragments and a single pottery sherd. 7.1.4 Eastern portion of the Moat (Figure 9) At this point C.120 (the ditch cut) had a width of 4.8 m and a depth of 1.6 m, while the re-cut (C.555) had a width of 3.2 m and a depth of 1.18 m. There were 2 fills in the re-cut (C.142 and C.193) and the re-cut had quite a sharp break of slope at the top, gradually sloping sides, with steps at the west while being quite smooth and slightly concave at the east. There was no discernible break of slope at the bottom and the base was rounded and concave. This was the only point at the site where finds were recovered from the re-cut. The two re-cut fills both contained artefactual material; C.142 yielded 22 medieval pottery sherds and 19 were found in C.193. Most of the remaining twelve deposits from the original ditch were truncated by the re-cut. These lie on either side of the re-cut and do not cor- respond to each other, uniting only when they both eventually come down onto the bottom fill of the moat (C.210). On the eastern side of the moat there were three deposits (C.251, C.401 and C.315). On the west side of the moat eight deposits were excavated (C.223, C.242, C.275, C.383, C.280, C.337, C.300 and C.454). The bottom fill of the moat was C.210. The moat cut at this point had a sharp break of slope at the top, with fairly straight and smooth sides inclined c. 45˚. The break of slope at the base was gradual and the base was fairly flat. Three of the original ditch fills contained finds. C.223 contained 15 medieval pottery sherds, wooden plank and pegs were recovered from C.210, and 33 sherds of pottery were found in C.454. Charcoal from C.454 returned a radiocarbon date of cal AD 1290-1410 (Beta 219126, Appendix 4). 7.1.5 Finds from the Moat There is considerable variation amongst the four sections of the ditch in terms of the quantity and the range of finds recovered in their contexts. In all, some eight contexts (C.142, C.193, C.210, C.223, C.389, C.390, C.454 & C.553) yielded finds of one type or other, with medieval pottery being the most widespread find type. The next most widespread was wood, which occurred in four contexts (C.210, C.389, C.390 & C.553). Apart from these, the remaining finds were possible slag (in C.389), seeds (in C.390), bone (in C.390) and an organic material which may be dung (in C.390). The largest range of find types were found in C.390, where pottery, wood, seeds, bone and organic material were all recovered. There was a clear disparity in the retrieval of ceramic sherds from the different sections of the ditch. Only two sherds were found in the west ditch and a single sherd was found in the north portion of the ditch, the area closest to the pottery kiln. One hundred and seventy-five sherds were recovered from the eastern section of the moat. Ditches running alongside the moat, to the east, also contained pot- tery sherds and this pattern of retrieval is clearly of significance, possibly it is related to waste disposal Permalink: http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/e0471-carrowreagh-co-wexford/ 8
  • 15. 00E0471 Carrowreagh, Co. Wexford ISSUE 4: Eachtra Journal - ISSN 2009-2237 practises on the site. 7.1.6 The Water Source Barry (1978, 58) noted that several examples of moated sites within a survey area in southeast Ireland had moats that were linked to a water source by leats. This site at Carrowreagh was located near a stream to the west and portions of its course were drystone-lined, suggesting that it was a leat built or diverted deliberately, probably providing the water supply for the moat and feeding in at the western side (Plate 4). The point where it joined the moat was not identified during excavation and may lie beyond the limit of the excavation to the south, further downhill. This ties in with the evidence from the excavation as the ditch of the moat was shallower to the west and deeper on the east, suggesting that it was fed from the west and not dependent on ground water. 7.1.7 Other Defences Many moated sites have not been detected to this day as, due to their shape in plan and the fact that they had a pre-existing system of banks, ditches and leats, the sites were easily incorporated into post- medieval field systems (O’Keefe 2000, 75). For example, part of the eastern and southern lengths of the ditch at the moated site in Coolamurray, Co. Wexford comprised an existing field boundary ditch and bank (Fegan 2005). This partial incorporation of the archaeological site into later field systems is relatively common and as a result a fragment of a moat or ditch may survive with an above-ground register while the rest of the monument has been levelled due to agricultural activity. Such was the case at Carrowreagh; part of the western section of the moat was incorporated into the existing field bound- ary system and the field boundary ditch (C.135) cut the moat at the west. The field boundary system included a bank to the west of the ditch: if this was also a continuation of the medieval moated site enclosure it suggests that there may originally have been an external bank around the site, or around parts of it. Exterior banks are generally less common in moated sites than interior ones, but they are not necessarily uncommon in this area of Wexford and sites at Ballintartan, Ballyclemock, Growtown Upper, Newcastle, Old Boley and Scullabage (from the area around Carrowreagh) all retained some traces of external banks until the recent past (Moore 1996). As most of the Carrowreagh site had been levelled there were few extant remains of an interior bank, although the northern and eastern areas within the moat at Carrowreagh are void of occupation de- posits and cut features, perhaps because a bank originally filled these spaces. However, occupation deposits extend almost to the edge of the moat at the west, perhaps suggesting that there was never an interior bank at this part of the enclosure. The moated site excavated at Ballyveelish, Co. Tipper- ary did not have any evidence for a bank and occupation deposits reached almost to the edges of the moat (Doody 1987), but remnants of interior banks are visible at several moated sites in the immediate vicinity of Carrowreagh (Moore 1996). The recovery of wooden structural remains, including planking, pegs and a stake from the lower fill of the moat might be taken as evidence of the likely existence of an internal palisade running along the inner edge of the moat. Wood remains were found in the lower fills of all of the excavated portions of the moat; of particular note was a sharpened stake from the south-western section and wooden planks Permalink: http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/e0471-carrowreagh-co-wexford/ 9
  • 16. 00E0471 Carrowreagh, Co. Wexford ISSUE 4: Eachtra Journal - ISSN 2009-2237 and pegs from the south-eastern section. These may represent collapsed remains of fences or palisades that surrounded the interior of the enclosure. Excavations of moated sites at Kilmagoura and Rigsdale in Co. Cork (see O’Conor 1998) and Coolamurray, Co. Wexford (Fegan 2005) produced no evidence for palisades, however at Ballyveelish, Co. Tipperary there was evidence for a palisade along the inter- nal side of the eastern moat (Doody 1987). 7.2 Inside the Moat The interior of the moated site was dominated by a centrally located building, aligned on the same northeast–southwest axis as the moat (Plate 5). The road take did not cover its full extent and therefore only a portion of the building was excavated, measuring 6 m northeast-southwest by 6.3 m northwest- southeast. It was sub-rectangular in plan with rounded corners at the northwest and northeast. 7.2.1 The House The structure was defined by a shallow foundation trench (C.524) which was 0.48 m deep (Figure 10). The foundations of the building were not properly cut into the subsoil, indicating that the building was not earth-fast and it was probably constructed using sill-beam foundations. Central support posts may have rested on pad-stones (not found during the excavation) or wooden foundations. Other building materials for the walls probably included turfs and mud/earth. Only two earth-cut postholes were excavated within the building: one was found near the northern limit of the building interior (C.445). It measured 0.23 m in length, 0.21 m in width, was 0.17 m deep and contained three fills (C.444, C.439 and C.414) which included possible packing stones. The fills were charcoal rich and it is likely that the post burnt down and was removed. A second posthole (C.232) was excavated within the foundation trench. It cut the subsoil and there was one medium size stone embedded in the base for packing/support. It contained three fills (C.236, C.229 and C.225) and was approximately 0.3 m in diameter and 0.46 m deep. The absence of other postholes suggests that they were unlikely to have been part of the original structure of the building; they may indicate repair or ancillary structural works. Within the building the basal layers were cut by seven stake-holes (C.376, C.374, C.377, C.394, C.395, C.461 and C.462). One (C.461) represented an outlying stake, but the remaining five formed a continuous line running roughly north to south. As the stakes were driven into basal deposits it is probable that this division was part of the original construction of the building, or an early amend- ment. The stake-holes all resembled each other and were set at an average distance of 0.19 m apart. These stake-holes had an average diameter of 0.07 m and an average depth of 0.13 m, and their fills were alike (mid green clays with occasional pebbles).They appear to run alongside the wall of the build- ing and are c. 1 m from a hearth. There is no indication of their function. The earliest layers within the house (C.391, C.411, C.460, C.474, C.487 and C.495) were formed from re-deposited natural that was deliberately laid to form an occupation surface within the building. Their combined areas covered approximately 10 m2, but their full extent is unknown as many remained unexcavated beneath the baulk. A hearth (made up of three layers; C.368, C.335 and C.312) was laid directly onto one of the basal Permalink: http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/e0471-carrowreagh-co-wexford/ 10
  • 17. 00E0471 Carrowreagh, Co. Wexford ISSUE 4: Eachtra Journal - ISSN 2009-2237 layers (C.487) and is therefore associated with the original phase of use of the structure. The hearth measured approximately 0.6 m in diameter and it was located in the northwest corner of the building. Diffuse porous charcoal from one of the contexts (C.368) in this hearth was sent for radiocarbon dat- ing and a date range of cal AD 1400-1450 was obtained (Beta 219124, Appendix 4). A second hearth (C.381) was more centrally located, it was 1 m from the edge of the foundation trench at the west and c. 2.5 m from the eastern edge of the foundation trench. It was c. 2 m south of the northern limit of the occupation surface, and it continued beyond the southern limit of excavation. The first surface layers were overlain by a thin (0.02 m) deposit associated with occupation of the build- ing (C.441). It measured 1.7 m in length and 0.9 m in width and it did not cover the entire interior of the building. It is likely that it was contemporary with the use of the hearth, and it was associated with a ridge of occupation material (C.465) that accumulated along the edge of the occupation surface. The initial occupation layers were overlain by evidence of either partial or total destruction of the house (C.241, C.276, C.278, C.286, C.294, C.297, C.301, C.311 and C.333). These deposits covered the internal area of the building and consisted of the burnt remains of possible structural timbers such as roof and wall beams and planks (Plate 6), burnt clay (possibly also a burnt building material), pottery fragments (Find numbers 00E0471:241:1-56, 00E0471:276:1-3, 00E0471:297:1-4, 00E0471:333:1-24: see Plate 7) and a metal object, possibly a nail (Find no. 00E0471:333:25). The majority of the pottery remains were Leinster Cooking Wares and local copies of Ham Green Ware. Base body and rim sherds were present and these artefacts were presumably the vessels that were in use in the building prior to its destruction. A radiocarbon date of cal AD 1300-1420 (Beta 219123, Appendix 4) was obtained from charcoal in C.241. The destruction layers were overlain by deposits of silting (C.149 and C.215). C.215 respected the plan of the interior of the house and therefore it is possible that some structural timbers remained upright after the fire. Another episode of silting (C.216) occurred just on the exterior of the building; the in- clusion of pottery in this deposit indicates some re-deposition of material from the destruction layers, but in general the evidence suggests that the site was not cleared and reused in the aftermath of the house fire. A large rectangular pit (C.287) was excavated within the house, it was aligned east-west and measured 1 m in length, 0.52 m in width and was 0.4 m deep. It contained six fills (C.243, C.249, C.253, C.266, C.273 and C.282). These resembled the nearby deposits on the house floor. One ceramic fragment was also found (Find no. 00E0471:266:1). This suggests that, whatever the original intention in cutting the pit, it was filled with the same or similar occupation and destruction debris as the house surface. The pit lies close (0.53 m west) of a hearth (C.335/368) and may have originally functioned as an ash-pit, similar to the pit beside the stone-lined chimney excavated in the medieval house at Bourchier’s Castle, Lough Gur, Co. Limerick (Cleary 1982/O’Conor 1998). 7.2.2 Outside the House Six drains were excavated inside the moat in the area around the building: C.123, C.119, C.188, C.136, C.189 and C.161. All were shallow cut features that presumably served to keep the occupation surfaces dry both inside the building and around its perimeter. C.119 lined the eastern flank of the Permalink: http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/e0471-carrowreagh-co-wexford/ 11
  • 18. 00E0471 Carrowreagh, Co. Wexford ISSUE 4: Eachtra Journal - ISSN 2009-2237 building and C.136 lined the western edge, this was joined at right angles by another drain (C.189). All of these were rectangular cut features and they were filled with stones (Plate 8). C.119 and C.136 were placed c. 1 m from the known extent of the building (C.524) and they do not exist at the gable end. They were possibly for rain run-off from the roof, and therefore may indicate the extent of the eaves of the building. Cobbled/metalled surfaces flanked western edges of the building (Figure 11) including deposits which covered an area of roughly 35 m2 and filled several natural hollows (C.144, C.176, C.178 and C.180). Metalled surfaces outside the medieval buildings at Piperstown, Co. Louth were interpreted as rough cobbling to keep the ground firm in wet weather (Barry 2000) and the metalled surfaces here probably served the same function. To the east and south of the metalled area there were several stake-holes (C.111, C.303, C.447 and C.458) and pits (C.109 and C.494) that perhaps indicate temporary fences or small structures, but do not form any coherent pattern. 7.2.3 Artefacts from the Area Inside the Moat The finds recovered from the house and from the area inside the moat included gaming pieces (215:6, 284:1 & 385:2: see Figure 12), a spindle whorl (241:260, see Figure 13) and large quantities of pottery, identified as Leinster Cooking Ware, Fine Wexford Type, a local copy of Ham Green Cooking Ware and some unidentified orange ceramics (Doyle 2006 Appendix 3). Ham Green Cooking Ware was ‘exotic’, in the sense that it was an imported ceramic type, and locally made copies were recovered from this site. It occurred in only one context from the site, in one of the destruction layers from the house (C.241). The majority of the wares from the site were local and their primary uses were probably for cooking although as such they were a second best and metal cooking pots were apparently preferable (McCutcheon 2003, 2006). Other domestic chores and craft are reflected in the recovery of a spindle whorl suggesting production of home spun textiles. Also found at the site within the area of the house were three gaming pieces, all made from stone and similar in appearance, each with one red face and one black face. The black was probably burnt onto the surface of each piece. The fact that opposing sides of the gaming pieces are a different colour must reflect the game that they were used in. Flat disc gaming pieces have also been recovered from Waterford medieval excavations but these were mostly made from bone (Hurley et al. 1997). The assortment of finds from the building and the area within the moat reflects a wide range of activities that form part of daily life; cooking/eating, craft and leisure (games). 7.3 Outside the Moat An open-area excavation was conducted outside the confines of the moat, producing a vast amount of information that complemented the results from the excavation within the moat. Of particular interest was the excavation of a pottery production area (including a kiln and a pit, possibly used for bisque- firing ceramics). 7.3.1 The Kiln The kiln was found roughly 2 m to the north of the moat (Plates 9 and 10). It was cut into subsoil and Permalink: http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/e0471-carrowreagh-co-wexford/ 12
  • 19. 00E0471 Carrowreagh, Co. Wexford ISSUE 4: Eachtra Journal - ISSN 2009-2237 it comprised a central firing chamber flanked by two fire-boxes or stoke-holes, each with a flue that led into the firing chamber (Figure 14). The central firing chamber measured 1.3 m across and it contained sixteen deposits including structur- al material such as clay building materials and packing layers (C.501, C.503 and C.532), deposits that accumulated during kiln use (C.490, C.493, C.505, C.510, C.515, C.525, C.529 and possibly C.516) and collapsed kiln superstructure (C.246, C.268, C.279, C.317 and C.440). The charcoal from one of these deposits (C.440) associated with the end use of the kiln returned a radiocarbon date of cal AD 1300-1430 (Beta 219125, Appendix 4). A large stone (C.349) was probably used as a platform or shelf in the middle of the firing chamber. It was surrounded by smaller stones that may possibly be the collapsed support stones for the larger stone. Clay was also used as a structural material; C.503 was a thin, up-standing layer of burnt clay that was possibly packed around stones to create a type of chimney under a platform (to allow circulation of air) in the central area of the firing chamber. Another deposit (C.440) within the firing-chamber was predominantly made up of burnt clay (Plate 9), probably the remains of clay lining or a saggar (a pro- tective casing of fired clay in which delicate ceramic articles are fired). The south-eastern stoke-hole measured 1.5 m in diameter and it contained thirteen fills (C.141, C.171, C.201, C.214, C.230, C.248, C.374, C.468, C.479, C.502, C.508, C.518 and C.522). It was connected to the central firing chamber by a short flue, 0.8 m in length. The north-western stoke-hole measured roughly 2.5 m in diameter and contained fourteen fills (C. 143, C.165, C.183, C.198, C.209, C.217, C.227, C.233, C.469, C.483, C.497, C.513, C.520, and C.523). This was connected to the central fir- ing chamber by a flue that measured less than 0.5 m. A small pit or post/stake-hole (C.507), measuring just 0.22 m in diameter, was cut into the north-western stoke-hole. It may be indicative of a temporary upstanding structure in this part of the kiln. Fills of the flues leading from the stoke-holes to the firing chamber (C.533 and C.534) were similar in composition to the other deposits within the kiln (reddish brown clays). Only one deposit (C.453) was found in both stoke-holes and within a small part of the firing-chamber; it contained possible evidence for wattling and may have been the charred and collapsed remains of the kiln superstructure. Fragments of burnt clay were found in many of the deposits within the kiln (e.g. C.143, C.165, C.185, C.209, C.217, C.233, C.246, C.268, C.317, C.523,). These were probably broken and fragmented dur- ing repeated firings or during the destruction or collapse of the kiln, some may represent clay shelves or early saggars. Other parts of the kiln superstructure may have been made from wattle and daub and a deposit (C.453) which covered both stoke-holes and part of the firing chamber contained the charred remains of possible wattling that may have been part of the dome of the kiln. It was recovered as kiln superstructure that collapsed during or after the last use of the kiln. 7.3.2 A Possible Bisque-Firing Pit A pit or primitive kiln (C.194) was excavated approximately 3 m to the northwest of the pottery kiln and 1.8 m north of the moat (Plate 11). It was aligned northeast-southwest and consisted of two shal- low pits (c. 0.2 m deep) connected by a short flue (Figure 13). The total length of this feature was 3.8 Permalink: http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/e0471-carrowreagh-co-wexford/ 13
  • 20. 00E0471 Carrowreagh, Co. Wexford ISSUE 4: Eachtra Journal - ISSN 2009-2237 m and it contained several fills (C.139, C.146, C.155, C.173, C.181, C.182 and C.186). The south- western bowl measured 1.2-1.4 m in length, it was filled by a deposit (C.155) with moderate amounts of charcoal and had frequent flecks and small pieces of burnt clay; this was probably where the hearth was laid. Heat from the fire was fed into the northern bowl through a narrow flue (1 m long and 0.3 m wide) which had one fill (C.182). A collection of stones found near the mouth of the flue may have acted as a spark guard to help contain fire if it got out of control. The north-eastern bowl of the struc- ture was probably the firing chamber as the remains of collapsed superstructure (C.173), including large stones, suggests that that this part of the pit was enclosed. This chamber measured 1.1-1.5 m and had two other fills (C.181 and C.186). Both deposits contained evidence for burning in the form of charcoal flecks and some oxidisation and represent the actual debris from the activity within the pit. The entire pit was overlaid by two disturbed deposits (C.138 and C.146) that represent both collapse of the structure and possibly some disturbance by modern agriculture or clearance of the field. The kiln was possibly used for bisque-firing pottery, or a similar procedure. Bisque-firing is a preliminary firing of clay, giving the pot more strength than it had when it was simply dried clay. The result is that the potter can handle the pot more readily without fear of breaking it. Because it is a preliminary pro- cedure the pot is still porous enough after bisque-firing to pick up glaze. Only three pieces of pottery were recovered from this feature (00E0471:156:72, 173:1 and 181:1) but these were mostly taken from deposits that appeared to be associated with activity at the kiln or pit. 7.3.3 Area of activity to northeast of kiln Evidence from the kiln and the possible bisque-firing pit indicate use of the site outside the moat for pottery production but the procedures for making pots prior to firing are more difficult to pinpoint in the archaeological record. Located c. 9 to the east of the kiln and c. 9.6 m northeast of the moat was an area of occupation that may possibly have been a pottery workshop. The general area is littered with ceramic waste, possibly the result of unsuccessful kiln firings or vessels that were broken during manufacture. The archaeology consisted of an arc of stake-holes, two possible postholes, spreads of oc- cupation material and ditches (Figure 14). The arc of stake-holes (C.255, C.256, C.257, C.258, C.259, C.261 and C.262) formed a rough semi- circle with a circumference measuring approximately 2.2 m and there was, on average, 0.26 m between each stake-hole in the arc. An outlying stake-hole (C.259) was located approximately 0.6 m west of C.259. If the arc formed a full circle, this isolated stake-hole would have been roughly towards its cen- tre. The formation suggests that the stakes formed a temporary shelter or windbreak for a very small area. Another outlying stake-hole, C.255, was located c. 0.2 m to the south of the arc. The two possible postholes excavated in this area, C.413 and C.296, were both relatively substantial; C.413 measured 0.62 m in length by 0.4 m in width, while the diameter of C.296 was approximately 0.4 m. There are no directly associated contexts to suggest that they were part of a structure. The spreads of occupation material in this area included C.150, C.159, C.163, C.164, C.168, C.169, C.170, C.213, C.283, C.291, C.298, C.318 and C.336. The majority of these were relatively compact clay deposits. Most of the ceramic sherds found in these spreads, were identified as Leinster Cook- ing Ware and Fine Wexford Type. Charcoal from one of the spreads (C.168) returned a radiocarbon Permalink: http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/e0471-carrowreagh-co-wexford/ 14
  • 21. 00E0471 Carrowreagh, Co. Wexford ISSUE 4: Eachtra Journal - ISSN 2009-2237 date of cal AD 1300-1430 (Beta 219135, see Appendix 4). These deposits roughly surrounded the area where the arc of stake-holes and one of the postholes (C.296) were found. These deposits were interpreted as spreads of material associated with pottery production or the dumping of unsuccessful firings from the kiln. A ditch (C.509/C.491) was located immediately to the north of these pottery rich spread. The ditch began at the western extent of the occupation deposits and travelled eastwards for c. 15 m before turn- ing at a 90˚ angle and travelling northwards for approximately 6.5 m until it reached the northern limit of the excavation, presumably continuing beyond the area of the road take. It was a large ditch, up to 2.5 m in width and approximately half a metre deep. The numerous primary ditch fills were rich in ceramic waste (over three hundred sherds retrieved) and the ditch was evidently used as a dump. It was re-cut (C.235) suggesting continued maintenance and use. The re-cut was much narrower (c. 1.1 m) but was equally deep and like the original ditch the fills contained many sherds of pottery. The ubiquity of ceramic sherds may indicate that some preparation of ceramics was carried nearby and the ditches may have originally contained standing water that was used in pottery manufacture. Large quantities of ceramic sherds were also recovered from near the southern limit of the excavation, where ditches to the east of the moat (C.271 and C.289) contained large quantities of kiln waste and broken kiln furniture. The eastern section of the moat also contained significantly more pottery frag- ments than the contexts in other section of the moat, suggesting that this general area was selected for deliberate dumping of ceramic waste (see discussion of finds from the moat above). 7.3.4 Evidence for Cultivation and Drainage A narrow, convoluted stone-lined drain (C.167) criss-crossed the north-eastern portion of the site and probably served as a field drain (Plate 12). This has an interesting parallel in the area around the moat- ed site at Coolamurray, Co. Wexford, where land to the east and south of the site was characterised by a network of stone drains (Fegan 2005). Drain C.167 was 0.63 m wide and it emerged from the eastern limit of excavation as a single drain. From there it travelled northwest until it split into two lines to the northeast of the moat and the kiln, forming a rough u-shape and enclosing a small plot. C.167 cut the spreads that were associated with pottery production found to the northeast of the kiln (e.g. C.163, C.169, C.170 and C.213) and it also truncated the fills of the re-cut ditch (C.235). Therefore it probably postdates the use of this area for pottery production. However, the area it enclosed roughly corresponded to the area where spreads of pottery production material and waste were recovered, suggesting a continued awareness of the perimeters of occupation. Unlike the fills of other ditches more closely associated with the occupa- tion spreads, the fills of this drain contain very few pieces of ceramic waste; one sherd of pottery was recovered from one of the drain fills (C.148) and this was probably re-deposited from the spreads that were cut by the drain, as these contained large amounts of ceramic waste. The method of construction of these drains was more elaborate than the stone lined drains found on either side of the house within the moat (C.119, C.136 and C.189). This may indicate that the stone lined drains outside the moat were constructed later than occupation of the medieval house and moated site. Permalink: http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/e0471-carrowreagh-co-wexford/ 15
  • 22. 00E0471 Carrowreagh, Co. Wexford ISSUE 4: Eachtra Journal - ISSN 2009-2237 The drains evidently served the purpose of redirecting water; either to drain the land or to direct water from the nearby stream (beyond the northern limit of the excavation) elsewhere. As the land to the east of the site is slightly waterlogged it seems that the purpose of the drains was to lead water from the land, so that it could be used for cultivation. Some of the drains linked together and enclosed areas (e.g. C.167) and it is possible that they preformed the dual purposes of drainage and that they marked the actual limits of cultivation plots, perhaps used for vegetable or cereal crops. Observers consistently note that the purpose of settlements at moated site was for the economic exploitation of the surround- ing countryside (O’Keefe 2000, 75) particularly in opening up areas of new land for arable cultivation. The areas outside many English moated often show evidence of medieval ploughing (Taylor 1978, 12) and it is probable that the areas outside Irish moated sites were also used for cultivation. Other evidence for cultivation of the site was noted by the presence of several furrows. Four furrows lo- cated outside the moat were aligned roughly northeast-southwest, while two furrows within the moat, to the west of the house (e.g. C.456) were orientated roughly northwest-southeast. The differences in alignments suggest that the moat was still in use as a boundary at the time that the furrows were made, and that they therefore predate the levelling of the site in the 1950s. A natural alluvial deposit (C.375) ran from northeast-southwest near the eastern limit of the site, in- dicating the presence of an old watercourse c. 30 m to the east of the moat; whether it was still open when the moated site was in use is unknown, but it appears to have been truncated by a stone lined drain (C.167) suggesting that it had already dried up by the medieval period. 8. Artefacts The excavations at Carrowreagh produced as large assemblage of pottery which was analysed by Ni- amh Doyle (Appendix 3). This included 9 fragments of post-medieval pottery of Irish and English types that date from the 18th – 20th century. The majority of the pottery assemblage was medieval in date and was ascribed to the 12th-14th centuries and is comprised of 1892 sherds of locally produced Irish medieval types and 6 sherds of pottery, identified as possibly from the Redcliffe kilns of Bristol, England or perhaps a locally made copy. The majority of the medieval pottery retrieved onsite is Leinster Cooking Ware a type first studied in detail by O’Floinn in 1976 that dates from the 12th-14th centuries. These vessels are associated with food storage and preparation including jars, platters and handled jars and jugs (Plate 13). Wexford Type and Wexford Type Fine Ware vessels were also found; these were for use at the table and the vessel types included pitchers, platters and a possible aquamanile. Other forms in this assemblage included cresset lamps, a small thumb pot (Plate 14) and possible roof tile (Plate 15). The assemblage contained some wares that resembled imported medieval English wares from Bristol including fragments from a Bristol Redcliffe style jug (Plate 16) and Ham Green Wares (Plate 17), but these were actually probably locally made copies of imported wares. Most of the vessels found at the site were probably produced in the pottery kiln and the working areas excavated at the site. There was also evidence of failed kiln firings in the form of wasters (Plate 18). There were eight stone finds from the site, examined by Farina Sternke (Appendix 10) which included a Mesolithic blade point which was broken into two fragments and retrieved from two separate con- Permalink: http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/e0471-carrowreagh-co-wexford/ 16
  • 23. 00E0471 Carrowreagh, Co. Wexford ISSUE 4: Eachtra Journal - ISSN 2009-2237 texts (00E0471:241:259 and 00E0471:270:1). As it dates to a much earlier period than the site, the artefact must have been re-deposited. It is a relatively unusual example of a Mesolithic flint from Co. Wexford. The metal finds were catalogued and described by Sara Camplese and X-rayed and conserved by Su- sannah Kelly (Appendix 11). There were four nails, a blade and a lump of corroded iron. Only the blade was considered suitable for conservation (S. Kelly, pers. comm.). 9. Environmental Remains Samples of bulk soil were taken during excavation and these were used for the collection of charcoal, assessed in advance of radiocarbon dating, and charred seeds. Hand-selected charcoal and material from bulk soil samples was examined by Mary Dillon (Appendix 8) to assess its suitability for radiocar- bon dating. One hundred and nine samples were examined and of these, charcoal was recovered from fifty-five samples. The majority of the samples contained diffuse-porous wood charcoal. The charred seeds from these samples were examined by Penny Johnston and Martha Tierney (Appendix 6). One hundred and four samples were examined, of these twenty-eight contained charred seeds, and these were only abundant in samples from the house. These were probably derived from stored cereal caches that became carbonised when the structure burnt down. Although oats were the predominant crop in the samples, there is evidence that wheat, particularly bread wheat, was also an important crop. All of the timber from the site was retrieved from waterlogged areas of the moat fill. It was identified by Mary Dillon (Appendix 7) and was all oak, probably representing a palisade around the settlement or a bridge across the moat. Very small amounts of animal bone were retrieved from the site, these were all identified by Margaret McCarthy as probably being from domesticates (Appendix 5). 10. Discussion The traditional view of settlement at moated sites suggests a defended farmstead, occupied by a small community or extended family, farming the surrounding lands and protecting domestic dwellings and livestock within the enclosure. Most evidence shows that these sites were built during the thir- teenth and fourteenth centuries; at Kilmagoura, Co. Cork a causeway timber produced a date of 1225 +/- 70 AD (although O’Conor (1998, 65) argues that the site could date from any time c. 1200 AD); at Rigsdale a coin from the reign of Edward I (1279-80) was found beneath the bank, and 13th-14th century pottery was discovered from Ballyveelish, from a destroyed moated site at Killeeshal, Co. Carlow (Doody 1987, 83) and from Ballinvinny South, Co. Cork (Cotter 2005). A possible moated site at Rathaspick, Co. Wexford also produced large amounts of medieval pottery within the confines of a very limited excavation (Mullins 2003). Some moated sites may have continued in use until the sixteenth century (Doody 1987, citing Empey 1981) and excavation at Ballinvinny South, Co. Cork, revealed a medieval moated site, truncated by a later post-medieval settlement (Cotter 2005). However, occupation at the moated site at Carrowreagh was relatively short-lived and evidence from the ceramics found at Carrowreagh suggests a twelfth-fourteenth century date, combined with radiocarbon dates which indicate activity from AD 1290-1450. Most Irish moated sites are situated on the periphery of areas of Anglo-Norman influence (O’Conor Permalink: http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/e0471-carrowreagh-co-wexford/ 17
  • 24. 00E0471 Carrowreagh, Co. Wexford ISSUE 4: Eachtra Journal - ISSN 2009-2237 1998, 58-59) and they have been interpreted as evidence for a second wave of colonisation after the first settlers became established. The western part of Co. Wexford is known as an area of secondary colonization (late 12th- 13th centuries) and many of the settlers in moated sites like Carrowreagh were probably either English, or of English origin (O’Keefe 2000, 80), colonising from already established areas further east in the county. As the homes of colonisers, the defensive elements of the site have been repeatedly interpreted as a response to the threat, or the perceived threat, of Gaelic Irish incur- sions and raids of the farmsteads (e.g. Doody 1987, 83). However, Barry (1978) noted that the defen- sive capabilities of the moats were fairly limited and that they were only designed to deter raiders from stealing livestock; it was perhaps more important that wild animals could be kept away from sheep and cattle, and that the domestic animals were restricted so that they could not graze or trample land that was in used for arable crops. The location of the kiln and pottery production area outside the moat was a sensible choice, given that temperatures of up to 900ºC may have been required in the kiln, posing obvious threat of fire to houses and stables (see McCutcheon 2006, 21). There is a potential comparison for a pottery produc- tion area near a motte at Knockgraffon, Co. Tipperary, where McCutcheon (2006, 26) suggests that a nearby town land name Crockerath may refer to a community of potters or an area where pottery was made in the vicinity of this Anglo-Norman settlement. The discovery of this kiln associated with the moated site provides both an indication of the occupa- tion of the site’s inhabitants, and a possible view of their social status: McCutcheon (2006, 19) suggests that the social status of the medieval potter was very low. Moated sites in Ireland may have been con- structed by “well-to-do peasants mostly of English origin”, with their social status perhaps explaining why moated sites are hardly ever mentioned in the historical sources (O’Conor 1998, 62). The Carrowreagh pottery kiln was similar to that excavated by Pollock and Waterman (1963) at Downpatrick, Co. Down, and had close parallels to another site excavated by Simpson et al. (1979) at Carrickfergus, Co. Antrim (see also O’Keeffe 2000, 124–6). A heavily truncated example from Bridge St. in Dundalk appears to have been constructed along a similar plan to the Carrowreagh example, i.e. a central firing chamber with two opposing flues (Campbell 1998). These are Type 2 kilns in Musty’s typology (1974) and the Carrowreagh is probably a Type 2c, where the pots could be stacked on a cen- tral platform when firing. This kiln type was suitable for producing a relatively controlled atmosphere for firing pots. The excavated portion of the house within the moat at Carrowreagh measured 6 m northeast-south- west by 6.3 m northwest-southeast, with the latter measurement probably representing the width of the building. Its full length was probably in the region of 3 or 4 times its width (medieval long build- ings often being proportioned on a ratio of 1:3, gable end to long side), suggesting a length of c. 19 m. The absence of earth-cut features indicates that the building was not earth-fast and was probably constructed using sill-beams and posts that rested on pad-stones or wooden supports. Houses built using these methods have been identified in urban excavations in Dublin (Coughlan 2000), Cork (Cleary and Hurley 2003) and Waterford (Hurley et al. 1997) but rural examples of medieval houses are rare and the fact that the structures are often not earth-fast has implications for their archaeologi- cal visibility. The example from Carrowreagh was obvious, firstly because it was within a moat and Permalink: http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/e0471-carrowreagh-co-wexford/ 18
  • 25. 00E0471 Carrowreagh, Co. Wexford ISSUE 4: Eachtra Journal - ISSN 2009-2237 secondly because it had burnt down and the charred black deposits created a significant contrast with the subsoil. Other examples of rural medieval houses in Ireland include Portmuck, Islandmagee, Co. Antrim (Rees 2002), a structure at Ahanalogh Area 19 (98E0575), Co. Waterford (Tierney 2005), Pip- erstown, Co. Louth (Barry 2000), Bouchier’s Castle, Lough Gur, Co. Limerick (Cleary 1982) and two examples of stone built houses at Caherguillamore, Co. Limerick (Ó Ríordáin and Hunt 1942). Some rural medieval houses excavated in Co. Wexford include a site at Moneycross Upper, Co. Wexford (H. Schweitzer, pers. comm.) and a probable medieval house excavated at Ballyanne (98E0137), where a 3m-wide band of archaeological material, running east-west, included a possible drip-gully, post-holes, flooring, in situ burning and associated 12th-14th pottery (Moran 2000). Urban excavations with organic, in situ preservation of the building materials provide detailed informa- tion of potential construction techniques used for medieval houses. In Dublin, examples of thirteenth century houses have been excavated at Ship Street Lower, High Street, Back Lane and Lamb Alley in Dublin city (Simpson 2000; Coughlan 2000). Most were timber framed, with principal load-bearing posts integrated with a sill-beam by mortice and tenon joints to form a rigid frame and support the entire weight of the building (Simpson 2000). Medieval longhouses were thought to shelter both hu- mans and animals, with one section as a byre (e.g. see interpretation of Piperstown, Co. Louth in Barry 2000) and the other section for human habitation. The location of the hearth in the excavated (north- ern) part of the structure at Carrowreagh suggests that this was the living/occupation area. There was no evidence for an entrance way into the building but as the building was not fully excavated it is likely that the doorway was located outside the road-take. In common with other medieval houses of the twelfth and thirteenth centuries it probably ran along the long axis of the building, although in some urban houses entrances are found on corners (e.g. at Back Lane, Coughlan 2000). There are numerous moated sites in the vicinity of the Carrowreagh site and within a two mile radius there are eight positively identified examples, and two rectangular enclosures that are probably moated sites (Moore 1996). Six of the eight moated sites occur in pairs and the two rectangular enclosures are also close together, with less than half a mile between them. There is no evidence for a companion for the Carrowreagh moated site, but this is not to say that it does not exist; prior to topsoil stripping there was no record that this site itself existed. Given the relatively close dating of these sites it seems reason- able to assume that occupation of the moated sites in this area was more-or-less contemporary, con- tradicting the traditional assumption that these were ‘isolated, semi-defended homesteads’ (O’Conor 1998, 58). Permalink: http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/e0471-carrowreagh-co-wexford/ 19
  • 26. 00E0471 Carrowreagh, Co. Wexford ISSUE 4: Eachtra Journal - ISSN 2009-2237 11. Summary The moated site was found in Carrowreagh town land was partially excavated during work on the rea- lignment of the N25 Rathsillagh-Harristown road. Excavation demonstrated that the site comprised a rectangular moated area with an inside bank, a sub-rectangular building. Only a handful of genuine moated sites have thus far been excavated in Ireland; Ballinvinny South (Cotter 2005), Kilmagoura and Rigsdale in Co. Cork, Kilferagh, Co. Kilkenny, Ballyveelish, Co. Tipperary (O’Conor 1998, 70- 71) and Coolamurray, Co. Wexford (Fegan 2005). The house found within the moat was probably of sill-beam construction that was typical during the later part of the medieval period. Hearths were excavated in the portion of the house present within the road-take, indicating that this house was the domestic area of occupation. The area was littered with debris from human occupation such as ceramic fragments, gaming pieces and a spindle whorl. The deposits from the house were also high in cereal grains, indicating that they roof of the house may have been used as a food storage area. Of particular importance at this site was the opportunity to excavate a large area outside the moat at this site. Evidence for activity outside the moat including numerous field boundaries, drains, furrows, working areas, a pottery kiln and a possible bisque firing kiln. The pottery kiln is one of the few identi- fied and excavated examples known from Ireland. An interesting aspect of the ceramic assemblage was the presence of locally made copies of English wares from around Bristol. The evidence from both ceramic wares and radiocarbon dates suggests that the period of occupation was limited from the late thirteenth to the early fifteenth century. During this period (in particular the late twelfth to thirteenth centuries) the western part of Co. Wexford is known as an area of secondary colonization and the people living at the site were probably either recruited from England, or came from already established area of the Anglo-Norman colony in Wexford. The sites are very numerous in this part of Wexford, and although documentary evidence indicates that the area was a frontier zone, the frequency of these settlement sites represent a concerted effort to bring this part of the county within the control of the colony. Permalink: http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/e0471-carrowreagh-co-wexford/ 20
  • 27. 00E0471 Carrowreagh, Co. Wexford ISSUE 4: Eachtra Journal - ISSN 2009-2237 12. Bibliography Aalen, F.H.A., Whelan, K. and Stout, M. (eds.) 1997. Atlas of the Irish Rural Landscape.Cork, Cork University Press. Barry, T.E. 1978. ‘Moated sites in Ireland’ pp. 57-59 in Aberg, F. A. (ed.) 1978. Medieval Moated Sites. The Council for British Archaeology, Research Report No. 17. Barry, T. 2000. Excavations at Piperstown Deserted Medieval Village, Co. Louth 1987, Proceedings of the Royal Irish Academy 100C, 113-135. Bennett, I. 2004-5 “Archaeological Excavations in Co. Wexford”, Journal of the Wexford Historical Society 20, 184-196. Campbell, K. 1998 “Bridge St., Dundalk 1997:388 (97E0362)” in I. Bennett (ed.) Excavations 1997. Wordwell, Bray. Colfer, B. 1987. Anglo-Norman Settlement in County Wexford, pp. 65-101 in Whelan, K. (ed.) Wexford History and Society. Interdisciplinary essays on the history of an Irish county. Dublin, Geography Publications. Colfer, B. 1990-1991 Medieval Wexford, Journal of the Wexford Historical Society 13, 4-29. Cotter, E. 2005 ‘Archaeological Excavation of a medieval moated site and post-medieval settlement at Ballinvinny South, Co. Cork N8 Glanmire-Watergrasshill Road Scheme Site Number AR16’ Unpublished excavation report for Sheila Lane and Associates. Cotter, C. 1986. “MacMurroughs, Co. Wexford”, in Cotter, C. (ed.) Excavations 1985. Dublin, Irish Academic Publication for Organisation of Irish Archaeologists. Coughlan, T. 2000 “The Anglo-Norman houses of Dublin: evidence from Back Lane” in S.Duffy (ed.) Medieval Dublin I. Four Courts Press, Dublin. Cleary, R. 1982. “Excavations at Lough Gur, Co. Limerick 1977-78”, Journal of the Cork Historical and Archaeological Society 87, 3-20, 77-106. Cleary, R. and Hurley, M. (eds.) 2003. Excavations in Cork City 1984-2000. Cork, Cork City Council. Doody, M. 1987. Ballyveelish I, Co. Tipperary. Moated Site, pp. 74-87 in Cleary, R., Hurley, M. and Twohig, E. (eds.) Archaeological Excavations on the Cork-Dublin Gas Pipeline (1981-82). Cork Archaeological Studies No.1. Cork, Department of Archaeology. Empey, C.A. 1981. “The settlement of the Kingdomw of Limerick”, in Lydon J. (ed.) England and Permalink: http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/e0471-carrowreagh-co-wexford/ 21
  • 28. 00E0471 Carrowreagh, Co. Wexford ISSUE 4: Eachtra Journal - ISSN 2009-2237 Ireland in the Later Middle Ages. Dublin. Fegan, G. 2005. Discovery and excavation of a medieval moated site at Coolamurray, County Wexford, pp. 131-139 in O’Sullivan, J. and Stanley, M. (eds.) Recent Archaeological Discoveries on National Road Schemes 2004. Archaeology and the National Roads Authority Monograph Series No. 2. Dublin, NRA. Green, S. W. and Zvelebil, M. 1990. “The Mesolithic colonisation and agricultural transition of south- east Ireland”, Proceedings of the Prehistoric Society 56, 57-88. Howarth, O.J.R. 1911 A Geography of Ireland. London, Oxford Geographies. Hurley, M., Scully, O.M.D. and McCutcheon, S.W.J. (eds.) 1997. Late Viking Age and Medieval Waterford. Excavations 1986-1992. Waterford, Waterford Corporation. McCarthy, M. 2004. “Strandfield, Co. Wexford”, pp. 520-521 in Bennett, I. (ed.) Excavations 2002. Bray, Wordwell. McCutcheon, C. 2003. Pottery, pp. 197-235 in Cleary, R.M. and Hurley, M.F. Cork City Excavations 1984-2000. Cork, Cork City Council. McCutcheon, C. 2006. Medieval Pottery from Woodquay, Dublin. Medieval Dublin Excavations 1962- 81, Ser.B, vol. 7. Dublin, Royal Irish Academy. McLoughlin, C. 2004. Kerlogue, pp.517-518 in Bennet, I. (ed.) Excavations 2002. Bray, Wordwell. Mitchell, F. and Ryan, M. 1997. Reading the Irish Landscape. Dublin, TownHouse. Moore, M. 1996. Archaeological Inventory of County Wexford. The Stationary Office, Dublin. Moran, J. 2000 Ballyanne, Co. Wexford in Bennett, I. (ed.) Excavations 1998. Bray, Wordwell. Mullins, C. 2003 Rathaspick in Bennett, I. (ed.) Excavations 2001. Bray, Wordwell. Mullins, C. 2003 Rathaspick in Bennett, I. (ed.) Excavations 2001. Bray, Wordwell. Musty, J. 1974. Medieval pottery kilns. In Medieval pottery from excavations: studies presented to Gerald Clough Dunning, with a bibliography of his works, 44-65. London. J. Baker O’ Conor, K.D. 1998. The Archaeology of Medieval Rural Settlement in Ireland. Discovery Programme Monograph 3, Royal Irish Academy. O’Keefe, T. 2000. Medieval Ireland, An Archaeology. Tempus Publishing, England. O’Kelly, M.J. 1975 Archaeological Survey and Excavation of St. Vogue’s Church, Enclosure and Other Permalink: http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/e0471-carrowreagh-co-wexford/ 22
  • 29. 00E0471 Carrowreagh, Co. Wexford ISSUE 4: Eachtra Journal - ISSN 2009-2237 Monuments st Carnsore, Co. Wexford. Unpublished excavation report for the Electricity Supply Board. Ó Ríordáin, S.P. and Hunt, J. 1942. “Medieval dwellings at Caherguillaore, Co. Limerick”, Journal of the Society of Antiquaries of Ireland 72, 37-63. Pollock, A.J. and Waterman, D.M. 1963 A medieval pottery kiln in Downpatrick. Ulster Journal of Archaeology 21, 79–104. Purcell, J. 2004. St. Vogue’s, p.520 in Bennet, I. (ed.) Excavations 2002. Bray, Wordwell. Purcell, A. 2002. “Courtlands East, Co. Wexford”, in Bennett, I. (ed.) Excavations 2000. Bray, Wordwell. Rees, A. 2002 Portmuck, Islandmagee, CO. Antrim 2000:0015 in I. Bennett (ed.) Excavations 2000. Bray, Wordwell. Simpson, L. 2000. Forty years a digging: a preliminary synthesis of archaeological investigations in medieval Dublin, pp. 11-68 in Duffy, S. (ed.) Medieval Dublin I. Dublin, Fourcourts Press. Simpson, M.L., Bryan, P.S., Delaney, T.G. and Dickson, A. 1979 An early thirteenth-century double- flued pottery kiln at Carrickfergus, Co. Antrim: an interim report. Medieval Ceramics 3, 41– 51 Stout, G. 1987 Wexford in Prehistory 5000 B.C. to 300 A.D., pp.1-39 in Whelan, K. (ed.) Wexford History and Society. Interdisciplinary essays on the history of an Irish county. Dublin, Geography Publications. Tierney, J. 2005. Final report on excavation of sites under licence 98E575. Unpublished report for Eachtra Archaeological Projects. Taylor, C.C. 1978. ‘Moated sites; their definition, form, and classification.’ In F.A. Aberg (ed.) Medieval Moated Sites. The Council for British Archaeology, Research Report No. 17. 5-13. Maps reproduced under licence where appropriate Ordnance Survey Ireland Licence No. AU 0005603 © Government of Ireland Permalink: http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/e0471-carrowreagh-co-wexford/ 23
  • 30. 00E0471 Carrowreagh, Co. Wexford ISSUE 4: Eachtra Journal - ISSN 2009-2237 13. Figures Figure 1: Discovery map showing the route of the N25 Rathsillagh-Harristown road Permalink: http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/e0471-carrowreagh-co-wexford/ 24
  • 31. 00E0471 Carrowreagh, Co. Wexford Permalink: http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/e0471-carrowreagh-co-wexford/ 00E0471 00E0474 00E0473 00E0626 00E0424 Legend 00E0623 00E0417 New Road 00E0475 Existing N25 00E0625 New Archaeological Sites 00E0476 00E0624 00E0425 1km Figure 2: Ordnance Survey 1st edition showing the route of the N25 Rathsillagh-Harristown Road ISSUE 4: Eachtra Journal - ISSN 2009-2237 25
  • 32. 00E0471 Carrowreagh, Co. Wexford DE 18 LIS TE1531 D 14 21 D 20 13 173131 EL IS 19 TE Permalink: http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/e0471-carrowreagh-co-wexford/ D 67 16 25 00E0471 24 00E0474 23 00E0473 00E0626 00E0424 00E0623 52 00E0417 Legend New Road 00E0475 Existing N25 D 00E0625 64 New Archaeological Sites EL 00E0476 IS 33 00E0624 00E0425 1km TE 58 D 3232 Figure 3: RMP Sheet 36 showing the route of the N25 Rathsillagh-Harristown Road ISSUE 4: Eachtra Journal - ISSN 2009-2237 26
  • 33. 00E0471 Carrowreagh, Co. Wexford ISSUE 4: Eachtra Journal - ISSN 2009-2237 Figure 4: Route of new road with all excavated sites displayed 500m 0m Permalink: http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/e0471-carrowreagh-co-wexford/ 27
  • 34. 00E0471 Carrowreagh, Co. Wexford ISSUE 4: Eachtra Journal - ISSN 2009-2237 N 5m 0m H G Figure 5: Post excavation plan of the site at Carrowreagh (00E0471) E F D C B A Permalink: http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/e0471-carrowreagh-co-wexford/ 28
  • 35. 00E0471 00E471 C.120 East Facing Section B C.324 C.323 C.322 A C.556 Carrowreagh, Co. Wexford C.325 C.319 C.321 C.120 C.320 C.326 C.327 C.328 C.135 C.330 C.332 C.331 C.332 C.556 C.332 Permalink: http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/e0471-carrowreagh-co-wexford/ C.331 C.329 C.332 C.556 C.556 C.341 C.341 0 1m C.120 Figure 6: Section through the western portion of the moat (Drawing 159) ISSUE 4: Eachtra Journal - ISSN 2009-2237 29
  • 36. 00E0471 00E471 C.120 South Facing section C D C.1 C.5 40 C.541 C.539 Carrowreagh, Co. Wexford C.541 C.544 C.120 C.554 C.543 C.542 C.550 C.546 C.554 C.543 C.542 7 54 C.549 C. C.548 C.545 Permalink: http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/e0471-carrowreagh-co-wexford/ C. C.542 55 1 C.543 C.554 C.539 C.545 C.547 C.120 C.547 C.552 C.553 0 1m Figure 7: Section through the western portion of the moat (Drawing 125) ISSUE 4: Eachtra Journal - ISSN 2009-2237 30
  • 37. 00E0471 00E471 E C.120 F East Facing Section C.345 C.343 C.567 C.355 C.347 C.350 C.120 C.344 C.561 C.353 C.560 Carrowreagh, Co. Wexford C.352 C.351 C.348 C.561 C.120 C.356 C.346 Permalink: http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/e0471-carrowreagh-co-wexford/ C.561 C. C.360 35 C.345 8 C.363 C.501 C.346 C.359 C.357 C.362 C.364 C.366 C.120 C.367 C.120 C.361 C.365 C.389 C.390 F.405 0 1m Figure 8: Section through the northern portion of the moat (Drawing 211) ISSUE 4: Eachtra Journal - ISSN 2009-2237 31
  • 38. 00E0471 00E471 South Facing Section C.120 G H C.280 C.251 C.275 Carrowreagh, Co. Wexford C.300 C.193 C.223 C.142 51 .2 C.223 C C.401 C.337 C.454 15 .3 C Permalink: http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/e0471-carrowreagh-co-wexford/ C.337 C.223 C.401 C.315 C.120 C.193 C.555 C.454 C.120 C.210 0 1m Figure 9: Section through the eastern portion of the moat (Drawing 137) ISSUE 4: Eachtra Journal - ISSN 2009-2237 32
  • 39. 00E0471 C.107 C.118 N Carrowreagh, Co. Wexford C.153 C.465 Permalink: http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/e0471-carrowreagh-co-wexford/ C.189 C.232 C.445 C.136 C.287 C.335 C.312 C.190 C.368 C.395 C.461 C.376 C.381 C.377 C.119 C.374 Metalled Area C.524 C.462 House Hearth Stakeholes/Pits/ Postholes 0m 1 5m Figure 10: Detail of the house within the moat ISSUE 4: Eachtra Journal - ISSN 2009-2237 33
  • 40. 00E0471 Carrowreagh, Co. Wexford ISSUE 4: Eachtra Journal - ISSN 2009-2237 5m N Pottery Kiln C.562 0 Possible Bisque-firing pit Figure 11: Post-excavation plan of the pottery kiln and possible bisque-firing pit C.194 Moat Permalink: http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/e0471-carrowreagh-co-wexford/ 34
  • 41. 00E0471 Carrowreagh, Co. Wexford ISSUE 4: Eachtra Journal - ISSN 2009-2237 0 50 mm Figure 12: Illustration of one of the gaming pieces found at the site (00E0471:284:1) Permalink: http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/e0471-carrowreagh-co-wexford/ 35
  • 42. 00E0471 Carrowreagh, Co. Wexford ISSUE 4: Eachtra Journal - ISSN 2009-2237 0 50 mm Figure 13: Illustration of a spindle whorl retrieved from the moated site (00E0471:241:260) Permalink: http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/e0471-carrowreagh-co-wexford/ 36
  • 43. 00E0471 Carrowreagh, Co. Wexford ISSUE 4: Eachtra Journal - ISSN 2009-2237 N Drain C.437 C.426 C.430 C.167 C.428 C.432 C.509/C.491 C.509/C.491 C.167 C.167 C.163 C.296 C.202 C.213 C.159 C.413 C.262 C.263 C.261 C.168 C.168 C.213 C.260 C.259 C.202 C.253 C.169 C.256 C.257 C.255 C.170 C.167 C.167 C.298 Pottery Rich Clay Spreads Stakeholes 0m 5m Figure 14: Working area to the northeast of the moated site Permalink: http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/e0471-carrowreagh-co-wexford/ 37
  • 44. 00E0471 Carrowreagh, Co. Wexford ISSUE 4: Eachtra Journal - ISSN 2009-2237 14. Plates Plate 1: Pre-excavation shot of the moated site at Carrowreagh, facing southeast Plate 2: The moat after excavation Permalink: http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/e0471-carrowreagh-co-wexford/ 38
  • 45. 00E0471 Carrowreagh, Co. Wexford ISSUE 4: Eachtra Journal - ISSN 2009-2237 Plate 3: Section through the ditch C.120 Plate 4: Possible leat as a water source for the moat Permalink: http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/e0471-carrowreagh-co-wexford/ 39
  • 46. 00E0471 Carrowreagh, Co. Wexford ISSUE 4: Eachtra Journal - ISSN 2009-2237 Plate 5: View of the medieval house and destruction layers within the moat during excavation, facing west Plate 6: House destruction layers showing the charred remains of structural elements from the house Permalink: http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/e0471-carrowreagh-co-wexford/ 40
  • 47. 00E0471 Carrowreagh, Co. Wexford ISSUE 4: Eachtra Journal - ISSN 2009-2237 Plate 7: Pottery fragments from the destruction layers in the house Plate 8: Metalled area and drain at the west of the house before excavation Permalink: http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/e0471-carrowreagh-co-wexford/ 41
  • 48. 00E0471 Carrowreagh, Co. Wexford ISSUE 4: Eachtra Journal - ISSN 2009-2237 Plate 9: Pottery kiln during excavation showing location of possible saggars Plate 10: The pottery kiln after excavation Permalink: http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/e0471-carrowreagh-co-wexford/ 42
  • 49. 00E0471 Carrowreagh, Co. Wexford ISSUE 4: Eachtra Journal - ISSN 2009-2237 Plate 11: Possible bisque-firing pit Plate 12: Drains as evidence for agricultural features in the area outside the moat (C.167) Permalink: http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/e0471-carrowreagh-co-wexford/ 43
  • 50. 00E0471 Carrowreagh, Co. Wexford ISSUE 4: Eachtra Journal - ISSN 2009-2237 Plate 13: Leinster Cooking Ware Jug from C.241 with applied frills below rim (Photograph by John Sunderland) Plate 14: Interior of thumb pot fragment from C.240 that may have been used as an aquamanile (Photograph by John Sunderland) Permalink: http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/e0471-carrowreagh-co-wexford/ 44
  • 51. 00E0471 Carrowreagh, Co. Wexford ISSUE 4: Eachtra Journal - ISSN 2009-2237 Plate 15: Possible roof tile fragment from C.336 (Photograph by John Sunderland) Plate 16: Fragment from jug made in the Redcliffe style from C.206 (Photograph by John Sunderland) Permalink: http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/e0471-carrowreagh-co-wexford/ 45
  • 52. 00E0471 Carrowreagh, Co. Wexford ISSUE 4: Eachtra Journal - ISSN 2009-2237 Plate 17: Fragments of locally made wares that copy the Ham Green style from C.241 (Photograph by John Sunderland) Plate 18: Fragment from a waster found in C.141 (Photograph by John Sunderland) Permalink: http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/e0471-carrowreagh-co-wexford/ 46
  • 53. 00E0471 Carrowreagh, Co. Wexford ISSUE 4: Eachtra Journal - ISSN 2009-2237 15. Appendices 15.1 Appendix 1: Context Register Context register is included on the attached CD 15.2 Appendix 2: Finds Register Finds register is included on the attached CD Permalink: http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/e0471-carrowreagh-co-wexford/ 47
  • 54. 00E0471 Carrowreagh, Co. Wexford ISSUE 4: Eachtra Journal - ISSN 2009-2237 15.3 Appendix 3: Medieval and Post-medieval pottery from Carrowreagh By Niamh Doyle MA MIAI of Margaret Gowen and Co. Ltd. Introduction The assemblage from Carrowreagh contained 9 fragments of post-medieval pottery of Irish and English types that date from the 18th – 20th century. The medieval pottery numbered 1978 which was reduced to 1912 sherds after further reconstruction, dates from the 12th-14th centuries and is comprised of 1892 sherds of locally produced Irish medieval types and 6 sherds of pottery, identified as possibly from the Redcliffe kilns of Bristol, England. The majority of the medieval pottery retrieved onsite is Leinster Cooking Ware a type first studied in detail by O’Floinn in 1976 that dates from the 12th-14th centuries. The medieval pottery assemblage from Carrowreagh can be divided into 2 main groups; the first is comprised of Leinster Cooking Ware vessels associated with food storage and preparation including jars, platters and handled jars. The second group of Irish medieval pottery consists of Wexford Type and Wexford Type Fine Ware vessels for use at the table including pitchers, platters and even a possible aquamanile. Further forms represented include cresset lamps, a small thumb pot and possible roof tile. The possibility that the Irish pottery was produced in the kilns found onsite is discussed below. The assemblage contained some possible imported medieval English wares from Bristol including a Bristol Redcliffe style jug. Methodology The pottery fragments in this assemblage were identified visually in accordance with existing typologies. A brief description of fabric and decoration is given for each type. The different types are presented in tabular form and subsequently discussed in the narrative. Vessel types and styles of manufacture were identified in accordance with the Medieval Pottery Research Group’s classification of ceramic forms (1998). A Minimum Vessel Count (MNV) number is given for each type of pottery based on a count of rim handle sherds, the most reliable method of determining the number of vessels based on vessel parts for medieval assemblages, particularly those that include several handled jugs/ jars. The pottery fragments retrieved from the kiln structure and surrounding area were collected and bagged separately to the main body of the pottery assemblage. These fragments were not numbered individually, as agreed with the National Museum of Ireland, but were packed and studied by context; they are catalogued by context here with an overall discussion of types encountered. Dating The dates within this report are based on dates of production and distribution of the Irish and English pottery types found onsite on published sites excavated in Ireland. A discussion of the pottery found in the main contexts associated with each phase of activity on the site is given at the end based on the stratigraphy report. This discussion is designed to elucidate the nature and date range of these features. It must be noted, however, that pottery can only date the last deposit of a fill or context, and is consequently a limited means of dating stratigraphy. A date range for each context is determined based on the earliest date of the latest type represented within a deposit. Permalink: http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/e0471-carrowreagh-co-wexford/ 48
  • 55. 00E0471 Carrowreagh, Co. Wexford ISSUE 4: Eachtra Journal - ISSN 2009-2237 Post Medieval Pottery Only 0.5% of the overall pottery assemblage consists of post medieval pottery from clearance and contexts 139 and 187, of probable English origin and dating to the 18th- 19th centuries. Type Sherds MV Form Date Range Origin R Black Glazed Red 4 1 Storage jar 18-19th C English Earthenware English Stoneware 1 1 bottle 18-19th C English Creamware 2 1 storage jar 18-19th C English Transfer Printed 1 1 small 18-20th C English Ware. Blue. bowl/ dish Willow Brown Glazed Red 1 1 small jug/ 18-19th C English Earthenware pitcher Table 1 - Post medieval pottery from Carrowreagh, County Wexford The post medieval pottery dates to the 18th-20th centuries and includes four fragments of a black glazed red earthenware storage jar, 2 fragments of a creamware storage jar, one fragment of an English stoneware bottle, possibly a Fulham or Derbyshire stoneware. The assemblage contains a single fragment of a blue transfer printed bowl, decorated with the willow pattern. There is a handle fragment from a small brown glazed red earthenware jug/ pitcher. The stoneware and Transfer Printed Ware vessels are of English origin, while the brown and black glazed red earthenware vessels could possibly have been made in Ireland or England. Medieval Pottery The medieval pottery constituted 99.5% of the pottery assemblage from Carrowreagh, County Wexford. The majority of the medieval pottery is Irish and most likely locally made including Leinster Cooking Ware and Wexford types spanning the 12th-14th centuries. The assemblage contains some possible imported Bristol Redcliffe pottery sherds, although these may have been made locally in the Bristol Redcliffe style. Type Sherds % MNV Forms represented Date Origin overall Range Irish Medieval Leinster Cooking 1598 83.6 2 jugs, cooking pots, 12th- Ireland Ware storage jars, platters, 14th C cresset lamps Wexford-type 195 10.2 5 jugs, storage jars 13th- Ireland 14th C Wexford-type 84 4.4 2 jugs 13th- Ireland Fineware 14th C Local Ham 15 0.8 0 possible curfews Ireland Permalink: http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/e0471-carrowreagh-co-wexford/ 49
  • 56. 00E0471 Carrowreagh, Co. Wexford ISSUE 4: Eachtra Journal - ISSN 2009-2237 Type Sherds % MNV Forms represented Date Origin overall Range Green Cooking Ware type Total Irish sherds 1892 99 English Medieval possible 6 0.3 1 jugs 13th C Bristol, Redcliffe England Total English 6 0 sherds Unidentified 14 0.7 0 jug 12th- Irish/ 14th C English Total 1912 Table 2 - Table of Medieval Pottery Types from Carrowreagh, County Wexford Irish Medieval Pottery Leinster Cooking Ware The most common type of Irish medieval pottery onsite is Leinster Cooking Ware, representing 83.6% of the overall medieval assemblage and 85% of the Irish medieval wares. Leinster Cooking ware was made and used in the south east of Ireland from the late 12th- early 14th century (O’Floinn 1988). O’Floinn concludes that the bulk of LCW was produced from c1250- 1350, with the possibility that production continued over most of the 13th and 14th centuries. This pottery type has been found on most medieval sites, both urban and rural in the counties of Wexford, Wicklow, Dublin, Meath, Louth, Westmeath, Carlow, Kilkenny and Kildare (O’Floinn 1988). Leinster Cooking Ware has been found on excavations at Oyster Lane in Wexford town associated with 14th century imported French wares (O’Floinn 1988). Leinster Cooking Ware pottery is hand built and tempered with quartz, mica and small stones (O’Floinn 327) that give it a characteristic coarse appearance and allow it to survive temperature variations both in the kiln during firing and during use domestically. O’Floinn divided Leinster Cooking Ware into two groups based on morphological traits common in two distribution areas; north and south Leinster (O’Floinn 1988). The counties Louth, Meath, Westmeath, Dublin and Kildare constitute the North Leinster group while the counties of the south Leinster group are; Carlow, Kilkenny, Wexford and Wicklow. In general O’Floinn noticed that the majority of North Leinster type forms were those of cooking pots and jars, while the south Leinster group showed more variation of vessel type and form. Rim types in particular were considerably more varied in the South Leinster Cooking Ware groups, with only the North Leinster Cooking Ware channelled rim type not present among the variety of rim forms found in South Leinster Cooking Ware. O’Floinn concluded that the variety of South Leinster Cooking Ware rim types can be attributed to local production at multiple centres possibly associated with individual manors. The Leinster Cooking Ware from the Carrowreagh assemblage falls largely into the South Leinster Cooking Ware group. Another large South Leinster Cooking Ware group was excavated from Ferns Castle; consisting of cooking pots, platters, glazed jugs, a candlestick fragment layers dated to L13th – E14th C. The Leinster Cooking Ware from this assemblage was separated by form into North and South types where possible, these groups are discussed further below and represented by context in Appendix A. Permalink: http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/e0471-carrowreagh-co-wexford/ 50
  • 57. 00E0471 Carrowreagh, Co. Wexford ISSUE 4: Eachtra Journal - ISSN 2009-2237 Vessel Forms Leinster Cooking Ware vessel forms within the Carrowreagh assemblage include jars, some sooted indicating their use as cooking pots, storage jars, at least 2 jugs based on spout count, platters, pipkins, and cresset lamps. It is important to note a second implication of the name Leinster Cooking Ware, that all vessels are cooking pots, when a more accurate description of the cooking pots found within this assemblage would be jars with external sooting that indicates their use as cooking pots; all cooking pots are jars but not all jars are cooking pots! (McCutcheon pers comm.) The assemblage contains a MNV of 2 handled jars/jugs represented by rim handle fragments within the assemblage. Most handles within the assemblage are strap handles with incised decoration, but there are also some straight rod handles, a hollow rod handle and also a possible fume from a cistern or bunghole jar. One example of a pulled spout in Leinster Cooking Ware fabric (333:21) indicates at least one jug within the assemblage. The majority of the rim types in the assemblage are South Leinster Cooking Ware type with everted frilled rims and rims with applied frills. The rims are mainly everted frilled types (South Leinster Cooking Ware), most of which are created by pressing the finger or thumb into the rim/ pinching the rim. A smaller number of which was made by applying the frill at the rim and pressing it into place leaning a visible join or fold where the two meet. These “pinch-frilled rim” cooking pots are described by O’Floinn as specific to Wexford with rims of this type excavated from sites in Ferns Castle, Tintern Abbey and from Oyster Lane and Abbey Street in Wexford town. A small number of rims have a frill applied below the rim onto the neck of the vessel a type of decoration which O’Floinn notes on cooking pots found at Ferns Castle, Wexford Town and at St. Vogue’s Church Carnsore, County Wexford (O’Floinn 1988, 331). This decoration is found at Carrowreagh on 3 straight walled storage jars, with no evidence of external sooting and one with a light patchy lead glaze. There is also an example of a small jug (241:45) with an applied frill type below the rim and a pulled spout. Its blackened exterior implies it was used to heat liquids/ drinks over a fire. The second largest group of rim types belongs almost exclusively to cooking pots with everted flat-topped, thickened rims. This type of cooking pot rim is common in Dublin and the rest of north Leinster but also appears in South Leinster Cooking Ware assemblages (O’Floinn 1988, 328). A rim fragment from a globular jar has a stabbed/slashed pattern around the rim similar to the stab-marks found on North Leinster type cooking pots (O’Floinn 1988, 329). This decoration possibly represents another South Leinster Cooking Ware variant; associated with this particular production site. O’Floinn says that the only type not in South Leinster Cooking Ware is channelled rim types. There are also two examples of South Leinster Cooking Ware type bi- partite rims, a type which had O’Floinn notes had only been found at St Vogue’s Church in county Wexford and Abbey Street, Wexford Town at the time of publication (O’Floinn 1988, 329). Simple rounded rims constitute the third group of Leinster Cooking Ware rim forms from Carrowreagh; it is possible that these represent the broken edges of the flat everted rims described above. Vessels were made by constructing the rims and bases separate to the main body of the vessel and applying them later (O’Floinn 1988, 327). Their construction in this way is borne out by the fact that many of the rim fragments have broken at this vulnerable joint and that the folded clay where the rim and body are joined is sometimes visible. Permalink: http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/e0471-carrowreagh-co-wexford/ 51
  • 58. 00E0471 Carrowreagh, Co. Wexford ISSUE 4: Eachtra Journal - ISSN 2009-2237 Body Fragments The fabric of the Leinster Cooking Ware fragments within the assemblage from Carrowreagh is that described by O’Floinn (1988, 327) with inclusions of quartz and mica in the majority then some smaller inclusions also. The fabric ranges in colour from a pale buff surface with grey core to a highly oxidised red-orange with a dark grey core, indicating varying firing conditions within the assemblage. Some body fragments (especially from house destruction layer C. 241) show internal finger-marks, presumably where coils from pottery making were smoothed out before firing. Some body fragments are glazed and some body fragments are decorated with applied pellets and applied strips in contrasting colours (brown on green) in the same decorative style as 13th century Bristol Redcliffe jugs. Some fragments have been coated with a thin white slip, possibly in imitation of French imported Cooking Wares (O’Floinn 1988, 329). The assemblage contains some examples with internal burning possibly used as curfews or chafing dishes and several with external burning through use above a fire. The inside surface appears coarser than that outside- with more quartz visible, possibly indicating they were purposefully built to withstand heat on the inside. Bases The majority of base fragments are from sagging globular jars. A unique feature of Leinster Cooking Ware among medieval pottery in Ireland is its sand gritted bases; which suggest that the vessels were placed on a bed of sand to dry out before firing (O’Floinn, 327).The central base fragments of Leinster Cooking Ware globular cooking pots have been identified here based on their characteristic pitted/ gritty bases. A single base fragment is thumbed in the South Leinster style, possibly representing a jug rather than a cooking pot (O’Floinn 1988, 331). Some base and body fragments from Carrowreagh are grass-marked indicating they sat on a bed of grass or straw while leather hard rather than on the sand associated with the pitted Leinster Cooking Ware bases. Platters The assemblage contains some fragments of Leinster Cooking Ware with the characteristic pitted bases that are glazed internally, possibly representing platters. Platters have been found in Leinster Cooking Ware assemblages from excavated sites in Wexford including; Fern’s castle (Sweetman 1979, 230-233), Portersgate (Breen 1987, 21), St. Vogue’s church (O'Kelly, Lynch and Cahill 1975, 49-50) and excavations at Abbey Street-Oyster Lane in Wexford town (Delaney, 1974, 28). Shallow dishes with everted rims ranging from 2-4cm in depth are also found in South Leinster Cooking Ware. The Carrowreagh assemblage contains six unglazed dish profiles, made from an oxidised Leinster Cooking Ware fabric, all with sand-marked bases and 2 with definite rims measuring up to 1 cm in height. One example is more like a shallow dish with an everted rim at the top of a flat side (3-3.5 cm high) so that base angle is 90 degrees. Another thickens towards the edge of the base so that centre is lower or slightly concaved to form a platter. Two examples show a degree of finishing at the surface; they are not quite burnished but smoothed to a finish. Lamps The assemblage contains a MNR of 8 lamps (8.1 in MPRG forms book). Lamps of the same type were found at Ferns Castle, Wexford and at other moated sites in Wexford (McCutcheon pers comm) including Barmoney, County Wexford (unpublished NMI). The lamps are a ceramic adaptation of a cresset stone type lamp common in Ireland and Britain also known as “pedestal lamps” and “double-ended lamps” (Moore, 1984, 98). Moore has classified the stone versions of these cresset lamps into 4 classes; the Carrowreagh examples appear to fall into Class 2. Class 2 stone cressets have a cylindrical stem, ranging in length from Permalink: http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/e0471-carrowreagh-co-wexford/ 52
  • 59. 00E0471 Carrowreagh, Co. Wexford ISSUE 4: Eachtra Journal - ISSN 2009-2237 11 to 22cm, with evenly proportioned expansions at either end to give the lamp an hourglass silhouette (Moore, 101). Moore notes that the dimensions of the Irish stone cressets were twice that of the English ceramic versions; however the ceramic cressets from Carrowreagh are the same size roughly as the Irish stone examples. The expansions form cups at both ends; one end of the Carrowreagh ceramic lamps is hollow up to at least the midpoint of the vessel. None of the lamps from Carrowreagh were complete to show if the hollow extended throughout from base to top. Moore discusses three stone cressets found in county Wexford; one from Castle Ellis, one from Moneyheer and one from Norrismount, County Wexford (Moore, 112-113). Local Medieval Wares: Wexford-type wares Wexford Type Coarse Ware The assemblage contains a number of fragments are very similar in decoration and form to Ham Green Cooking Ware types that have been found in Waterford. The examples from Carrowreagh fit the form and decorative description of Ham Green Cooking ware but contain frequent large plates of mica within the fabric, possibly indicating an Irish provenance following English forms. They are unglazed and made from a coarse fabric which has a grey-brown core and is fired red- brown on the surface. The assemblage contains some body fragments decorated with applied thumbed strips as well as a handle-body sherd from a plain strap handle (241:60). A base angle fragment is also decorated with applied strips, although the angle suggests a sagging everted base it could also be from the top of a curfew or from a ridge tile (241:172). Internally some examples are burned and are extremely coarse inside- possibly representing curfews. Ham Green Cooking ware curfews were found at Waterford decorated with applied strips vertically applied; the fabric of Ham Green vessels includes moderate quantities of quartz and sparse amounts of black particles and calcite (Gahan and McCutcheon 1997, 296). This ware was retrieved from mid 12th- early 13th century levels in Waterford. Wexford Type Ware It is a convention within medieval pottery studies to name a group of pottery after the area of its production, for example Ham Green wares are named after their production site located at Ham Green in Bristol, England. In the absence of a known kiln/ production site for a group the name type is given to a group based on the area in which it has been found to be most prolific, Dublin Type wares are an example of this (Blake and Davey 1983). In this way the pottery group found locally on sites around Wexford has been named Wexford type. It is possible that, based on the evidence from Carrowreagh, some of the pottery within the Wexford Type group can now be correctly called Wexford Ware or possibly Carrowreagh Ware. Further comparison and analysis of all excavated Wexford types is required before this step is taken; recommendations for this analysis are made below. The fabric of Wexford type pottery is reduced to a light orange/ buff-grey colour, the clay is quite fine and weathered, with frequent mica inclusions and occasional small quartz temper. It is glazed with a patchy lead glaze and decorated with applied pellets in the Bristol Redcliffe style. The assemblage from Carrowreagh contains a large, near complete jar with a thumbed base and decorated with an applied pellet and glazed decoration. Some of this finer ware has sand marked bases indicating it was produced by a potter familiar with Leinster Cooking Ware techniques. The assemblage contains frilled globular jars, possible jugs and possible crucible and aquamanile fragments in this type as well as evidence of a bunghole jar/ cistern and a possible circular roof peg tile. Four vessels have grass on the surface, possibly from being allowed to dry leather-hard on a bed of cut grass or straw as opposed to the characteristic sand marked bases of Leinster Cooking Permalink: http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/e0471-carrowreagh-co-wexford/ 53
  • 60. 00E0471 Carrowreagh, Co. Wexford ISSUE 4: Eachtra Journal - ISSN 2009-2237 Ware vessels that are left to dry on sand. One vessel has the fine, mica-rich fabric of local fine ware but the surface has been treated somewhat and bears the marks of vegetation, not throughout the fabric as a temper but on the internal and external surfaces (454: 1-33). More grass marked vessels include a globular jar, (210:3), represented by a frilled rim and two rilled globular pots from ditch fill C.254 with strange flaky internal surfaces (254: 316+ 314) and (254: 318). A rim fragment with an applied frill, (254:84), has a more oxidised and coarser fabric with more quartz than some others and has been burnt externally indicating it was used to heat its contents over a fire. Rim Fragments The assemblage contains 12 Wexford Type rim fragments; 3 everted, one with pinch-on marks that O’Floinn notes as characteristic of Leinster Cooking Ware, 5 with the frill applied below the rim (a rim type common in South Leinster Cooking Ware), 2 frilled rims and 2 simple rounded rims. All the above rim fragments are from glazed vessels and although there are no spouts present to indicate that they are jug fragments this is probably the most likely option. The assemblage contains 9 strap handle fragments of this type; 1 is plain, 2 are decorated with single vertically incised lines (one of which is round in cross section) and the remainder with varying degrees of slashed and stabbed decoration, 5 out of 9 are glazed. Handle 241:44 is slashed at the rim-handle join probably to allow it to fire at the same rate as the thinner wall and base of the vessel. This was also facilitated by the addition of extra temper to the handle resulting in a coarser fabric than the rest of the vessel that oxidised nicely. Base fragments There are 20 Wexford Type base fragments; 8 are plain, flat based everted rims (3 with sand pitted bases) with straight sides (2 glazed internally), 9 have frilled or thumbed bases; 7 of which have some kind of internal glaze possibly indicating that they were used as platters. The remaining base fragments are central base fragments, one of which has a small circular internal scar, probably from stacking during firing (207:1). Additional vessel forms The assemblage contains a small vessel, possibly made as a thumb pot but cylindrical in shape, with definite base at one end and with scars from attachments to exterior and glazed (240; 1). This vessel is interpreted as a possible aquamanile fragment; with the scars possibly representing the seated knight’s legs where they attached to the horse’s body or possibly as the zoomorphic component of a small money box/ whistle. The assemblage also contains part of a small thumb pot; which possibly functioned as a cup or crucible, although no spout is evident (0:116). A single flat, circular piece with a glazed surface and a hole pierced off-centre possibly represents a circular peg tile or plaque. It is broken at the pierced end, presumably weakened by the hole, indicating it was suspended by the hole. The assemblage also contains a bung-hole fragment representing a cistern or bung-hole jar (165:34). There is also an unusual fragment that looks like a flat everted rim on one side but is rounded on other side to look like pulled spout (213:32). Further unidentified fragments within the assemblage are extremely rounded, possibly indicating they are roof tile fragments/ finials (213:53, 165: 3, 122:3 and 141:32). Wexford Type Fine Ware The assemblage contains an MNV of 1 jug in a fine ware that is similar in fabric to Dublin Type fineware, but more micaceous indicating it is a locally produced fine ware similar to Wexford type described above. This vessel is thin walled and appears to be wheel thrown, with a rim- handle fragment with a slashed strap handle. There are a MNR of 6 glazed fine ware pots with a buff- light orange soft fabric and an even green lead glaze. One fragment has an applied strip in a Permalink: http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/e0471-carrowreagh-co-wexford/ 54
  • 61. 00E0471 Carrowreagh, Co. Wexford ISSUE 4: Eachtra Journal - ISSN 2009-2237 contrasting brown glaze as decoration in the style of Redcliffe wares and the Wexford Type wares. Another vessel is represented by a straight rod handle fragment with a thumb depression underneath where the potter pressed the handle into the body of the jug to join the two elements. A jug is represented by a rim with a spout fragment that looks like it forms part of a bridge spout where broken and is decorated with an applied rosette. Another jug is represented by a rim- shoulder fragment from a small glazed jug and another by a base fragment that is frilled-almost looks like frilled by applying thumbed pieces rather than just impressing thumb into base. Some fragments have an internal coating that is less than a slip and could represent a residue from use. Another Wexford Type Fine Ware variant is represented by 13 vessel fragments that are fired to a dark grey, black core, with pink- red-purple surfaces and with the remains of a green lead glaze. The soft fabric contains occasional mica and grey stone inclusions but is so badly worn that it is difficult to tell if the vessels are wheel thrown. The vessel fragments are heavily weathered, with blunted edges some of which can be attributed to weathering on the surface of the site and in the drain fill. A possible strap handle fragment with incised decoration remains as does a plain strap handle fragment. There are several fragments of a flat everted rim decorated with applied pellets to the top similar to a mortar. Further fragments are so badly worn it is difficult to tell if they are base angle fragments with very shallow sides, possibly from an internally glazed shallow platter, or possibly so worn they just look like the top of the rim. The occurrence of this pottery in topsoil/ clearance level C. 0 and pottery production levels C150 and C.159 indicate that it was produced onsite. The fact that this pottery was also present in level C.213 (fill of drain C.509) could link this fill to the pottery production onsite or to the dumping of materials associated with pottery production into the drain. English Medieval Pottery Possible Redcliffe Redcliffe pottery was produced in Bristol and imported into Ireland during the mid 13th – 14th century (McCutcheon 2006, 40) effectively taking over the market for the 12th- early 13th century products of the Ham Green kilns. The Redcliffe fabric is a characteristic sandwich of grey core between buff-salmon coloured surfaces, decorated with a yellow- green lead glaze. The Carrowreagh assemblage contains body fragments from a possible Redcliffe jug; glazed green and decorated with brown glazed applied strips and pellets. Further fragments are extremely weathered but retain the characteristic sandwich fabric with a grey core between buff/ salmon surfaces. These fragments could represent a locally produced version of Redcliffe wares as found on other Irish medieval sites including Adare Castle, County Limerick (McCutcheon pers comm). Discussion The evidence from the locally produced Leinster Cooking Ware and Wexford Type pottery in the Carrowreagh assemblage suggests that the potter is familiar with Leinster Cooking Ware production techniques and also with contemporary Anglo Norman forms and the Anglo Norman practise of using ceramic table wares. Further analysis of the kiln material could illustrate if this pottery type was produced by the type 2 kiln found at Carrowreagh. If this were the case it would imply that the potter was not just familiar with Anglo Norman customs of ceramic use but also with contemporary ceramic production techniques. Phasing The contexts containing pottery are discussed as groups in relation to their location onsite; inside and outside the moat and the fills of the moat. Where possible, potential chronological sequences of deposition are identified and discussed. Date ranges and relationships between contests depend on a lack of intrusive finds within these levels and rely on the assumption that deposits Permalink: http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/e0471-carrowreagh-co-wexford/ 55
  • 62. 00E0471 Carrowreagh, Co. Wexford ISSUE 4: Eachtra Journal - ISSN 2009-2237 were related to a single archaeological event. A table with all contexts containing pottery and the associated date ranges is provided in the appendix to this report (Appendix 1). The moated settlement type in Ireland is usually associated with the period of Anglo Norman expansion in the 13th-14th centuries, the pottery in this assemblage bears out this date for the assemblage and occupancy of the Carrowreagh moated site. Some chronological sequences are represented within the stratigraphy indicating a sequence of occupancy from the late 12th-14th centuries. Contexts with pottery from within the moat Ditch cut C.153 with primary fill C.132 and secondary fill C.122/126 which is truncated by ditch recut C.152. All fills contain Leinster Cooking Ware dated 12th-14th C. As does C.131 a level interpreted as house post depositional silting. Pit C.109, filled with C.105, contains Wexford Type pottery dated 13th-14th C. Pit fill C.266, within cut C. 287, and contains Leinster Cooking Ware dating it to 12th-14th Century. C.154, the fill of drain C.161, contains 1 fragment of Leinster Cooking Ware dating it to 12th-14th C. House destruction levels; C.276 dates to 12th-14th C, beneath C.241 which is dated to 12th – 13th C based on some local Ham Green Cooking Ware type pottery, which lies below house destruction level C. 205 which contains pottery from 13th-14th C, all suggesting a chronological sequence of events. House metalled surface C. 190 is dated to the 13th-14th C, which lies below metalled surface C. 511 which lies to the west of the house and dates to 12th-14th C based on Leinster Cooking Ware. Metalled surface C. 476 and house post depositional silting level C.474 are both dated to 13th- 14th C based on a mix of Leinster Cooking Ware and Wexford Type pottery. The house floor levels above these; C.333, C.308 and C.293 all contain Leinster Cooking Ware whose range of 12th-14th C can be narrowed to 13th- 14th C assuming that these levels were deposited after the surfaces C.474 and C.476 below? Spreads within the moat include C. 158 dated to 12th-14th C by Leinster Cooking Ware, C. 160 dated to 13th-14th C by occurrence of Wexford type pottery alongside Leinster Cooking Ware. Contexts outside the moat with pottery There are a number of pottery rich spreads located outside the moat that could be associated with raking out the kiln after firing and with preparation to re-use the kiln. The contexts containing charcoal and burnt clay could be associated with raking out the kiln, while those that contain redeposited clay could have been used to prepare the kiln for its next load, to repair the kiln or even represent part of the kiln superstructure. The pottery from these spreads ranges from Leinster Cooking Ware to Wexford Type Fine Ware indicating different associated date ranges as discussed below. Pottery production spreads C.150 and C.159 are dated to 13th-14th C and interestingly contain a uniquely fired pink-purple coloured Wexford Type Fine Ware pottery. Pottery production spread C.291 contains Leinster Cooking Ware dating it from 12th-14th C, which lies below C.163 which contains all types produced onsite and 13th-14th C Wexford Type Fine ware indicating this type may have been produced onsite. Both C.291 and C. 163 lie beneath C. 167; which contains a single piece of Leinster Cooking Ware. Pottery production spread C.168 lies below C. 169; both contain Leinster Cooking Ware and Wexford Type while C. 169 also contains Wexford Type Fine Ware, possibly indicating a Permalink: http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/e0471-carrowreagh-co-wexford/ 56
  • 63. 00E0471 Carrowreagh, Co. Wexford ISSUE 4: Eachtra Journal - ISSN 2009-2237 sequence of production from the 13th-14th C? The levels C. 318 and C. 336 both contain Leinster Cooking Ware, dating them to 12th-14th C. The fill of the flue, C. 317, contains Leinster Cooking Ware, Wexford Type and Wexford Type Fine Ware also indicating that Wexford Type Fine Ware was produced onsite. Drain cut C. 509 contained Leinster Cooking Ware dating from 12th-14th C in its lower fills, C. 433 and C. 369, and both Leinster Cooking Ware and Wexford Type ware in its upper fill C. 310 which can be dated to 13th-14th C. These drains cut also contained possible Bristol Redcliffe ware within fill C. 220, as well as Leinster Cooking Ware and Wexford Type Fine Ware, dating this fill to c13th C. Ditch C. 271 contained the fill C. 206, which is dated to 13th C, based on the presence of possible Bristol Redcliffe pottery. Contexts in Moat with Pottery C. 120, C210 is the primary fill of moat C. 120, and contained Leinster Cooking Ware, Wexford Type and Wexford Type Fine Ware which date C120 to 13th-14th C. The secondary fill, C454, held Leinster Cooking Ware, Wexford Type and Redcliffe which date C454 to the 13th C. Moat recut C. 555 had C.193 as its primary fill which is dated to 12th-14th C based on finds of Leinster Cooking Ware and held C. 142 as its upper fill which is dated to 13th-14th C based on finds of Leinster Cooking Ware, Wexford Type and Wexford Type Fine Ware. The Pottery from the Kiln Area The majority of this pottery was medieval including Wexford Type and Leinster Cooking Ware, as discussed below. The assemblage from the kiln area included two fragments of 18th-19th century pottery from Context 378; a body fragment from a Black Glazed Red Earthenware storage vessel and a basal fragment from a blue Willow-Pattern Transfer Printed Ware plate. Medieval Pottery from the Kiln area The pottery from the kiln and associated contexts consisted of Leinster Cooking Ware and Wexford Type ware, both of which were represented in the main body of the assemblage from Carrowreagh, treated above. These types are discussed in detail below. Type No. of MNV Vessel Forms Date Origin Sherds Range Leinster Cooking Ware 372 0 jugs, handled 12th-14th local jars, cooking pots, storage jars, platters, possible roof tiles Wexford Type 16 0 probable jugs 13th-14th local Table 3 - Table of medieval pottery types from Kiln area Permalink: http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/e0471-carrowreagh-co-wexford/ 57
  • 64. 00E0471 Carrowreagh, Co. Wexford ISSUE 4: Eachtra Journal - ISSN 2009-2237 Leinster Cooking Ware Leinster Cooking Ware is represented within the kiln assemblage by coarse forms, such as cooking pots and storage pots, denoted by the pitted bases characteristic of this type, and also some jugs/ handled jars represented by strap handle fragments. Rim forms include 12 frilled, 3 simple, 10 everted and 3 with slashing along the top one of which also had an applied frill. There were 2 (possibly a third fragmentary) handle fragments; one glazed strap handle (C453) decorated with 3 slashed lines with columns of short stab marks in between and another strap handle from the stoke hole area with a similar pattern and evidence of spalling. Body fragments within this type include 123 plain unglazed fragments, 16 glazed fragments and 12 fragments decorated with wavy horizontal lines. Of a total of 78 basal fragments, one had an internal glaze possibly indicating it formed part of a platter. Also in Leinster Cooking Ware were some fragments also recognisable by the characteristic basal pitting of this type but in a slightly cleaner, finer fabric. These vessels appear to have been subjected to different firing conditions than the Leinster Cooking Ware vessels described above, possibly indicating that these vessels belonged to different loads? Rim forms include: 9 frilled, 2 simple and 2 everted rim types as well as one rim fragment decorated with an applied frill and slashing along the top. There was a single strap handle fragment consisting of a single incised line and slashing down the centre. There were 29 plain unglazed body fragments, 13 glazed and 7 with applied decoration in the form of pads, pellets and thumbed strips in contrasting colours to the body of the vessel. There were 21 basal fragments represented including one that could have been glazed internally, possibly representing a platter, all with characteristic sand pitted bases. Context 171 contained an odd form, like a rim fragment designed to hold a lid but not; also found one in 374, they do not match any forms known and possibly represent spoiled attempts at lidded rims. Overall the Leinster Cooking ware forms include jar shapes associated with food storage and preparation handled jars and probably jugs although no spout fragments were found. There are also some internally glazed basal fragments that could represent platters. One form found onsite that was not represented is the ceramic cresset lamp; there are three possible explanations for this; that the lamps were imported from another production centre or manufactured with such success that no fragments were left spoiled to find or have been crumbled so badly during unsuccessful firing that they are without a recognisable form. Some fragments within the kiln assemblage have been tentatively identified as roof tiles, indicating that they may have been manufactured onsite. Possible roof tile fragments were found in contexts: C. 143, C. 171, C. 217, C. 227 and C. 230, indicating that these may also have been made onsite. Wexford Type ware This local ware is represented within the kiln assemblage by probable jug fragments; 5 everted rim fragments 4 of which were decorated with applied pellets, 11 glazed body fragments in a fine clay, with frequent mica inclusions 3 with applied decoration, and a simple basal fragment. Discussion The implications of the pottery found within this assemblage are that the kiln at Carrowreagh was used to produce a range of Leinster Cooking Ware vessels, identified by their characteristic fabric and sand-pitted bases. The presence of relatively small amounts of Wexford Type ware from the kiln assemblage indicates that it was also made onsite. Wexford Type Fine Ware was not present in the kiln assemblage indicating that it was not made onsite. Wexford type Fine ware was found however, within pottery production spreads C. 163 and C.169, alongside all other types made onsite (Leinster Cooking Ware, Wexford Type) indicating that it may have been made onsite. It was also found within the fill of the Flue C.317 Permalink: http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/e0471-carrowreagh-co-wexford/ 58
  • 65. 00E0471 Carrowreagh, Co. Wexford ISSUE 4: Eachtra Journal - ISSN 2009-2237 alongside Leinster Cooking Ware and Wexford type. The contexts C. 374 and C. 205 from the stoke hole of the kiln both produced Leinster Cooking Ware, while contexts C. 468 and C. 479, also from the stoke hole, contained Leinster Cooking Ware and Wexford Type. it is possible that the presence of Wexford Type and Wexford Type Fine Ware represents a chronological sequence of production onsite. This argument is based on the tendency for the fine ware of localised pottery types associated with Anglo Norman centres, like those found at Dublin (McCutcheon, 2006) and Drogheda (Campbell 1996) (Doyle 2004), to belong to a later phase than the wheel thrown types represented here by Wexford Type. It must be noted that the degree to which these types overlap in production and consumption is unclear; they possibly overlapped and were made and used contemporarily. Pottery Production onsite The kiln pottery does not appear to contain a large amount of pottery wasters or flawed pieces usually associated with kiln refuse pits. There are a handful of fragments that have evidence of spalling, particularly from contexts C. 505 and C. 506, and a handle fragment from the stoke hole. Spalling describes the effect of pots fired without being fully dried out so that the moisture that remains within the fabric expands with the heat of the kiln and causes the body of the pot to explode and fuse onto the surrounding pots. One rim-body fragment from C. 468 contained a bubble, which would have weakened the pot in use and evidently caused the pot to break at this weakened point. C. 479 contained 1 irregular shaped piece of fired clay and another waste fragment of pottery. The kiln found onsite has been interpreted as a Type 2 kiln (Musty 1974, 44) similar to those found at pottery production sites associated with Anglo Norman settlements in Ireland, including those at Carrickfergus, County Antrim (Simpson et al, 1979), Downpatrick, County Down (Pollock et al, 1964), Dundalk, County Louth (Campbell) and Drogheda, in County Louth. The type 2 kiln is comprised of a firing chamber with two opposing flues with additional subtypes attributed depending on the presence of internal structures. The presence of some kind of central platform within the firing chamber of the kiln found at Carrowreagh indicates it could belong within Musty’s Type 2c group (Musty 1974, 44-45). This kiln could have produced the controlled atmosphere needed to successfully fire the Wexford wares stacked upon this central platform. It is interesting, however that the same kiln appears to have been used to produce Leinster Cooking Ware, when it has been traditionally associated with clamp kiln production (O’Floinn 1988, 327). In the absence of a clamp kiln onsite, however, it makes sense to utilise the type 2 kiln to make all the pottery required. At this point it should be noted that the wasters in a pottery kiln represent the failed attempts at production; as potter Jose Bosworth puts it: “… the scrap heap represents not the Pottery’s production but the potter’s problems.” (Bosworth 1982). Therefore the fabrics and forms most represented within the waster assemblage can be assumed to form only part of the range of those produced onsite. Musty makes the point that the vessels that demanded the most lengthy and skilful production would have been fired with extra care and probably with the additional protection of larger vessels as saggars within the kiln. As a result their firing may have been more successful than other vessels within the load and so they are underrepresented within the waster assemblage (Musty 1974, 59). Recommendations for further research Based on the unique nature and the importance of this site within medieval pottery and settlement studies it would be extremely valuable to carry out thin section analysis on the ceramics from this pottery production site. A comparison of the wares from the kiln itself and the associated dumping areas could indicate the source of the clay used for potting onsite. Permalink: http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/e0471-carrowreagh-co-wexford/ 59
  • 66. 00E0471 Carrowreagh, Co. Wexford ISSUE 4: Eachtra Journal - ISSN 2009-2237 Comparative petrological analysis of pottery from the site with similar Wexford types found in the surrounding area could indicate a distribution pattern for the produce of this kiln, revealing social and economic links between the occupants of Carrowreagh and those of neighbouring rural and urban sites. Thin section analysis of the pottery identified as possible Redcliffe ware from Carrowreagh could reveal if this is imported from Bristol, England or if it is indeed a local copy of this 13th century English ware. Permalink: http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/e0471-carrowreagh-co-wexford/ 60
  • 67. 00E0471 Carrowreagh, Co. Wexford ISSUE 4: Eachtra Journal - ISSN 2009-2237 Appendix 3.1: Pottery by Context Context Type Date Sherds Date range 0 Black Glazed Red 18th - 19th C 2 12th-19th C Earthenware Clearance levels? Creamware 18th - 19th C 2 English Stoneware 18th - 19th C 1 Transfer Printed Ware. 18th - 19th C 1 Blue. Willow LCW 12th-14th C 81 LCW-N 12th-14th C 18 LCW-S 12th-14th C 18 possible Redcliffe 13th C 1 Unid Purple 12th-14th C 6 Wex TFW 13th-14th C 5 Wexford Type 13th-14th C 33 3 LCW 12th-14th C 1 12th-14th C 14 LCW 12th-14th C 1 12th-14th C 24 LCW 12th-14th C 1 12th-14th C 65 Wexford Type 13th-14th C 1 13th-14th C 69 LCW 12th-14th C 1 12th-14th C 103 LCW 12th-14th C 10 13th-14th C Within Moat: Fill of LCW-S 12th-14th C 5 ditch recut C.152 Wexford Type 13th-14th C 1 Wexford Type Fine 13th-14th C 1 Ware 105 Wexford Type 13th-14th C 13th-14th C Within Moat: Fill of pit C.109 120 Wexford Type 13th-14th C 2 13th-14th C 122 LCW 12th-14th C 3 12th-14th C Within Moat: Fill of LCW-N 12th-14th C 1 ditch C.153 126 LCW 12th-14th C 1 12th-14th C Within Moat: Fill of ditch C.153 130 LCW 12th-14th C 2 12th-14th C Within Moat: Fill of possible natural hollow Permalink: http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/e0471-carrowreagh-co-wexford/ 61
  • 68. 00E0471 Carrowreagh, Co. Wexford ISSUE 4: Eachtra Journal - ISSN 2009-2237 Context Type Date Sherds Date range 131 LCW 12th-14th C 1 12th-14th C Within Moat: House post depositional silting 132 LCW 12th-14th C 74 13th-14th C Within Moat: Fill of LCW-N 12th-14th C 2 ditch C.153 LCW-S 12th-14th C 2 Wexford Type 13th-14th C 1 137 LCW 12th-14th C 1 13th-14th C Outside moat: Fill of LCW-S 12th-14th C 1 natural hollow Wexford Type 13th-14th C 1 138 LCW 12th-14th C 1 13th-14th C Within Moat: Fill of LCW-N 12th-14th C 1 possible natural hollow Wexford Type 13th-14th C 1 139 Black Glazed Red 18th-19th C 2 18th-19th C Earthenware 141 LCW 12th-14th C 27 13th-14th C LCW-S 12th-14th C 2 Wexford Type 13th-14th C 1 Wexford Type Fine 13th-14th C 4 Ware 142 LCW 12th-14th C 14 13th-14th C In Moat: upper fill of LCW-N 12th-14th C 1 moat recut C.555 LCW-S 12th-14th C 2 Wexford Type 13th-14th C 5 Wexford Type Fine 13th-14th C 1 Ware 147 LCW 12th -14th C 3 12th -14th C Outside moat: Fill of LCW-S 12th -14th C 1 natural hollow 148 LCW 12th-14th C 28 13th-14th C Outside moat: Fill of LCW-S 12th-14th C 1 drain C.167 Wexford Type 13th-14th C 3 Wexford Type Fine 13th-14th C 7 Ware Permalink: http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/e0471-carrowreagh-co-wexford/ 62
  • 69. 00E0471 Carrowreagh, Co. Wexford ISSUE 4: Eachtra Journal - ISSN 2009-2237 Context Type Date Sherds Date range 150 LCW 12th-14th C 7 13th-14th C Outside moat: Pottery LCW-S 12th-14th C 1 production spread Wexford Type 13th-14th C 1 Wexford Type Fine 13th-14th C 2 Ware Unidentified Purple 12th-14th C 3 153 LCW-N 12th-14th C 1 12th-14th C Within Moat: Cut of ditch 154 LCW 12th-14th C 1 12th-14th C Within Moat: Fill of drain C.161 155 LCW 12th-14th C 1 12th-14th C 158 LCW 12th-14th C 4 12th-14th C Within Moat: Spread LCW-N 12th-14th C 1 159 LCW 12th-14th C 1 13th-14th C Outside moat: Pottery LCW-S 12th-14th C 2 production spread Wexford Type 13th-14th C 3 Unidentified Purple 12th-14th C 4 Ware 160 LCW 12th-14th C 3 13th-14th C Within Moat: Spread Wexford Type 13th-14th C 2 162 LCW 12th-14th C 8 12th-14th C Outside moat: Fill of LCW-N 12th-14th C 1 ditch recut C.235 163 LCW 12th-14th C 31 13th-14th C Outside moat: Pottery LCW-N 12th-14th C 2 production spread LCW-S 12th-14th C 6 Wexford Type 13th-14th C 3 Wexford Type Fine 13th-14th C 5 Ware 165 LCW 12th-14th C 44 13th-14th C LCW-N 12th-14th C 3 LCW-S 12th-14th C 6 Wexford Type 13th-14th C 6 Wexford Type Fine 13th-14th C 21 Ware 167 LCW 12th-14th C 1 12th-14th C Permalink: http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/e0471-carrowreagh-co-wexford/ 63
  • 70. 00E0471 Carrowreagh, Co. Wexford ISSUE 4: Eachtra Journal - ISSN 2009-2237 Context Type Date Sherds Date range 168 LCW 12th-14th C 8 13th-14th C Outside moat: Pottery LCW-N 12th-14th C 1 production spread Wexford Type 13th-14th C 1 169 LCW 12th-14th C 17 13th-14th C Outside moat: Pottery LCW-S 12th-14th C 2 production spread Wexford Type 13th-14th C 4 Wexford Type Fine 13th-14th C 2 Ware 173 LCW 12th-14th C 1 12th-14th C 181 Wexford Type 13th-14th C 1 13th-14th C 183 LCW 12th-14th C 1 12th-14th C 187 Brown Glazed Red 18th-19th C 1 13th-19th C earthenware Outside moat: Fill of LCW 12th-14th C 1 drain C.167 Wexford Type 13th-14th C 1 190 LCW 12th-14th C 6 13th-14th C Within Moat: House LCW-N 12th-14th C 3 metalled surface LCW-S 12th-14th C 1 Wexford Type 13th-14th C 2 193 LCW 12th-14th C 1 12th-14th C In Moat: Fill of moat LCW-S 12th-14th C 2 recut C.555 195 LCW 12th-14th C 2 12th-14th C 198 LCW 12th-14th C 1 12th-14th C 202 LCW 12th-14th C 38 13th-14th C Outside moat: Fill of LCW-S 12th-14th C 1 furrow C.234 Wexford Type 13th-14th C 4 Wexford Type Fine 13th-14th C 2 Ware 203 LCW 12th-14th C 1 12th-14th C 204 LCW 12th-14th C 2 12th-14th C Outside moat: Spread Permalink: http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/e0471-carrowreagh-co-wexford/ 64
  • 71. 00E0471 Carrowreagh, Co. Wexford ISSUE 4: Eachtra Journal - ISSN 2009-2237 Context Type Date Sherds Date range 205 LCW 12th-14th C 35 13th-14th C Within Moat: Natural LCW-N 12th-14th C 1 silt spread LCW-S 12th-14th C 1 Wexford Type Fine 13th-14th C 1 Ware 206 LCW 12th-14th C 5 13th C Outside moat: Fill of possible Redcliffe 13th C 3 ditch C.271 207 Wexford Type 13th-14th C 1 13th-14th C Outside moat: Spread 210 LCW 12th-14th C 1 13th-14th C In moat: Lower fill of Wexford Type 13th-14th C 1 moat C.120 Wexford Type Fine 13th-14th C 1 Ware 211 LCW 12th-14th C 23 13th-14th C Outside moat: Fill of LCW-S 12th-14th C 2 drain C.289 Wexford Type 13th-14th C 4 Wexford Type Fine 13th-14th C 1 Ware 212 LCW 12th-14th C 1 12th-14th C LCW-S 12th-14th C 1 213 LCW 12th-14th C 32 13th-14th C Outside moat: Fill of LCW-N 12th-14th C 2 drain C.509 LCW-S 12th-14th C 1 Wexford Type 13th-14th C 12 Wexford Type Fine 13th-14th C 6 Ware Unidentified Purple 12th-14th C 1 Ware 215 LCW 12th-14th C 5 13th-14th C Outside moat: Within Wexford Type 13th-14th C 1 Moat: House destruction layer Wexford Type Fine 13th-14th C 1 Ware 219 LCW-N 12th-14th C 1 12th-14th C Outside moat: Fill of ditch C.271 220 LCW 12th-14th C 12 13th C Permalink: http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/e0471-carrowreagh-co-wexford/ 65
  • 72. 00E0471 Carrowreagh, Co. Wexford ISSUE 4: Eachtra Journal - ISSN 2009-2237 Context Type Date Sherds Date range Outside moat: Fill of LCW-S 12th-14th C 1 drain C.509 possible Redcliffe 13th C 1 Wexford Type Fine 13th-14th C 2 Ware 222 LCW 12th-14th C 2 12th-14th C Outside moat: Spread 223 LCW 12th-14th C 3 12th-14th C In Moat: Fill of moat C.120 224 LCW 12th-14th C 54 12th-14th C Outside moat: Fill of LCW-S 12th-14th C 6 ditch recut C.235 231 LCW 12th-14th C 3 13th-14th C Outside moat:Fill of LCW-S 12th-14th C 1 drain C.509 Wexford Type 13th-14th C 2 Wexford Type Fine 13th-14th C 1 Ware 234 LCW 12th-14th C 1 12th-14th C LCW-S 12th-14th C 1 237 LCW 12th-14th C 1 12th-14th C Outside moat:Fill of LCW-S 12th-14th C 1 drain C.509 239 LCW 12th-14th C 27 12th-14th C Outside moat:Spread LCW-N 12th-14th C 3 LCW-S 12th-14th C 3 240 Wexford Type 13th-14th C 1 13th-14th C 241 LCW 12th-14th C 219 m12th- e 13th C Within Moat: House LCW-N 12th-14th C 10 destruction layer LCW-S 12th-14th C 12 Possible Ham Green m12th- e 13th 15 Cooking Ware C Wexford Type 13th-14th C 2 Wexford Type Fine 13th-14th C 3 Ware 244 LCW 12th-14th C 6 13th-14th C Outside moat:Fill of Wexford Type 13th-14th C 3 drain C.289 Permalink: http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/e0471-carrowreagh-co-wexford/ 66
  • 73. 00E0471 Carrowreagh, Co. Wexford ISSUE 4: Eachtra Journal - ISSN 2009-2237 Context Type Date Sherds Date range 247 LCW 12th-14th C 1 12th-14th C Outside moat:Fill of LCW-S 12th-14th C 2 drain C.509 250 LCW 12th-14th C 3 12th-14th C Outside moat:Fill of LCW-N 12th-14th C 1 drain C.314 LCW-S 12th-14th C 1 254 LCW 12th-14th C 265 13th-14th C Outside moat:Fill of LCW-N 12th-14th C 4 ditch C.491 LCW-S 12th-14th C 20 Wexford Type 13th-14th C 8 Wexford Type Fine 13th-14th C 6 Ware 257 LCW 12th-14th C 1 12th-14th C 263 LCW 12th-14th C 1 12th-14th C 266 LCW-S 12th-14th C 1 12th-14th C Within Moat: Fill of pit C.287 267 LCW 12th-14th C 5 13th-14th C Wexford Type 13th-14th C 2 269 LCW 12th-14th C 12 12th-14th C Outside moat:Fill of LCW-N 12th-14th C 4 drain C.314 LCW-S 12th-14th C 2 271 LCW 12th-14th C 1 12th-14th C 276 LCW 12th-14th C 2 12th-14th C Within Moat: House floor layer 281 LCW 12th-14th C 3 12th-14th C Outside moat:Spread 283 LCW 12th-14th C 1 12th-14th C 285 LCW 12th-14th C 1 12th-14th C Outside moat:Spread LCW-S 12th-14th C 1 287 LCW 12th-14th C 1 12th-14th C 288 Wexford Type 13th-14th C 1 13th-14th C Outside moat:Spread Wexford Type Fine 13th-14th C 1 Ware Permalink: http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/e0471-carrowreagh-co-wexford/ 67
  • 74. 00E0471 Carrowreagh, Co. Wexford ISSUE 4: Eachtra Journal - ISSN 2009-2237 Context Type Date Sherds Date range 291 Wexford Type 13th-14th C 1 13th-14th C Outside moat:Pottery production spread 293 LCW 12th-14th C 16 12th-14th C Within Moat: House floor layer 295 LCW 12th-14th C 72 13th-14th C Outside moat:Fill of LCW-N 12th-14th C 2 ditch C.491 LCW-S 12th-14th C 8 Wexford Type 13th-14th C 4 296 LCW 12th-14th C 1 12th-14th C 297 LCW 12th-14th C 4 12th-14th C Within Moat: House LCW-N 12th-14th C 1 floor layer 298 LCW 12th-14th C 9 13th-14th C Outside moat: Spread Wexford Type 13th-14th C 2 308 LCW 12th-14th C 11 12th-14th C Within Moat: House floor layer 310 LCW 12th-14th C 2 13th-14th C Outside moat: Fill of Wexford Type 13th-14th C 1 drain C.509 311 LCW 12th-14th C 1 12th-14th C 314 LCW 12th-14th C 10 13th-14th C Outside moat: Stone LCW-N 12th-14th C 2 lined drain LCW-S 12th-14th C 3 Wexford Type 13th-14th C 4 317 LCW 12th-14th C 1 13th-14th C Outside moat: Fill of Wexford Type 13th-14th C 10 flue C.558 Wexford Type Fine 13th-14th C 1 Ware 318 LCW 12th-14th C 3 12th-14th C Outside moat: Pottery production spread 333 LCW 12th-14th C 17 12th-14th C Outside moat: Within LCW-S 12th-14th C 1 Moat: House floor Permalink: http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/e0471-carrowreagh-co-wexford/ 68
  • 75. 00E0471 Carrowreagh, Co. Wexford ISSUE 4: Eachtra Journal - ISSN 2009-2237 Context Type Date Sherds Date range layer 336 LCW 12th-14th C 1 12th-14th C Outside moat: Pottery production spread 342 LCW 12th-14th C 1 12th-14th C Outside moat: Within Moat: House destruction layer 351 LCW 12th-14th C 1 12th-14th C In Moat: Fill of moat 369 LCW 12th-14th C 6 12th-14th C Outside moat: Fill of LCW-S 12th-14th C 1 drain C.509 382 LCW 12th-14th C 10 13th-14th C LCW-S 12th-14th C 1 Wexford Type 13th-14th C 11 Wexford Type Fine 13th-14th C 2 Ware 387 LCW 12th-14th C 1 12th-14th C 392 LCW 12th-14th C 12 12th-14th C Outside moat: Fill of LCW-S 12th-14th C 1 drain C.517 396 Wexford Type 13th-14th C 1 13th-14th C Within Moat: Spread 415 LCW 12th-14th C 3 13th-14th C Wexford Type 13th-14th C 10 433 LCW 12th-14th C 11 12th-14th C Outside moat: Fill of LCW-N 12th-14th C 2 drain C.509 LCW-S 12th-14th C 1 436 LCW 12th-14th C 1 12th-14th C 454 LCW-S 12th-14th C 4 13th C In Moat: Fill of moat possible Redcliffe 13th C 1 C.120 Wexford Type 13th-14th C 29 467 LCW 12th-14th C 3 12th-14th C Outside moat: Fill of ditch C.492 471 LCW 12th-14th C 1 12th-14th C 474 Wexford Type 13th-14th C 2 13th-14th C Permalink: http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/e0471-carrowreagh-co-wexford/ 69
  • 76. 00E0471 Carrowreagh, Co. Wexford ISSUE 4: Eachtra Journal - ISSN 2009-2237 Context Type Date Sherds Date range Within Moat: House post depositional silting 476 LCW 12th-14th C 3 13th-14th C Within Moat: House Wexford Type 13th-14th C 1 metalled surface 495 LCW 12th-14th C 15 12th-14th C Within Moat: Spread 502 LCW 12th-14th C 4 13th-14th C Wexford Type Fine 13th-14th C 3 Ware 511 LCW 12th-14th C 3 12th-14th C Within Moat: House metalled surface 522 LCW 12th-14th C 3 13th-14th C Wexford Type Fine 13th-14th C 1 Ware 528 LCW 12th-14th C 1 12th-14th C 530 LCW 12th-14th C 4 13th-14th C LCW-S 12th-14th C 1 Wexford Type 13th-14th C 2 Wexford Type Fine 13th-14th C 2 Ware 570 LCW 12th-14th C 1 12th-14th C Permalink: http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/e0471-carrowreagh-co-wexford/ 70
  • 77. 00E0471 Carrowreagh, Co. Wexford ISSUE 4: Eachtra Journal - ISSN 2009-2237 Bibliography Blake, H. and Davey, P. (eds) 1983. Guidelines for the processing and publication of medieval pottery from excavations. London. Department of the Environment. Bosworth, J. 1982. Towards a wider view of pottery production- A potter comments on some archaeological reports. In Medieval Ceramics 6. Medieval Pottery Research Group. Breen, T. 1987. Excavation of ‘Brecaun Church’, County Wexford. Unpublished typescript report. Campbell, Kieran. 78 Bridge Street, Dundalk. Medieval Pottery Kiln. [Internet] Available from:http://www.excavations.ie/Pages/Details.php?Year=1997&County=Louth&id=3899 (Assessed 31-07-06) Delaney, T. (ed). 1970-77. Summary Reports of Archaeological Excavations in Ireland. Belfast. De Paor, L. 1962. ‘Excavations at Ballyloughan Castle, County Carlow’. Journal Royal Society of Antiquaries Ireland 92, 1-14. Doyle, N. 2004. An analysis of Drogheda Ware and its origins. Unpublished MA thesis. University College Cork. Gahan, A. and McCutcheon, C. 1997. Gahan, A. and McCutcheon, C. 1997. Medieval Pottery. In Hurley, M., Scully, O. and McCutcheon, S. (eds.) Late Viking Age and Medieval Waterford. Excavations 1986-1992. Waterford Corporation. McCutcheon, C. 1995 Medieval Pottery. In Simpson, L. Excavations at Essex Street West, Dublin. Brookfield Printing Co. Ireland. McCutcheon, C. 2006. Medieval Pottery from Wood Quay, Dublin: The 1974-6 Waterfront Excavations. Royal Irish Academy. Dublin 2006. Medieval Pottery Research Group. 1998. A guide to the classification of medieval ceramic forms. MPRG, BAS printers Moore, S. 1984. Irish Cresset Stones. Journal of the Royal Society of Antiquaries of Ireland. Volume 114, 98-116. Musty, J. 1974. Medieval pottery kilns. In Medieval pottery from excavations: studies presented to Gerald Clough Dunning, with a bibliography of his works, 44-65. London. J. Baker O’Floinn, R. 1988. Handmade Medieval Pottery In S.E. Ireland- ‘ Leinster Cooking Ware’ in KEIMELIA Studies in Medieval Archaeology and History in Memory of Tom Delaney. Galway University Press. Officina Typographica. O’Kelly, M. J., Lynch, A. and Cahill, M. 1975. Archaeological Survey and Excavation of St. Vogue’s Church, Enclosure and other Monuments at Carnsore, Co. Wexford.. Dublin. Pollock, A.J. and Waterman, D.M. 1963 A medieval pottery kiln in Downpatrick. Ulster Journal of Archaeology 21, 79–104. Simpson, M.L., Bryan, P.S., Delaney, T.G. and Dickson, A. 1979 An early thirteenth-century double-flued pottery kiln at Carrickfergus, Co. Antrim: an interim report. Medieval Ceramics 3, 41–51 Sweetman, P.D. 1979. Archaeological Excavations at Ferns Castle, County Wexford. Proceedings Royal Irish Academy. 79C, 217-245. Permalink: http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/e0471-carrowreagh-co-wexford/ 71
  • 78. 00E0471 Carrowreagh, Co. Wexford ISSUE 4: Eachtra Journal - ISSN 2009-2237 15.4 Appendix 4: Radiocarbon Dates Appendix 4: Radiocarbon Dates, Carrowreagh, Co. Wexford (00E0471) Radiocarbon results from Beta Analytic Inc 13C/ Charcoal Lab Radiocarbon 2 Sigma Context Sample 12C Identification code Age Calibration ratio Diffuse porous (Alnus/Salix/Populus Beta -25.6 cal AD 168 293 /Betula/Corylus/ 21913 570 +/- 50BP o/oo 1300-1430 Prunus/Ilex/ 5 Pomoideae) Diffuse porous (Alnus/Salix/Populus Beta -25.9 580 +/- 40 cal AD 241 263 /Betula/Corylus/ 21912 o/oo BP 1300-1420 Prunus/Ilex/ 3 Pomoideae) Diffuse porous (Alnus/Salix/Populus Beta -24.0 510 +/- 40 cal AD 368 417 /Betula/Corylus/ 21912 o/oo BP 1400-1450 Prunus/Ilex/ 4 Pomoideae) Diffuse porous (Alnus/Salix/Populus Beta -25.4 560 +/- 40 cal AD 440 475 /Betula/Corylus/ 21912 o/oo BP 1300-1430 Prunus/Ilex/ 5 Pomoideae) Diffuse porous (Alnus/Salix/Populus Beta -25.8 630 +/- 40 cal AD 454 515 /Betula/Corylus/ 21912 o/oo BP 1290-1410 Prunus/Ilex/ 6 Pomoideae) Permalink: http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/e0471-carrowreagh-co-wexford/ 72
  • 79. 00E0471 Carrowreagh, Co. Wexford ISSUE 4: Eachtra Journal - ISSN 2009-2237 C A LIB RA TION O F R AD IOC AR B O N A GE TO C ALE N D A R Y E A R S ( Va riable s: C13/C12=-25.6:lab. mult=1) La bor ato ry num be r: Bet a-2191 35 Convent io nal radioc arb on age: 570± 50 BP 2 S igma c alib r ate d resu lt: Cal AD 1300 t o 143 0 ( Cal BP 650 t o 520 ) (95% p rob ab ility) In te rc ep t da ta Inter ce pt of r adioc ar bon age with c alibr ation cur ve: Cal AD 1400 (Ca l BP 55 0) 1 S igma ca libra ted re sults: Cal AD 1310 to 1360 (Cal BP 640 to 5 90) and (68% pr oba bility) Cal AD 1390 to 1420 (Cal BP 560 to 5 30) 5 7 0 ± 50 B P C h ar re d m a te ri al 75 0 70 0 65 0 60 0 Radiocarbon age (BP) 55 0 50 0 45 0 40 0 35 0 1260 1280 13 0 0 13 2 0 13 4 0 13 6 0 1 38 0 1 40 0 1 42 0 1 44 0 Cal A D Re fe re nce s: Database u sed I NTC AL 98 Calibration D atabase Editorial Com m ent Stui ver, M., v an de r Pl icht, H ., 1998, R adi oc arbon 40( 3) , pxii -xi ii INT CAL 98 Radiocarbon Age C al ibration Stui ver, M., e t. al., 1998, R adiocarbon 40( 3), p1041-1083 M athe m atics A Sim pl ifi ed App roac h to Calibratin g C14 D ates T alma, A . S., V ogel, J . C., 1993, R adiocarbon 35( 2), p317-322 B e ta Ana lytic R adio ca rbo n D atin g La bor atory 4 98 5 S.W . 7 4th Co ur t, M iam i, Flor id a 33 15 5 • T el: (3 05 )66 7- 51 67 • F ax: (3 05 )6 63 -09 64 • E-M ail: b eta@ r a dio car bo n.co m Permalink: http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/e0471-carrowreagh-co-wexford/ 73
  • 80. 00E0471 Carrowreagh, Co. Wexford ISSUE 4: Eachtra Journal - ISSN 2009-2237 C A LIB R AT IO N O F R A D IO C A R B O N A G E T O C AL EN D AR Y EA R S (Variables: C1 3/C12=-25.9:lab. m ult=1) La borato ry num ber: Beta-219 123 C onventio nal radio ca rbon ag e: 580 ±40 BP 2 Sigm a calibra ted result: Ca l A D 1 300 to 1 420 (Ca l BP 6 50 to 5 30) (95% pro ba bility) In tercept data Intercep t of radiocarbo n age w ith calibratio n cu rve: Cal A D 14 00 (Cal BP 5 50) 1 Sigm a calibrated resu lts: Cal A D 13 10 to 136 0 (Cal BP 64 0 to 5 90) and (68% probability) Cal A D 13 90 to 141 0 (Cal BP 56 0 to 5 40) 5 8 0 ± 40 B P C h a rre d m a te ri a l 720 700 680 660 640 620 Radiocarbon age (BP) 600 580 560 540 520 500 480 460 440 1280 1290 1 30 0 1310 1320 1330 1340 13 5 0 1360 1370 13 8 0 1390 1400 1 41 0 1420 1430 Cal A D References: D atabase use d I NT CA L98 Cal ibration D atabase Edi torial C omme nt Stui ve r, M., v an der P l icht, H ., 1998, R adioc arbon 40( 3), px ii- xi ii IN T CAL 98 Radi ocarbon Age Calibrat ion Stui ve r, M., e t. al., 1998, R adi ocarbon 40( 3), p1041 -1083 M ath em atic s A S impl ifi ed App roach to Cali bratin g C14 D ates T alm a, A. S., Voge l, J . C., 1993, R adioc arbon 35(2) , p317- 322 B e ta A n a ly tic R a d ioc a rb o n D a ting La b or ato ry 4 98 5 S .W . 7 4th Co u rt, M ia m i, F lor id a 33 1 55 • T el: (3 0 5) 66 7- 51 67 • Fa x: ( 30 5) 66 3 -09 6 4 • E -M ail: beta @r a dio ca r bo n.co m Permalink: http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/e0471-carrowreagh-co-wexford/ 74
  • 81. 00E0471 Carrowreagh, Co. Wexford ISSUE 4: Eachtra Journal - ISSN 2009-2237 C A LIB R AT IO N O F R A D IO C A R B O N A G E T O C AL EN D AR Y EA R S (Variables: C1 3/C12=-24:lab. mult=1) La borato ry num ber: Beta-219 124 C onventio nal radio ca rbon ag e: 510 ±40 BP 2 Sigm a calibra ted result: Ca l A D 1 400 to 1 450 (Ca l BP 5 50 to 5 00) (95% pro ba bility) In tercept data Intercep t of radiocarbo n age w ith calibratio n cu rve: Cal A D 14 20 (Cal BP 5 30) 1 Sigm a calibrated resu lt: Cal A D 14 10 to 143 0 (Cal BP 54 0 to 5 20) (68% probability) 5 1 0 ± 40 B P C h a rre d m a te ri a l 640 620 600 580 560 540 Radiocarbon age (BP) 520 500 480 460 440 420 400 380 360 1390 1395 1 4 00 1405 14 1 0 1415 1420 1 4 25 1430 14 3 5 1440 1445 1450 Cal A D References: D atabase use d I NT CA L98 Cal ibration D atabase Edi torial C omme nt Stui ve r, M., v an der P l icht, H ., 1998, R adioc arbon 40( 3), px ii- xi ii IN T CAL 98 Radi ocarbon Age Calibrat ion Stui ve r, M., e t. al., 1998, R adi ocarbon 40( 3), p1041 -1083 M ath em atic s A S impl ifi ed App roach to Cali bratin g C14 D ates T alm a, A. S., Voge l, J . C., 1993, R adioc arbon 35(2) , p317- 322 B e ta A n a ly tic R a d ioc a rb o n D a ting La b or ato ry 4 98 5 S .W . 7 4th Co u rt, M ia m i, F lor id a 33 1 55 • T el: (3 0 5) 66 7- 51 67 • Fa x: ( 30 5) 66 3 -09 6 4 • E -M ail: beta @r a dio ca r bo n.co m Permalink: http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/e0471-carrowreagh-co-wexford/ 75
  • 82. 00E0471 Carrowreagh, Co. Wexford ISSUE 4: Eachtra Journal - ISSN 2009-2237 C A LIB R AT IO N O F R A D IO C A R B O N A G E T O C AL EN D AR Y EA R S (Variables: C1 3/C12=-25.4:lab. m ult=1) La borato ry num ber: Beta-219 125 C onventio nal radio ca rbon ag e: 560 ±40 BP 2 Sigm a calibra ted result: Ca l A D 1 300 to 1 430 (Ca l BP 6 40 to 5 20) (95% pro ba bility) In tercept data Intercep t of radiocarbo n age w ith calibratio n cu rve: Cal A D 14 10 (Cal BP 5 40) 1 Sigm a calibrated resu lts: Cal A D 13 20 to 134 0 (Cal BP 63 0 to 6 00) and (68% probability) Cal A D 13 90 to 142 0 (Cal BP 56 0 to 5 30) 5 6 0 ± 40 B P C h a rre d m a te ri a l 700 680 660 640 620 600 Radiocarbon age (BP) 580 560 540 520 500 480 460 440 420 1290 1300 1 31 0 1320 1330 1340 1350 13 6 0 1370 1380 13 9 0 1400 1410 1 42 0 1430 1440 Cal A D References: D atabase use d I NT CA L98 Cal ibration D atabase Edi torial C omme nt Stui ve r, M., v an der P l icht, H ., 1998, R adioc arbon 40( 3), px ii- xi ii IN T CAL 98 Radi ocarbon Age Calibrat ion Stui ve r, M., e t. al., 1998, R adi ocarbon 40( 3), p1041 -1083 M ath em atic s A S impl ifi ed App roach to Cali bratin g C14 D ates T alm a, A. S., Voge l, J . C., 1993, R adioc arbon 35(2) , p317- 322 B e ta A n a ly tic R a d ioc a rb o n D a ting La b or ato ry 4 98 5 S .W . 7 4th Co u rt, M ia m i, F lor id a 33 1 55 • T el: (3 0 5) 66 7- 51 67 • Fa x: ( 30 5) 66 3 -09 6 4 • E -M ail: beta @r a dio ca r bo n.co m Permalink: http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/e0471-carrowreagh-co-wexford/ 76
  • 83. 00E0471 Carrowreagh, Co. Wexford ISSUE 4: Eachtra Journal - ISSN 2009-2237 C A LIB R AT IO N O F R A D IO C A R B O N A G E T O C AL EN D AR Y EA R S (Variables: C1 3/C12=-25.8:lab. m ult=1) La borato ry num ber: Beta-219 126 C onventio nal radio ca rbon ag e: 630 ±40 BP 2 Sigm a calibra ted result: Ca l A D 1 290 to 1 410 (Ca l BP 6 60 to 5 40) (95% pro ba bility) In tercept data Intercep ts o f radiocarbo n ag e w ith calibratio n cu rve: Cal A D 13 10 (Cal BP 6 40) and Cal A D 13 70 (Cal BP 5 80) and Cal A D 13 80 (Cal BP 5 70) 1 Sigm a calibrated resu lt: Cal A D 13 00 to 140 0 (Cal BP 65 0 to 5 50) (68% probability) 6 3 0 ± 40 B P C h a rre d m a te ri a l 760 740 720 700 680 660 Radiocarbon age (BP) 640 620 600 580 560 540 520 500 480 1270 1280 1290 1300 13 1 0 1 3 20 1330 1340 1350 1360 1 37 0 1 3 80 1390 1400 1410 Cal A D References: D atabase use d I NT CA L98 Cal ibration D atabase Edi torial C omme nt Stui ve r, M., v an der P l icht, H ., 1998, R adioc arbon 40( 3), px ii- xi ii IN T CAL 98 Radi ocarbon Age Calibrat ion Stui ve r, M., e t. al., 1998, R adi ocarbon 40( 3), p1041 -1083 M ath em atic s A S impl ifi ed App roach to Cali bratin g C14 D ates T alm a, A. S., Voge l, J . C., 1993, R adioc arbon 35(2) , p317- 322 B e ta A n a ly tic R a d ioc a rb o n D a ting La b or ato ry 4 98 5 S .W . 7 4th Co u rt, M ia m i, F lor id a 33 1 55 • T el: (3 0 5) 66 7- 51 67 • Fa x: ( 30 5) 66 3 -09 6 4 • E -M ail: beta @r a dio ca r bo n.co m Permalink: http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/e0471-carrowreagh-co-wexford/ 77
  • 84. 00E0471 Carrowreagh, Co. Wexford ISSUE 4: Eachtra Journal - ISSN 2009-2237 15.5 Appendix 5: Catalogue of bone from Carrowreagh Bone identified by Margaret McCarthy. Context Provenance Description 0 (topsoil) Surface find Tooth, probably cow 120 Moat Long bone fragment from large mammal 241 Burnt destruction layer in house Burnt small bone fragments, probably sheep Permalink: http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/e0471-carrowreagh-co-wexford/ 78
  • 85. 00E0471 Carrowreagh, Co. Wexford ISSUE 4: Eachtra Journal - ISSN 2009-2237 15.6 Appendix 6: Charred plant remains from Carrowreagh By Penny Johnston and Martha Tierney 1. Introduction This report details the analysis of charred seeds and plant remains from samples taken during excavations of a moated site at Carrowreagh, Co. Wexford (licence no. 00E0471). Oat and wheat were the main cereal crops discovered and the assemblage was comparable to results obtained from archaeobotanical analysis of many other plant remains samples dated to the later medieval period. 2. Methodology The samples with charred plant remains were processed using a simple flotation method. Each sample was saturated in water to allow carbonised plant material to float; this “flot” (the floating material) was then poured into a stack of geological sieves and trapped in the sieve meshes (the smallest measured 250μm). When all the carbonised material was collected the flot was then air- dried prior to storage in airtight plastic bags. Sorting and identification of material from the suitable flots was carried out using the same low-powered binocular microscope and identified seeds were separated and stored in sealed glass phials. The results of scanning each sample are presented in Table 1 and the identified plant remains are listed in Table 2; both tables are found at the end of this report. Taxonomic order and nomenclature follows Stace (1997) with scientific names confined to the identification tables at the end of this report in order to facilitate easy reading of the text. 3. Results One hundred and fifty-seven samples were sieved and then scanned under magnification (results of this process are presented in Table 1). Of these, fourteen samples were rich in plant remains (i.e. the samples contained more than forty-five cereal grains and were therefore identified as cache deposits). The percentage breakdown of the entire cereal assemblage is plotted in Figure 1; the low proportion of indeterminate cereal grains indicates that the preservation quality in the assemblage was high. The results below discuss the general impression obtained from the richest samples found at the site and the results of cereal identification are plotted in a comparative column graph in Figure 2. C.157 (S.144) was taken from one of the destruction layers within the medieval house. It contained a large percentage of oat grains, a small amount of wheat and a small proportion of grains that could not be identified to species or genus (labelled as “indeterminate cereal grains”). There were very few weed seeds in this sample but the identifiable remains were mainly members of the daisy family, including a few seeds that were probably from the Corn marigold, a pernicious weed of the grain field until the widespread introduction of weed killer. It is very common in late medieval grain samples. C.196 (S.198) was also taken from the destruction layer of the house and its composition was similar to most of the samples from this site, with a large proportion of oat grains and only a small percentage of indeterminate grains. The weed seeds from this sample included seeds from the Knotgrass family, Wild radish capsules and seeds of the Corn marigold. C.199 (S.194) was taken from the destruction layer of the house within the moat. The crop remains were predominantly oats with small amounts of wheat included. The main weed types were from grasses that were probably collected with the cereal crop. C.205 (S.201) was taken from a spread within the house and plant material was found in these deposits in very high quantities. The cereal assemblage, once again, was mostly of oat, with small Permalink: http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/e0471-carrowreagh-co-wexford/ 79
  • 86. 00E0471 Carrowreagh, Co. Wexford ISSUE 4: Eachtra Journal - ISSN 2009-2237 amounts of wheat and a small proportion of unidentifiable cereal grains. The weed assemblage contained the remains of Plantains, Knotgrass seeds, Wild radish and Corn marigold. These are all plants that are associated with arable agriculture. C.216 (S.214) was taken from a deposit within the house. It contained oats in moderate-frequent quantities, small amounts of wheat and several linseed/flax seeds. Their presence here is either as a weed of the crop (as plants from this genus tend to grow in grassy places) or, more likely as its presence is restricted to only a handful of samples, it is a deliberate inclusion in the grains samples. The seeds from linseed are commonly included in breads today and they may also have been used as flavouring in the past. The recovery of the seeds is not indicative of linen production, as flax harvested for textiles is usually gathered when the seed is very immature and therefore it is not suitable for good preservation by charring. C.241 (S.263 a and b) was very different to all of the preceding samples; the cereal assemblage contained only a small percentage of oat grains and wheat, in particular free-threshing wheats such as bread wheat, was present in comparatively large amounts. Once again, the preservation in this sample was good. The weed assemblage was predominantly made up of seeds from common arable weeds such as Knotgrasses and Corn marigold. This sample differed from many of the other rich grain samples because it did not contain the seed capsules of Wild radish and their was a relatively high presence of linseed/flax seeds. Two samples were taken from the fills of a pit excavated within the house (C.287). These were C.243 (S.253) and C.249 (S.258). In both samples the plant remains were predominantly from oats. C.270 (S.295) was taken from the fill of a posthole within the house. It contained a large percentage of oat grains, very few other cereal grains, and only a handful of weed seeds. These results indicate that it was similar to the other deposit found in the house (apart from those within the destruction layer C.241). C.286 (S.324) was taken from a destruction layer within the house. It was rich in the remains of oats, with small amounts of wheat grains and weed seeds. C293 (S.331) was taken from one of the house layers and the cereal assemblage was made up of oat grains. Only a small percentage of indeterminate grains was present in this sample indicating that the preservation quality was high. The weed seed assemblage taken from this deposit was very large, it was especially dominated by the seeds of Corn marigold, with a few seeds from the dandelion-like Nipplewort also present, as well as several Wild radish capsules. C.308 (S.348) was taken from a house floor layer and the assemblage contained a large amount of oat grains, some cereal grains that could not be identified to type and many weed seeds, again these were mostly from the Corn marigold and Wild radish, seeds from the Knotgrass family and some plantains. All of these weed seeds are common in arable fields and they were probably all brought to the site with the crops that were stored in the house. C.333 (S.348) was taken from a destruction layer within the house. It contained very large amounts of oat grains, with the most common weed seeds including Corn marigold and Wild radish. These were probably collected as weeds of the grain field. Permalink: http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/e0471-carrowreagh-co-wexford/ 80
  • 87. 00E0471 Carrowreagh, Co. Wexford ISSUE 4: Eachtra Journal - ISSN 2009-2237 4. Discussion These seed-rich deposits from the house at Carrowreagh were probably from stored caches of grain that became carbonized in the fire that burnt the house. The crops may have hung from sacks or baskets on the posts or the rafters of the house, or even may have been kept in ceramic storage jars. When relative proportions of cereals from Carrowreagh were examined, oats accounted for 88% of the entire identifiable cereal assemblage, with wheat making up the remaining 12% (Figure 3). Comparative assemblages of plant remains taken from moated sites include the remains from a corn-drying kiln located immediately outside a potential moated site at Kilferagh, Co. Kilkenny, where the complete range of cereal and pulse crops (wheat, oats, barley, rye, peas and beans) known from Ireland were found (Monk 1987a). More readily comparable were the plant remains from the moated site at Ballyveelish 1, Co. Tipperary, where the charred seeds were all associated with the structures excavated at the site and oats and bread wheat were present in almost equal quantities (Monk 1987b). At Carrowreagh oats were much more common than at Ballyveelsih. Most of the wheat grains were from free-threshing varieties (c. 60%). Identification of archaeological wheat specimens is complicated by the wide range of closely related wheat species that have evolved over several millennia of human selection and hybridisation (Hillman et al., 1995). As a result, they can be difficult to classify in the absence of clearly identifiable chaff fragments (none of these were recovered in the Carrowreagh samples). However, it is most likely that bread wheat was the type of wheat found at Carrowreagh. Of the myriad of wheat varieties available, this produces the highest quality bread flour. The predominance of oats is very common in medieval archaeobotanical samples from outside the Pale. Within the counties of Dublin and Meath and the immediate surrounding areas wheat is the predominant cereal type recovered in deposits that date to the twelfth century and afterwards. Historical sources indicating preferences for wheat or oats based on socio-economic or ethnic factors can influence, and perhaps skew the way cereal assemblages are interpreted. For example, wheat was the standard food crop in the area of the Pale in the middle ages but the native Irish tended to eat oats (Nicholls, 2003; 133) and there are suggestions that choice of food (oat or wheat) was used as a badge of tribal or cultural identity (e.g. McClatchie, 2003; 398.), with wheat interpreted as the English choice. In this scenario wheat should have been chosen as a predominant food crop at Carrowreagh, given the origins of this settlement within the context of secondary Anglo-Norman colonization. On the other hand, choice of grain crop could have been dependent on socio-economic status, as textual sources from the early medieval period to post-medieval times indicate that oats were considered the food of the poor (Kelly 1998; Clarkson and Crawford 2001, 78-79). In contrast, wheat had a high value; several early Irish texts attach a higher value to bread wheat than any other cereal (Kelly, 1998; 219-220). This is common across Europe in the historic period, and reflects the prized whiteness of wheat flour and the high gluten content in bread wheat which produces a light white loaf (Davidson 1999, 844). In this scenario the predominance of oats in the Carrowreagh samples might be said to represent site occupants of relatively low social status (following models by Fredengren et al. 2004) and it lends credence to the suggestion that some Irish moated site were the homes of free tenants rather than the Anglo-Norman gentry (O’Conor 1998, 61). The interpretation is somewhat reductive as the results of cereal analysis are used out of context. During the thirteenth century the Anglo-Norman colony in Ireland produced a surplus of grain for export (Feehan 2003, 73) and its agricultural surplus was freely drawn upon by the English crown in order to fund its military campaigns (O’Keefe 2000, 80). Texts indicate that both wheat and oats were in demand (Ibid.) and production centres, such as moated sites, needed to be able to store as well as grow this produce. Traditionally these Anglo-Norman production centres have been envisaged as sites with multiple farm buildings (e.g. Feehan 2003, 77) but, within the tradition of smaller medieval farmsteads (where byre and house were accommodated under the same roof) it is possible that the grain storage area in the Carrowreagh house was located within the roof. If this is Permalink: http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/e0471-carrowreagh-co-wexford/ 81
  • 88. 00E0471 Carrowreagh, Co. Wexford ISSUE 4: Eachtra Journal - ISSN 2009-2237 the case, the grain that was carbonized at this house was not merely for consumption by the inhabitants of the site, but may also have been prepared for export or as tribute and is therefore not an accurate gauge of the socio-economic status of the site residents. 5. Non-Technical Summary The rich plant remains samples taken from the moated site excavated at Carrowreagh, Co. Wexford were all taken from deposits within the house. These were probably derived from stored cereal caches that became carbonised when the structure burnt down. Although oats were the predominant crop in the samples, there is evidence that wheat, particularly bread wheat, was also an important crop. Penny Johnston 10 August 2006 6. References Clarkson, L.A. and Crawford, E.M. 2001. Feast and Famine: Food and Nutrition in Ireland 1500-1920. Oxford, Oxford University Press. Davidson, A. 1999. The Oxford Companion to Food. Oxford, Oxford University Press. Feehan, J. 2003. Farming in Ireland, History, Heritage and Environment. Dublin, University College Dublin Faculty of Agriculture. Fredengren, C., McClatchie, M. and Stuijts, I. 2004 Connections and distance: investigating social and agricultural issues relating to early medieval crannogs in Ireland, Environmental Archaeology 9 (2), 173-178. Hillman, G. C., Mason, S., de Moulins, D. and Nesbitt, M. 1995. Identification of archaeological remains of wheat: the 1992 London workshop, Circaea 12 (2), 195-209. Kelly, F. 1998 Early Irish Farming (2nd impression) Dublin: Institute for Advanced Studies. McClatchie, M. 2003. Section 12- The plant remains, pp. 391-413 in Cleary, R.M. and Hurley, M.F. (eds.) Cork City Excavations 1984-2000 Cork: Cork City Council. Monk, 1987a. Appendix II Charred seeds and plant remains from Kilferagh, Co. Kilkenny, pp. 98-99 in Cleary, R.M. Hurley, M.F. and Twohig E.A. (eds.) Archaeological Excavations on the Cork-Dublin Gas Pipeline (1981-82). Cork, Department of Archaeology. Monk, 1987b. Appendix IV Charred plant remains from Ballyveelish 1, Co. Tipperary, pp.86-87 in Cleary, R.M. Hurley, M.F. and Twohig E.A. (eds.) Archaeological Excavations on the Cork-Dublin Gas Pipeline (1981-82). Cork, Department of Archaeology. Nicholls, K. 2003. Gaelic and Gaelicized Ireland in the Middle Ages. (2nd edition) Dublin: Lilliput Press. O’ Conor, K.D. 1998. The Archaeology of Medieval Rural Settlement in Ireland. Discovery Programme Monograph 3, Royal Irish Academy. O’Keefe, T. 2000. Medieval Ireland, An Archaeology. Tempus Publishing, England. Stace, C. A. 1997 New Flora of the British Isles (2nd edition) Cambridge, Cambridge University Press. Permalink: http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/e0471-carrowreagh-co-wexford/ 82
  • 89. 00E0471 Carrowreagh, Co. Wexford ISSUE 4: Eachtra Journal - ISSN 2009-2237 Figure 1: Percentage cereal distribution in sam ples from Carrow reagh, Co. Wexford (00E0471) Indeterminate cereal grains Wheat 8% 11% Oat 81% Figure 2: Percentage cereal distribution in the richest sam ples from Carrow reagh, Co. Wexford (00E0471) 100% 80% 60% 40% 20% 0% 157 196 199 205 216 241 241 243 249 270 286 293 308 333 Contexts Oat Wheat Indeterminate cereal grains Figure 3: Percenatege cereal distribution of identifiable cereals from Carrow reagh, Co. Wexford (00E0471) Wheat 12% Oat 88% Permalink: http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/e0471-carrowreagh-co-wexford/ 83
  • 90. 00E0471 Carrowreagh, Co. Wexford ISSUE 4: Eachtra Journal - ISSN 2009-2237 Table 1: Results of scanning samples Context Sample Charred Content 104 104 no seeds 105 105 no seeds 110 109 no seeds 115 111 no seeds 119 132 rare 124 115 no seeds 126 139 rare 127 140 abundant 128 141 rare 129 142 rare 129 173 no seeds 130 145 occasional 131 118 rare 133 149 no seeds 142 146 rare 146 147 rare 150 134 no seeds 154 140 no seeds 155 152 no seeds 157 144 frequent 160 172 occasional/frequent 166 150 no seeds 166 432 no seeds 166 432 no seeds 168 293 no seeds 173 186 no seeds 174 154 no seeds 175 158 no seeds 176 161 no seeds 179 165 rare-occasional 182 168 no seeds 185 171 no seeds 193 192 rare 193 197 rare 194 199 abundant 196 198 abundant 200 195 frequent 205 201 frequent 206 210 no seeds 209 210 no seeds 210 523 no seeds 213 215 occasional/freq 216 214 occasional-frequent 223 237 no seeds 226 220 rare 228 238 no seeds 229 240 no seeds 230 241 no seeds 231 247 rare 232 285 rare 234 224 no seeds 241 263 frequent Permalink: http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/e0471-carrowreagh-co-wexford/ 84
  • 91. 00E0471 Carrowreagh, Co. Wexford ISSUE 4: Eachtra Journal - ISSN 2009-2237 Table 1: Results of scanning samples Context Sample Charred Content 244 233 rare 245 236 occasional 245 255 no seeds 246 264 no seeds 249 258 abundant 250 259 no seeds 251 261 no seeds 251 325 no seeds 253 243 abundant 254 576 no seeds 257 273 no seeds 259 275 no seeds 261 277 no seeds 262 252 no seeds 263 241 abundant 263 279 no seeds 265 242 no seeds 266 248 rare 267 284 no seeds 268 244 rare 270 295 frequent 271 255 no seeds 272 296 no seeds 273 300 no seeds 273 305 no seeds 274 258 no seeds 276 260 no seeds 278 262 no seeds 280 317 no seeds 281 253 rare 282 319 no seeds 283 266 rare 286 324 frequent 290 326 no seeds 293 331 abundant 294 333 occasional 297 239 no seeds 300 344 no seeds 306 347 no seeds 312 352 rare 315 356 no seeds 317 358 no seeds 320 283 rare 329 391 rare 334 379 rare-occasional 335 380 no seeds 337 383 no seeds 339 297 abundant 341 390 no seeds 342 391 occasional 345 301 freq/abundant 348 308 frequent Permalink: http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/e0471-carrowreagh-co-wexford/ 85
  • 92. 00E0471 Carrowreagh, Co. Wexford ISSUE 4: Eachtra Journal - ISSN 2009-2237 Table 1: Results of scanning samples Context Sample Charred Content 348 333 superabundant 351 311 occasional 356 405 no seeds 358 407 no seeds 359 408 no seeds 360 409 no seeds 361 410 no seeds 362 411 no seeds 363 319 rare 363 412 no seeds 364 413 no seeds 366 415 no seeds 367 416 no seeds 368 417 occasional 370 448 no seeds 375 434 no seeds 380 436 occasional 392 445 no seeds 406 465 no seeds 411 362 rare 414 454 rare 423 378 rare 440 475 no seeds 451 485 no seeds 459 433 no seeds 463 502 no seeds 467 498 no seeds 469 500 rare-occasional 470 439 rare 476 545 no seeds 478 509 no seeds 479 531 rare 483 442 no seeds 487 520 rare 490 527 no seeds 501 535 no seeds 502 536 frequent 505 538 no seeds 513 483 rare 516 553 rare 518 554 no seeds 518 559 no seeds 522 560 no seeds 522 566 no seeds 523 561 no seeds 525 564 no seeds 528 567 rare 529 568 no seeds 530 475 no seeds 532 571 no seeds 534 577 no seeds 537 503 no seeds Permalink: http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/e0471-carrowreagh-co-wexford/ 86
  • 93. 00E0471 Carrowreagh, Co. Wexford ISSUE 4: Eachtra Journal - ISSN 2009-2237 Table 1: Results of scanning samples Context Sample Charred Content 539 506 frequent 542 295 rare 565 523 no seeds 579 528 rare Permalink: http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/e0471-carrowreagh-co-wexford/ 87
  • 94. 00E0471 Table 2: Identified plant remains from Carrowreagh, Co. Wexford (00E0471) Context 131 140 157 179 193 196 199 200 205 216 231 241 Sample 118 127 144 165 192 198 194 195 201 214 247 263 Indeterminate seeds from the goosefoot family (Chenopodiaceae) 1 Corn Spurrey (Spergula arvensis L.) 2 Probable Sheep's sorrel (Rumex cf acetosella L.) 1 Indeterminate seeds from the Knotgrass family (Polygonaceae) 1 1 4 1 Wild radish (Raphanus raphanistrum L.) capsule 1 3 1 2 Bramble: blackberry drubes (Rubus fructicosus L.) Carrowreagh, Co. Wexford Pea (Pisum species) Indeterminate seeds from the Legume family (Fabaceae) 1 1 1 Linseed/Flax (Linum L. species) 9 37 Hemp-nettle (Galeopsis L. species) Plantain (Plantago L. species) 2 1 Cleavers (Galium aparine L.) Nipplewort (Lapsana communis L.) 2 Probable Corn Marigold (Chrysanthemum cf segetum L.) 3 3 3 24 2 14 Permalink: http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/e0471-carrowreagh-co-wexford/ Indeterminate seeds from the daisy family (Asteraceae) 1 1 Indeterminate seeds from the sedge family (Cyperaceae) 2 Oat grains (Avena L. species) 30 64 6 3 90 95 30 359 39 3 21 Possible oat grains (cf Avena species) Probable Emmer wheat (Triticum cf dicoccum L.) one seeded grain Free threshing wheat (Triticum aestivum L./turgidum Desf./durum L.) 12 37 Probable free threshing wheat (Triticum cf aestivum L./turgidum Desf./durum L.) 1 3 29 Rachis internode free threshing wheat (Triticum aestivum L./turgidum Desf./durum L.) Wheat grains (Triticum L. species) 1 1 12 4 63 Indeterminate cereal grains 1 7 2 2 1 11 7 22 2 20 Annual rye-grass (Poa annua L.) 1 Indeterminate grass seeds (Poaceae) 1 6 7 30 1 Indeterminate weed seeds 5 3 2 Straw culm nodes 1 ISSUE 4: Eachtra Journal - ISSN 2009-2237 88
  • 95. 00E0471 Table 2: Identified plant remains from Carrowreagh, Co. Wexford (00E0471) Context 241 243 249 270 286 293 294 297 301 308 312 333 Sample 273 253 258 295 324 331 333 329 345 348 352 348 Indeterminate seeds from the goosefoot family (Chenopodiaceae) 2 Corn Spurrey (Spergula arvensis L.) 4 1 1 1 Probable Sheep's sorrel (Rumex cf acetosella L.) 2 1 1 Indeterminate seeds from the Knotgrass family (Polygonaceae) 1 1 4 2 4 4 6 Wild radish (Raphanus raphanistrum L.) capsule 1 1 1 1 13 2 6 21 Carrowreagh, Co. Wexford Bramble: blackberry drubes (Rubus fructicosus L.) 2 1 2 Pea (Pisum species) Indeterminate seeds from the Legume family (Fabaceae) 3 3 3 Linseed/Flax (Linum L. species) 8 7 Hemp-nettle (Galeopsis L. species) 1 1 Plantain (Plantago L. species) 4 1 2 6 Cleavers (Galium aparine L.) 3 Nipplewort (Lapsana communis L.) 10 1 1 2 5 12 Permalink: http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/e0471-carrowreagh-co-wexford/ Probable Corn Marigold (Chrysanthemum cf segetum L.) 8 2 5 2 135 1 14 47 112 Indeterminate seeds from the daisy family (Asteraceae) 1 1 1 Indeterminate seeds from the sedge family (Cyperaceae) 2 1 4 2 2 Oat grains (Avena L. species) 57 109 46 73 38 666 7 15 25 369 1626 Possible oat grains (cf Avena species) 4 Probable Emmer wheat (Triticum cf dicoccum L.) one seeded grain 2 Free threshing wheat (Triticum aestivum L./turgidum Desf./durum L.) 89 2 2 2 18 5 2 Probable free threshing wheat (Triticum cf aestivum L./turgidum Desf./durum L.) 166 Rachis internode free threshing wheat (Triticum aestivum L./turgidum Desf./durum L.) 1 Wheat grains (Triticum L. species) 61 3 3 1 5 2 Indeterminate cereal grains 14 13 13 3 2 80 4 6 9 36 3 141 Annual rye-grass (Poa annua L.) Indeterminate grass seeds (Poaceae) 3 4 4 10 5 3 3 31 Indeterminate weed seeds 1 1 4 3 19 Straw culm nodes 10 1 9 2 ISSUE 4: Eachtra Journal - ISSN 2009-2237 89
  • 96. 00E0471 Table 2: Identified plant remains from Carrowreagh, Co. Wexford (00E0471) Context 334 342 380 414 469 479 487 502 516 528 533 Sample 379 391 436 454 500 531 520 536 553 567 574 Indeterminate seeds from the goosefoot family (Chenopodiaceae) Corn Spurrey (Spergula arvensis L.) Probable Sheep's sorrel (Rumex cf acetosella L.) Indeterminate seeds from the Knotgrass family (Polygonaceae) 1 1 Wild radish (Raphanus raphanistrum L.) capsule 1 1 Bramble: blackberry drubes (Rubus fructicosus L.) Carrowreagh, Co. Wexford Pea (Pisum species) 1 Indeterminate seeds from the Legume family (Fabaceae) Linseed/Flax (Linum L. species) Hemp-nettle (Galeopsis L. species) Plantain (Plantago L. species) Cleavers (Galium aparine L.) Nipplewort (Lapsana communis L.) Probable Corn Marigold (Chrysanthemum cf segetum L.) 1 4 Permalink: http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/e0471-carrowreagh-co-wexford/ Indeterminate seeds from the daisy family (Asteraceae) Indeterminate seeds from the sedge family (Cyperaceae) 1 1 Oat grains (Avena L. species) 6 14 16 6 3 2 5 2 1 1 Possible oat grains (cf Avena species) Probable Emmer wheat (Triticum cf dicoccum L.) one seeded grain Free threshing wheat (Triticum aestivum L./turgidum Desf./durum L.) 3 Probable free threshing wheat (Triticum cf aestivum L./turgidum Desf./durum L.) Rachis internode free threshing wheat (Triticum aestivum L./turgidum Desf./durum L.) Wheat grains (Triticum L. species) 1 3 1 1 Indeterminate cereal grains 1 4 1 1 Annual rye-grass (Poa annua L.) Indeterminate grass seeds (Poaceae) 1 3 2 1 1 1 Indeterminate weed seeds 1 Straw culm nodes ISSUE 4: Eachtra Journal - ISSN 2009-2237 90
  • 97. 00E0471 Carrowreagh, Co. Wexford ISSUE 4: Eachtra Journal - ISSN 2009-2237 15.7 Appendix 7: Timbers from Carrowreagh, Co. Wexford (00E0471) By Mary Dillon 15.7.1 Introduction This report details the results of analysis from timbers recovered from archaeological excavations car- ried out at Carrowreagh Co. Wexford. This site comprised a rectangular moated area with an inside bank, a sub-rectangular building, and extensive evidence for activity outside the moat including nu- merous field boundaries, drains, furrows, working areas, a pottery kiln and a possible bisque firing kiln. Wood remains were found in the lower fills of all of the excavated portions of the moat; the wooden planks came from the southeastern section. 15.7.2 Methodology A small piece of wood from each timber was examined under a binocular Nikon stereo microscope (magnification x10 to x100). Each fragment was prepared for microscopic examination by exposing a clean surface along transverse, radial and tangential planes. All three planes were examined. During the analysis ring curvature, which can be regarded as broadly indicative of age, was noted. On the basis of the degree of ring curvature, the wood was classified according to age categories as follows: strong curvature, <5 y (years); medium curvature, 6-10 y; weak curvature, 11-15 y; curvature negligi- ble, 15+ y, i.e. mature wood. For reference literature the website “wood anatomy” was consulted (www. woodanatomy.ch). 15.7.3 Results C.210, Find no. 170 (Plank) Timber plank identified as mature oak and measuring 0.44 m long by 0.06 m wide. There were two carved mortises (0.03 m long by 0.02 m wide) which did not penetrate the full depth of the plank, but left a thin layer of wood on the underside of the plank. C.210, Find no. 171 (Plank and 2 possible pins) Timber plank identified as mature oak and measuring 0.7 m long by 0.4 m wide. There was one large mortise (0.08 m long by 0.07 m) carved on one side, shaped like the top half of a keyhole. There were two “pins” (possibly natural wood) associated with the plank, both 0.25 m long. C.210 Find 28 (Plank and accompanying timber) Timber plank identified as mature oak and measuring 0.77 m long and 0.08 m wide with a mortise at one end and hole in its centre (0.05 x 0.03 m aperture). This hole was frayed at the edges, giving the impression that it could also be natural in origin. Accompanied by one rectangular strip wood (0.04 m wide and 0.02 m thick), formed an irregular semi-hexagon in outline. The three sides each measured 0.1 m, 0.15 m and 0.1m in length. C.358 Find 57 (Plank) Timber plank identified as mature oak and measuring 0.92 m long, 0.07 m wide and 0.07 m thick with a mortise at one end 0.07 m long and 0.035 m wide. Permalink: http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/e0471-carrowreagh-co-wexford/ 91
  • 98. 00E0471 Carrowreagh, Co. Wexford ISSUE 4: Eachtra Journal - ISSN 2009-2237 15.7.4 Discussion The recovery of wooden structural remains from the lower fill of the moat might be taken as evidence of the existence of an internal palisade running along the inner edge of the moat. These may represent collapsed remains of fences or palisades that surrounded the interior of the enclosure. Excavations of moated sites at Ballyveelish, Co. Tipperary produced evidence for a palisade along the internal side of the eastern moat (Doody 1987). The timbers may also have formed part of a bridging across the moat. At Collamurry moated site in Co. Wexford worked timbers that were found in the moat were deemed to have formed part of a timber causeway or drawbridge (Fegan 2005, 135). All of the timbers were identified as mature oak. Oak was a valuable timber in the past and was widely used in building, especially of large structures such as houses, mills and bridges e.g. the 9th century bridge across the Shannon was at Clonmacnosie was built of oak (Feehan 2003, 315). It is more durable than most timbers, and is probably over represented in the archaeological record because of this. The oak wood from this moated site was in excellent condition. It is probable that oak trees were growing in the vicinity of the moated site at Carrowreagh. However the discovery of oak wood on the site does not necessarily imply this. Anthropological studies show that people in so called ‘primitive societies’ today will travel far to obtain the wood of their choice, be it for building, firing etc. 15.7.5 Summary All of the timbers that were taken from the moat were found to be mature oak. It is postulated that these timbers may represent the remains of a wooden pallisade or bridge. 15.7.6 References Doody, M. 1987. Ballyveelish I, Co. Tipperary. Moated Site, pp. 74-87 in Cleary, R., Hurley, M. and Twohig, E. (eds.) Archaeological Excavations on the Cork-Dublin Gas Pipeline (1981-82). Cork Archaeological Studies No.1. Cork, Department of Archaeology. Feehan, J. 2003. Farming in Ireland. History, Heritage and Environment. Faculty of Agriculture, UCD, Dublin. Fegan, G. 2005. Discovery and excavation of a medieval moated site at Coolamurray, County Wexford, pp. 131-139 in O’Sullivan, J. and Stanley, M. (eds.) Recent Archaeological Discoveries on National Road Schemes 2004. Archaeology and the National Roads Authority Monograph Series No. 2. Dublin, NRA. “Wood Anatomy” at http//:www.woodanatomy.ch Permalink: http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/e0471-carrowreagh-co-wexford/ 92
  • 99. 00E0471 Carrowreagh, Co. Wexford ISSUE 4: Eachtra Journal - ISSN 2009-2237 15.8 Appendix 8: Charcoal assessment Carrowreagh Charcoal assessed by Mary Dillon Context Sample Charcoal 104 104 Absent 105 105 Diffuse-porous 110 109 Absent 115 111 Absent 124 115 Absent 129 173 Absent 131 118 Absent 150 134 Diffuse-porous 154 140 Absent 166 150 Absent 166 432 Diffuse-porous 166 432 Absent 168 293 Diffuse-porous 174 154 Absent 175 158 Absent 176 161 Absent 179 165 Absent 182 168 Diffuse-porous 185 171 Absent 193 192 Diffuse-porous 196 198 Diffuse-porous 200 195 Ring-porous 201 208 Diffuse-porous twigs 203 203 Absent 205 201 Diffuse-porous 210 523 Absent 223 237 Absent 228 238 Absent 229 240 Diffuse-porous 230 241 Diffuse-porous 231 247 Absent 241 263 Diffuse-porous 241 263 Diffuse-porous 241 263 Diffuse-porous 241 273 Ring-porous and diffuse-porous 245 255 Absent 246 264 Diffuse-porous 250 259 Diffuse-porous 251 261 Absent 251 325 Absent 254 576 Absent 257 273 Absent 257 273 Absent 261 277 Absent 263 279 Absent 265 242 Absent 267 284 Absent 272 296 Absent 273 300 Absent 275 305 Absent Permalink: http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/e0471-carrowreagh-co-wexford/ 93
  • 100. 00E0471 Carrowreagh, Co. Wexford ISSUE 4: Eachtra Journal - ISSN 2009-2237 Context Sample Charcoal 279 328 Diffuse-porous twigs 280 317 Absent 282 219 Absent 286 324 Diffuse-porous twigs 290 326 Diffuse-porous 293 331 Diffuse-porous 293 340 Diffuse-porous branch fragment 294 333 Diffuse-porous 300 344 Diffuse-porous 306 347 Absent 308 348 Diffuse-porous 315 356 Absent 317 358 Diffuse-porous 334 379 Diffuse-porous 335 380 Absent 337 383 Absent 341 390 Absent 342 391 Diffuse-porous 356 405 Absent 358 407 Diffuse-porous 359 408 Absent 360 409 Absent 361 410 Diffuse-porous 362 411 Absent 363 412 Diffuse-porous 364 413 Absent 367 416 Absent 368 417 Diffuse-porous 370 448 Absent 375 434 Diffuse-porous 380 436 Diffuse-porous 414 454 Diffuse-porous 440 475 Diffuse-porous 440 476 Diffuse-porous twigs 451 485 Absent 454 515 Diffuse-porous 463 502 Absent 467 498 Absent 476 545 Diffuse-porous 478 509 Absent 483 442 Diffuse-porous 487 520 Absent 490 527 Absent 501 535 Diffuse-porous twigs 502 536 Diffuse-porous twigs 502 544 Diffuse-porous twigs 505 538 Diffuse-porous 516 553 Diffuse-porous 518 554 Diffuse-porous 518 559 Diffuse-porous twigs 522 560 Diffuse-porous 522 566 Diffuse-porous 525 564 Diffuse-porous 528 567 Diffuse-porous 529 568 Diffuse-porous 530 475 Diffuse-porous Permalink: http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/e0471-carrowreagh-co-wexford/ 94
  • 101. 00E0471 Carrowreagh, Co. Wexford ISSUE 4: Eachtra Journal - ISSN 2009-2237 Context Sample Charcoal 532 571 Absent 533 574 Diffuse-porous 534 577 Absent Permalink: http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/e0471-carrowreagh-co-wexford/ 95
  • 102. 00E0471 Carrowreagh, Co. Wexford ISSUE 4: Eachtra Journal - ISSN 2009-2237 15.9 Appendix 9: Specialist pottery catalogue The specialist pottery catalogue is included on the attached CD Permalink: http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/e0471-carrowreagh-co-wexford/ 96
  • 103. 00E0471 Carrowreagh, Co. Wexford ISSUE 4: Eachtra Journal - ISSN 2009-2237 15.10 Appendix 10: Flint and stone report Farina Sternke Department of Archaeology, University College Cork Eight lithic finds from the moated site at Carrowreagh, Co. Wexford were presented for analysis, all of which are knapped or modified. Three finds are flints, two are made on a type of coarse- grained rock and the remaining three on different raw materials (see Table 2). Condition: The lithics survive in variable condition (Table 1). Three burnt lithics are also incomplete as well as two modified stones. The remaining three artefacts (00E0471:0:173, 00E0471:103:18 and 00E0471:182:1) are complete. CONDITION AMOUNT Fresh 1 Patinated 1 Heavily Weathered 2 Burnt 4 Total 8 Table 1 Assemblage Condition Permalink: http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/e0471-carrowreagh-co-wexford/ 97
  • 104. 00E0471 Carrowreagh, Co. Wexford ISSUE 4: Eachtra Journal - ISSN 2009-2237 Context: The finds were recovered from the surface and various contexts (Table 2). Find Number Context Description Type 00E0471:0:173 Surface Stray Find Flake 00E0471:103:18 103 Fill of ditch re-cut C.152 Polished Pebble ? 00E0471:103:19 103 Fill of ditch re-cut C.152 Modified Stone? 00E0471:148:43 148 Fill of drain C.167 Modified Stone 00E0471:182:1 182 Fill of kiln C.194 Modified Chunk 00E0471:211:29 211 Fill of drain C.289 Firecracked Rock 00E0471:241:259 241 House destruction Blade Point 00E0471:270:1 270 Fill of posthole C.274 Blade Point Technology/Morphology: The artefacts represent various types of modified stone and three flaked flints, two of which are retouched. Finds 00E0471:103:19 and 00E0471:148:43 are possible rubbing stones, while artefact 00E0471:103:18 is a small polished limestone or flint pebble which displays impact damage on its entire circumference. FIND NO. MATERIAL TYPE 00E0471:0:173 Flint Flake 00E0471:103:18 Limestone or Flint Polished Pebble? 00E0471:103:19 Coarse-grained Rock Modified Stone? 00E0471:148:43 Granite Modified Stone 00E0471:182:1 Rock Crystal Modified Chunk 00E0471:211:29 Coarse-grained Rock Fire-cracked Rock 00E0471:241:259 Flint Retouched Artefact 00E0471:270:1 Flint Retouched Artefact Table 2 Assemblage Composition Permalink: http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/e0471-carrowreagh-co-wexford/ 98
  • 105. 00E0471 Carrowreagh, Co. Wexford ISSUE 4: Eachtra Journal - ISSN 2009-2237 Lithic 00E0471:182:1 is a small piece of rock crystal which displays evidence of impact damage on its tip and sides. The unretouched flint 00E0471:0:173 is a simple small flake. Retouched Artefacts: The retouched flints 00E0471:241:259 and 00E0471:270:1 are burnt fragments of the same blade point which is retouched on its distal right end and left edge. Dating: The finds coarse-grained artefacts and polished pebble are morphologically undiagnostic, but not out of place on a medieval site. The blade point is Late Mesolithic in date. Interpretation: The lithic finds from the excavation of the moated site at Carrowreagh, Co. Wexford are predominantly modified stones, a piece of modified rock crystal and three flaked flints. While the modified coarse-grained stones are not out of place on a moated site, the blade point clearly dates to the Later Mesolithic which suggests residual Late Mesolithic activity in the area or simply was brought to the site during its occupation. Permalink: http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/e0471-carrowreagh-co-wexford/ 99
  • 106. 00E0471 Carrowreagh, Co. Wexford ISSUE 4: Eachtra Journal - ISSN 2009-2237 15.11 Appendix 11: Metal Artefacts Catalogue Compiled by Sara Camplese Nail (00E0471:144:1) Fe. L. 66 mm., Th. (of shank) 4.1 mm., D. of head 9 mm. Incomplete and slightly broken. Flat sub-circular headed. Shank circular in section, straight. Not conserved. Nail (00E0471:241:257) Fe. L. 73.7 mm., Th. (of shank) 8.1 mm. Incomplete and broken in two pieces. Headless. Shank rectangular in section. Very corroded. Not conserved. Nail (00E0471:308:13) Fe. L. 58.6 mm., Th. (of shank) 5 mm. Incomplete and broken in three pieces. Headless. Shank square in section, straight. Very corroded. Not conserved. Nail (00E0471:333:25) Fe. L. 62.8 mm., Th. (of shank) 9.3 mm., D. of head 27.7 mm. Incomplete. Rounded sub-circular headed. Shank sub-rectangular in section. Slightly hook shaped toward the top. Very corroded. Not conserved. Bar (00E0471:0:172) Fe. L. 65 mm., Th. (of shank) 7.9 mm., W. 15.7 mm. Incomplete. Half-moon shaped. Flat rectangular in section. Possible blade. Conserved. Block of corroded Iron (00E0471:241:258) Fe. D. 30 mm., Th. 6.5 mm. Circular shaped. Very cor- roded. Not conserved. Permalink: http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/e0471-carrowreagh-co-wexford/ 100

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