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Archaeological Report - Stagpark 3, Co. Cork (Ireland)

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The site occurs within an area where a cluster of Bronze Age fulachta fiadh sites have been identified. …

The site occurs within an area where a cluster of Bronze Age fulachta fiadh sites have been identified.
Three burnt mounds were recorded (CO019-019, -020 and -021) within 500m of the site, while two other burnt mounds were excavated as part of this road project; Stagpark 2 (04E1121) was 800m away to the north and Mitchelstown 2 (04E1071) was 2km to the north. The intense use of this small area for the purposes of heating stones and water has produced a date range that suggests occupation on a long-term, if perhaps intermittent basis from at least the Early Bronze Age. The lower heavier wetter ground in the area was used for sites such as these. With the exception of the burnt mound at Mitchelstown 2, which was located on the northern bank of the Gradoge River, the remaining burnt mounds are not located adjacent to any known or contemporary water sources. The underlying subsoil is however a heavy clay which holds water very effectively being almost impermeable. The archaeological evidence indicates that contemporary Early Bronze Age occupation occurred on the higher drier ground, at Stagpark 1 (04E1120) 600m to the north. An extensive occupation site, dating to the Middle Bronze Age, was located on a limestone ridge on the northern bank of the Gradoge River at Mitchelstown 1 (04E1072) 2.8km to the north.

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  • 1. Eachtra JournalIssue 10 [ISSN 2009-2237] Archaeological Excavation Report 04E1119 - Stagpark 3, Co. Cork Two Fulachta fiadh
  • 2. Final Excavcation Report of two Fulachta fiadh atStagpark,N8 Mitchelstown Relief Road,Co. CorkJuly 2006Client: Cork County Council, National Roads Office, Richmond, Glanmire, Co. CorkLicence No.: 04E1119Licensee: Bruce Sutton Contact details: The Forge, Innishannon, Co. Cork. Tel.: 021 470 16 16 Fax: 021 470 16 28 E-mail: info@eachtra.ie Web Site: www.eachtra.ie
  • 3. 04E1119 Stagpark 3, Co. Cork - N8 Mitchelstown Relief Road ISSUE 10: Eachtra Journal - ISSN 2009-2237 Table of Contents i Project details .................................................................................................... iv ii Non-Technical Summary ....................................................................................v 1 Introduction .......................................................................................................1 1.1 Site location ..................................................................................................1 1.2 Scope of the Project ......................................................................................1 1.3 Circumstances of discovery ..........................................................................1 1.4 Date and duration of excavation works .........................................................1 1.5 Size and composition of the excavation team ................................................2 2 Receiving Environment ......................................................................................2 2.1 The Natural Landscape ................................................................................2 2.2 The Human Landscape ................................................................................3 3 Research Framework ...........................................................................................7 4 Interim Findings .................................................................................................7 4.1 Excavation Methodology ..............................................................................7 4.2 Full Stratigraphic Report ..............................................................................7 4.3 Radiocarbon results .....................................................................................10 4.4 Plant remains report ....................................................................................11 5 Discussion and Interpretation ............................................................................ 11 6 Assessment of archaeological and significance .................................................... 11 7 Conclusion ......................................................................................................... 11 8 Bibliography ...................................................................................................... 12 9 Figures ...............................................................................................................14 10 Plates .................................................................................................................24 11 Appendices ........................................................................................................ 27 11.1 Appendix 1: Matrices ..................................................................................27 11.2 Appendix 2: Context Register .....................................................................30 11.3 Appendix 3: Context Register .....................................................................47 11.4 Appendix 4: Charred plant remains from Stagpark 3, Co. Cork (04E1119) 47 11.5 Appendix 5: Summary account of site archive .............................................48 11.6 Appendix 6: Dissemination Strategy............................................................49 11.7 Appendix 7: Programme Schedule Dates & Deliveries .................................49Permalink: http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/04e1119-stagpark3/ iii
  • 4. 04E1119 Stagpark 3, Co. Cork - N8 Mitchelstown Relief Road ISSUE 10: Eachtra Journal - ISSN 2009-2237 List of Figures Figure 1: Portion of discovery map showing route of N8 Mitchelstown Relief Road. ...........................14 Figure 2: Portion of RMP sheets CO019 & CO010 showing route of the N8 Mitchelstown Relief Road. .. ..............................................................................................................................................15 Figure 3: Portion of 1st edition maps sheets 10 & 19 showing Mitchelstown Demesne and the route of the N8 Mitchelstown Road. ..................................................................................................................16 Figure 4: Route of the N8 Mitchelstown Relief Road showing location of all archaeological sites. .......17 Figure 5: Portion of route of N8 Mitchelstown Relief Road showing location of 04E1119. ...................18 Figure 6: Plan of extent of fulachta fiadh C.3 and C.4. ........................................................................19 Figure 7: Plan of extent of mound C.4. ............................................................................................... 20 Figure 8: Post-excavation plan and sections of trough C.45 and pits C.8 and C.17...............................21 Figure 9: Plan of extent of mound C.3. ................................................................................................22 Figure 10: Post-excavation plan and sections of trough C.88 and pit C.80...........................................23 List of Plates Plate 1: View of trough C.45 and pit C.8 and C.17 from north............................................................ 24 Plate 2: View of stakeholes on northern side of pit C.17 from west....................................................... 24 Plate 3: View of trough C.45 from east. ................................................................................................25 Plate 4: View of area of mound C.3 post-excavation from south-west. ..................................................25 Plate 5: View of section of trough C.88 from east. ................................................................................26 Plate 6: View of pit C.80 and stakeholes C.118-C.122 from southeast. .................................................26Permalink: http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/04e1119-stagpark3/ iv
  • 5. 04E1119 Stagpark 3, Co. Cork - N8 Mitchelstown Relief Road ISSUE 10: Eachtra Journal - ISSN 2009-2237 Project details Project N8 Mitchelstown Relief Road Site Name Stagpark 3 Site Type Fulachta Fiadh Licence No. 04E1119 Ministerial Order No. A012/001 Licensee Bruce Sutton Townland Stagpark Nat. Grid Ref. 180275 111397 Report Type Excavation Report Report Status Final Report Date of Submission July 2006 Distribution Ken Hanley, Project Archaeologist Cork County Council, Dept. of the En- vironment, Heritage and Local Government, National Museum of Ireland and Cork Archaeological Survey Office.Permalink: http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/04e1119-stagpark3/ v
  • 6. 04E1119 Stagpark 3, Co. Cork - N8 Mitchelstown Relief Road ISSUE 10: Eachtra Journal - ISSN 2009-2237 Non-Technical Summary This report details the results of an archaeological excavation undertaken by Eachtra Archaeological Projects of a site on the route of the proposed N8 Mitchelstown Relief Road, on behalf of Cork County Council. The proposed bypass involves the construction of 4.5km of the N8 from Cloonlough, south of Mitchelstown, to the junction of the R513 and the N8, north of Mitchelstown. Phase 1 of the project (archaeological testing of the route) was carried out in June, July and Septem- ber 2004 under licences 04E0889-04E0892 issued by Department of the Environment Heritage and Local Government (DoEHLG). The principal aim of this phase of the project was to test sites of ar- chaeological potential identified in the EIS and geophysical surveying and to test for any previously unknown sites by a programme of centreline and offset testing. Phase 2 of the project (resolution) involved the resolution of all archaeological sites identified within the proposed road corridor prior to commencement of the construction of the bypass in order to avoid delays and costs during construction works. This phase of the project was carried out from September- December 2004 and excavations were conducted by two licensed directors under the management of a Senior Archaeologist. In total five sites were excavated during this phase of works and all excavations were carried out initially under separate licences issued by DoEHLG and subsequently under Ministe- rial Order. One of these sites, Stagpark 3 is the subject of this report. It was identified in the testing in the town- land of Stagpark, at chainage 800 of the proposed road scheme and excavated under Licence Number 04E1119 and Ministerial Order Number A012/001. The site comprised two fulachta fiadh.Permalink: http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/04e1119-stagpark3/ vi
  • 7. 04E1119 Stagpark 3, Co. Cork - N8 Mitchelstown Relief Road ISSUE 10: Eachtra Journal - ISSN 2009-2237 1 Introduction 1.1 Site location This report details the results of the archaeological excavation of a site on N8 Mitchelstown Relief Road (MRR), County Cork (National Grid Co-ordinates 180275 111397). The site is located c.1 km to the southwest of Mitchelstown and less than 1km east of the N8 (Figure 1). It is located in the townland of Stagpark, the Parish of Brigown and barony of Condons and Clangibbon. 1.2 Scope of the Project This Archaeological Services Project was carried out on behalf of Cork County Council, National Roads Design Office, Richmond, Glanmire, Co. Cork. This project was funded by the Irish Govern- ment under the National Development Plan, 2000-2006. The purpose of the Project was to conduct Archaeological Site Investigations within the lands made available for the scheme and to assess the nature and extent of any new or potential archaeological sites uncovered. Phase 1 of the project (archaeological testing of the route) was carried out in June, July and Septem- ber 2004 under licences 04E0889-04E0892 issued by Department of the Environment Heritage and Local Government (DoEHLG). The principal aim of this phase of the project was to test sites of ar- chaeological potential identified in the EIS and geophysical surveying and to test for any previously unknown sites by a programme of centreline and offset testing. Phase 2 of the project (resolution) involved the resolution of all archaeological sites identified within the proposed road corridor prior to commencement of the construction of the bypass in order to avoid delays and costs during construction works. This phase of the project was carried out from September- December 2004 and excavations were conducted by two licensed directors under the management of a Senior Archaeologist. In total five sites were excavated during this phase of works and all excavations were carried out initially under separate licences issued by DoEHLG and subsequently under Ministe- rial Order. Following completion of fieldwork a dissemination strategy was undertaken and submitted to the project archaeologist. A programme of post-excavation analysis was agreed and commenced. A lecture on the preliminary findings was given to Mitchelstown Historical Society in May 2005 by the project and senior archaeologists. It is envisaged that a second lecture will be given to Mitchelstown Historical Society during their autumn/winter programme 2006-07. 1.3 Circumstances of discovery Prehistoric archaeological material was discovered at Mitchelstown 2 during archaeological test trench- ing undertaken in June 2004 under licence 04E0890. Topsoil in the vicinity of the sites was subse- quently stripped by tracked machine using a flat bucket under the direction of the licensed director. When the limits of the site had been determined, full excavation of the site commenced under license 04E1119. 1.4 Date and duration of excavation works The excavation commenced on 13th September 2004 under licence 04E1119. The work was suspendedPermalink: http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/04e1119-stagpark3/ 1
  • 8. 04E1119 Stagpark 3, Co. Cork - N8 Mitchelstown Relief Road ISSUE 10: Eachtra Journal - ISSN 2009-2237 on October 14th 2004 as it was necessary to apply for a Ministerial Order under the National Monu- ments Amendment Act 2004. The Ministerial Order, A012/000, was granted in November 2004 and excavation recommenced on 29th November 2004 and finished on 8th December 2004 under licence 04E1119 and Ministerial Order A012/001. 1.5 Size and composition of the excavation team The archaeological excavation team consisted of the licence holder, one supervisor, three site assistants and one general operative. 2 Receiving Environment 2.1 The Natural Landscape 2.1.1 Geology The topography of East Cork and Waterford consists of east-west orientated valleys separated by in- tervening ridges. The ridges consist of sandstones and mudstones of the Devonian Period (Old Red Sandstone) laid down 355-410 million years ago and the valleys of Carboniferous limestones laid down 290-355 million years ago. The sediments covering many of the rocks are mainly of glacial origin deposited by glacial ice or meltwater (Sleeman et al. 1995, 1). Major earth movements have resulted in the uplifting and folding of the rock units. Anticlines occur when local uplift results in a convex upward fold. Synclines occur when local uplift results in a concave upward fold (ibid. 3). The Mitchelstown Syncline is composed of a variety of Carboniferous Formations. Three of these for- mations are located in the area of the route of the N8 MRR. The Croane Formation is composed of a mixture of mudstones and cherts and is estimated to be about 300m thick (ibid. 31). The Rathronan Formation is composed of micrites, wackestones and cherts (ibid. 32). The O’Mahony’s Rock Forma- tion consists of micrites, packstones, wackestones and grainstones and is estimated to be about 100m thick. The type area is between Mitchelstown Castle and Killee House to the west (ibid.). 2.1.2 Soils and their uses The soils to the north of the Gradoge River to the west of Mitchelstown are characterised by a mix of acid brown earths, gleys and grey brown podzolics, which are derived from mixed sandstone and limestone glacial till while the underlying rock is Carboniferous limestone. The acid brown earths and gleys occur in the gently rolling valleys of Cork and Waterford mainly at altitudes of 0-75m (Gardiner 1980, 61). The soils have a wide use range and are suitable for tillage and grass production. The soils to the south of the Gradoge River are characterized by a mix of gleys and peaty gleys which are derived from glacial till of mixed sandstone-shale composition with a small admixture of limestone in places. They occur mostly at altitudes of 76m to 152m. The soils have a limited use range as they are poorly drained even on good slopes. They are best suited to grassland (ibid. 77-79) 2.1.3 Topography The route of the N8 Mitchelstown relief road (MRR) traverses the townlands of Cloonlough, StagPermalink: http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/04e1119-stagpark3/ 2
  • 9. 04E1119 Stagpark 3, Co. Cork - N8 Mitchelstown Relief Road ISSUE 10: Eachtra Journal - ISSN 2009-2237 Park and Mitchelstown on the western side of the town of Mitchelstown. The route extends from the N8 c. 1km south of Mitchelstown, crosses the N73 Mitchelstown/Mallow road, the Gradoge River Valley and traverses the ridge on the northern side of the river valley to the junction of the R513 Mitch- elstown/Ballylanders road and rejoins the N8. The northern half of the route traverses Mitchelstown Demesne, breaching the estate wall at the junction with the N73 and the R513. The southern half of the route climbs from c. 120m OD to 130m OD before descending to the banks of the Gradoge River, 80m OD and climbing northwards to the apex of the limestone ridge 110m OD. The land is for the most part under pasture and is located at an altitude of between 80-130m OD. The landscape of the Mitchelstown area is dominated by the Galtee Mountains to the north, the Bal- lyhoura Mountains to the west and the Kilworth Mountains (the foothills of the Knockmealdown Mountains) to the south. The Gradoge River is a tributary of the Funshion River. It rises south of Mitchelstown on the southern slopes of the Kilworth Mountains and drains into the Funshion to the immediate west of the route of the N8 MRR. The River Funshion drains into the River Blackwater south of Kilworth. The site of Stagpark 3 was located in low-lying pasture to the southeast and downslope of Stagpark 1 (04E1120) and 800m west of the N8. 2.2 The Human Landscape 2.2.1 Archaeological Background There is a paucity of known archaeological sites within a 2 km radius of the route of the N8 MRR. Three prehistoric sites, fulachta fiadh (CO019-019, -020,-021) are recorded in Stagpark and Ballykear- ney between 100-500m of the route corridor. The site of Mitchelstown Castle (CO019-026), the as- sociated demesne and the historic town of Mitchelstown (CO019-149) are the principle medieval and post-medieval sites in the vicinity of the route corridor (Figures 2 and 3). 2.2.2 Mesolithic 7000 BC - 4000 BC The earliest known human settlement in Ireland dates from the Mesolithic period (c. 7000 BC - 4000 BC). In Munster, the majority of the evidence (flint scatters) for Mesolithic occupation has ‘come from the Blackwater valley in Co. Cork’ (Woodman 1989, 116). Flint scatters were recorded in the townlands of Ballynamona (CO018-099) and Wallstown (CO018-100) on the northern and southern sides of the Awbeg river respectively c. 15km to the west of the route of the N8 MRR (Power et. al. 2000, 2). 2.2.3 Neolithic 4000 BC -2500 BC The Neolithic Period is characterised by the introduction of agriculture and the beginnings of the clearance of the woodlands. The population increased and became more sedentary in nature. Sub- stantial Neolithic settlement sites have been recorded at Lough Gur, Co. Limerick and Cloghers, Co. Kerry. The material culture includes the manufacture of pottery, flint and stone arrowheads, scrapers,Permalink: http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/04e1119-stagpark3/ 3
  • 10. 04E1119 Stagpark 3, Co. Cork - N8 Mitchelstown Relief Road ISSUE 10: Eachtra Journal - ISSN 2009-2237 axes etc. The range of monuments types includes Megalithic tombs (court tombs, portal tombs, pas- sage tombs and wedge tombs), single burial graves and stone circles. There is a paucity of evidence for Neolithic settlement sites in the south-west of Ireland. Recent infrastructural development has increased the amount of Neolithic sites in County Cork. The nearest known Neolithic house was excavated on the N8 Rathcormac-Fermoy in the townland of Gor- tore. The structure was dated to the Early Neolithic cal BC 3928-3655 (UB 6769). Further evidence of the Neolithic was recorded at Fermoy and Curraghprevin (NRA N8 Rathcormac Fermoy). 2.2.4 Bronze Age 2000 BC -500 BC The Bronze Age is characterised by the introduction of metallurgy, the mining of copper ores and manufacture of copper, bronze and gold items. The range of burial site types includes, cist graves, pit and urn burials, cremation cemeteries, barrows, ring-ditches and wedge tombs. Stone circles and standing stones also date to the Bronze Age. Both enclosed and unenclosed settlement sites are known. The most prolific Bronze Age site type is the fulacht fiadh; over 2,000 examples have been recorded in County Cork alone. These monuments survive as low mounds of charcoal rich black silt packed with heat-shattered stones and are generally situated close to a water source. In many cases, however, all that survives to the present day are black spreads with fragments of shattered stones visible in ploughed fields. Fulachta fiadh are generally classified as ‘cooking places’, whereby stones were heated in a hearth and subsequently placed in a trough of water, the water continued to boil with the addition of hot stones and wrapped food was cooked within the hot water. The trough eventually filled with small stones, ash and charcoal that were removed and formed the basis of the familiar mound. The absence of animal remains and the scarcity of associated hearths have fuelled the debate in relation to the func- tion of the sites. Other theories on their interpretation include bathing and dyeing textiles together with the production of hot water and steam for curative purposes and sweat houses (Kelly 1989, 225). Waddell (1998, 177) suggests the semi-industrial purpose of using the boiling water for dipping hides as part of the preparation of the leather, while Dunne (pers. comm.) suggests a relationship between burnt mounds and Bronze Age funerary rites and burial practices. There are few wedge tombs or stone circles known from north or east Cork. Two of the exceptions are wedge tombs located at Labbacallee (CO027-086) and at Manning (CO027-091) both located c. 8 km south of the N8 MRR. Labbacallee is one of the largest wedge tombs in the country. The cemetery of Mitchelstowndown West contains 53 small barrows. Four of this group were selected for excavation by the Discovery Programme (Daly et. al. 1992, 44). The site of the cemetery is located 16 km to the north of the N8 MRR. Until recently Bronze Age settlement sites were a rarity in North Cork. A Bronze Age occupation site was recorded underlying the medieval ringfort Lisleagh I (CO027-158) c.3.5km to the south of the N8 MRR (Power et. al. 2000, 210). A house site was excavated at Killydonoghoe on the route of the N8 Glanmire-Watergrasshill Bypass (NRA N8 Watergrasshill). A large Bronze Age settlement site consist-Permalink: http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/04e1119-stagpark3/ 4
  • 11. 04E1119 Stagpark 3, Co. Cork - N8 Mitchelstown Relief Road ISSUE 10: Eachtra Journal - ISSN 2009-2237 ing of four enclosures and three circular houses was excavated in 2003 at Ballybrowney on the route of the N8 Rathcormac-Fermoy (Cotter 2005, 38). A Middle Bronze Age settlement site was excavated in Mitchelstown (04E1072), a complex of Early and Late Bronze Age pits were excavated in Stagpark (04E1120) and three fulachta fiadh were excavated in Stagpark (04E1121 & 04E1119) on the route of the N8 Mitchelstown Relief Road. In addition a rare and important hoard of Early Bronze Age pottery was excavated on the banks of the Gradoge River (04E1071). 2.2.5 Iron Age 500 BC – 400 AD At present, there is little evidence of a significant Iron Age presence in the Cork region. Settlement sites are few and far between as well as being difficult to identify (Woodman, 2000) while the material cul- ture of this period is limited. Linear earthworks, which are believed to have marked tribal boundaries, are one of the most visible monuments of the period. Three separate stretches of one such boundary, the Claidh Dubh, have been recorded in County Cork. The longest stretch, c. 24 km extends from the Nagle Mountains, across the Blackwater valley and into the Ballyhoura Hills. The Claidh Dubh crosses the N73 c. 12km west of the N8 MRR. Radiocarbon dating following excavation of a section of it revealed it dated to some time before 100AD (Doody 1995, 23). Three of the five hillfort sites in Cork are located in North Cork (Power et al, 2000, 205). Caherdrinny is located at the western end of the Kilworth Mountains, c. 3 km to the south of the N8 MRR and Corrin is located at the eastern end of the Nagle Mountains c. 15 km to the south of the N8 MRR. A complex of monuments in Conva townland (c. 15 km to the southwest of the N8 MRR) was identi- fied by aerial photography in the Blackwater Valley. Crop marks indicated three enclosures (CO034- 7201, -7202, -7203) and a number of large pits (CO034-7204) possibly comprising a rectangular enclosure. The site was investigated in 1992 by Martin Doody of the Discovery Programme which involved geophysical prospection, topographic survey and trial excavation. Sections were dug through the three enclosures and through four of the large pits. Metal debris was discovered and radiocarbon dates indicated that the complex dated to the Iron Age/Early Medieval period. A complex of pits, dating to the Iron Age, cal BC 346-45 (UB6719) was excavated in Stagpark (04E1120) on the route of the N8 Mitchelstown Relief Road. 2.2.6 Early Medieval 400 AD – 1000 AD The Early Medieval Period/Early Christian Period is characterised by the arrival of Christianity to Ireland. Early ecclesiastical sites are located at Brigown (CO019-030) on the southeastern side of Mitchelstown and to the west of the N8 MRR at Aghacross (CO019-002), Leabba Molagga and Mar- shalstown. The monastery of Brigown founded in the 7th century gives its name to the modern parish (Power 1996, 3).Permalink: http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/04e1119-stagpark3/ 5
  • 12. 04E1119 Stagpark 3, Co. Cork - N8 Mitchelstown Relief Road ISSUE 10: Eachtra Journal - ISSN 2009-2237 The characteristic monument type of the period was the ringfort. Ringforts are the most numerous archaeological monument found in Ireland, with estimates of between 30 and 50,000 illustrated on the first edition of the Ordnance Survey 6” maps of the 1840’s (Barry, 1987). As a result of continued research these monuments have a narrow date range during the Early Christian period between the 7th and 9th centuries AD. Although there are some very elaborate examples of ringforts they often take the form of a simple earth or stone enclosure and functioned as settlements for all classes of secular society (Stout, 1997). A major research excavation of two ringfort was undertaken at Lisleagh c. 3.5km to the south of the route of the N8 MRR. Structural, domestic and industrial evidence was recorded at both sites. A number of stake and wattle round houses, and iron working were recorded in Lisleagh I. Two phases of occupation were recorded at Lisleagh I. The Lisleagh I was constructed in the early seventh century and was occupied into the ninth century AD (Monk 1995, 105-116). 2.2.7 Medieval 1000 AD – 1300 AD & Late Medieval 1300 AD -1500 AD The period is characterized by the arrival of the Anglo-Normans. Mitchelstown was formerly known as Brigown / Mitchelstown (CO019-149). It was listed as a market town in 1299 and was located on the southern bank of the Gradoge River, to the east of Mitchelstown Castle (Power, D. et al. 2000, 595). The town developed under the patronage of the House of Desmond. It passed into the hands of the Earls of Kingston in the 17th century (Power 1996, 23). Mitchelstown Castle was located on a limestone ridge on the southern bank of the Gradoge River. The first settlers, the Anglo-Norman FitzGibbons, held the title of White Knights. Their territory extended from Mitchelstown to Kilmallock (Power 2000, 1) and they built a tower house on the ridge. The White Knight lineage ended in the 17th century and the estate passed through marriage into the hands of the Fenton family (ibid. 3) and ultimately to the Kingstons. The earlier castle was destroyed in the wars of 1641. A corn-drying kiln dating to the Later Medieval Period cal AD 1310-1434 (UB 6833) was excavated in Stagpark 2 (04E1121). 2.2.8 Post-Medieval 1500 AD – 1800 AD In 1776 Lord Kingsborough, the 2nd earl of Kingston, created the new town of Mitchelstown. He demolished the old town between Kingston College and the Castle. Kingston College developed into a Georgian square. The new town was centred between the two parallel main streets of George Street and Cork Street. King Square and New Market Square became the focal points of the town (ibid.). St George’s Church, built in 1801, was located at the southern end of George Street and King Square at the northern end. New Market Square was located midway and on the western side of Cork Street. The new town was built on 138 acres. Lord Kingsborough, the second earl of Kingston, built a new mansion on the site of the White Knights castle and a demesne around the mansion in the 18th century. A demesne wall was constructed around the parkland of some 1240 acres. The wall was ‘six-and-a-quarter-mile long…between eight and ten feetPermalink: http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/04e1119-stagpark3/ 6
  • 13. 04E1119 Stagpark 3, Co. Cork - N8 Mitchelstown Relief Road ISSUE 10: Eachtra Journal - ISSN 2009-2237 in height’ (Power 1996, 24). All public roads that were located within the area of the demesne were closed and rerouted on the periphery of the wall. Entry to the demesne was gained through Mallow Gate also known as White Gate, Limerick Gate and the main entrance was at King Square. Extensive works were undertaken within the area of the demesne which resulted in ‘a quadrangle of buildings, a garden of five English acres surrounded by a wall, large conservatories and lavishly arranged gardens became part of the scene. Two artificial lakes were developed beneath the rockface on which the castle stood ’ (ibid., 24). Several hundred acres of woodland comprising of oak, ash, larch, beech and alder were planted within the demesne. In 1823 the third earl of Kingston demolished the Georgian house and built a new castle on the same site. The architects James and George Pain designed and built this neo-Gothic castellated mansion. The limestone buildings formed three sides of a courtyard (Power 1996, 42). Mitchelstown Castle was burnt by Republican forces in 1922. The stone was bought by the Cistercian Monks of Mount Melleray and reused to build a church. Few traces of the castle are visible today. At present, Dairygold occupies the site of the former castle. The 1240 acres of parkland was divided into farms, the town park and a golf course. 3 Research Framework The following issues will be addressed in this report.  The construction date or date of initial site activity and the date of abandonment.  The absolute / relative chronology of site use in terms of phases and events.  The location of known contemporaneous and comparable sites.  The extent of the viable economic catchment area in terms of sources of water, food, raw materials, transportation routes etc 4 Interim Findings 4.1 Excavation Methodology A total area of 32m N-S by 32m E-W were excavated under license 04E1119 at Stagpark 3 (figure 5) (Grid coordinates 180182, 113286). A grid was established and the ground within the grid was cleaned by hand to locate and identify all archaeological features. Each identified feature was exca- vated, planned, photographed and recorded, with every fill and cut being assigned a context number. Charcoal and soil samples were taken from appropriate fills where necessary. All artefacts were re- trieved, registered, bagged and labelled. 4.2 Full Stratigraphic Report See Appendix 1 for the full stratigraphic matrix. 4.2.1 Stratigraphic Sequencing 4.2.1.1 Bronze Age The archaeology at Stagpark 3 consisted of two separate fulachta fiadh distanced by less than 6m (Fig-Permalink: http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/04e1119-stagpark3/ 7
  • 14. 04E1119 Stagpark 3, Co. Cork - N8 Mitchelstown Relief Road ISSUE 10: Eachtra Journal - ISSN 2009-2237 ure 6). The burnt mound C.4 located in the southeast area of the site measured 19.2m by 15.4m and was the larger of the two. It was composed of grey-black clay silt and included frequent heat-shattered sandstone. The mound was very shallow being on average 0.1m-0.2m in depth. In total 33 stakeholes, three postholes, two pits (C8 and C.17) and a rectangular trough C.45 were located beneath the burnt mound C.4 (Figure 7, plate 1). Pit C.17 measured 4.15m by 1.45m by 0.57m deep and was roughly orientated northwest-southeast. It contained four fills (C.13, C.14, C.15 and C.16) and was truncated by the pit C.8. Although C.17 was located under burnt mound material C.4, the in-filled material contained no burnt stone inclusions, suggesting it had in-filled prior to the build-up of the mound. C.8 measured 1.9m by 1.55m by 0.35m and contained three fills (C.9, C.12 and C.18) with burnt stone inclusions. Pit C.17 was surrounded by 25 stakeholes (C.11, C.49, C.53, C.51, C.33, C.34, C.41, C.63, C.60, C.141, C.39, C.103, C.102, C.37, C.31, C.101, C.100, C.27, C.25, C.29, C.35, C.58, C.62, C.65 and C.67) and three postholes (C.20, C.23 and C.71), all of which contained single fills (Figure 8, Plate 2). The majority of the stake- holes and postholes were located to the southwest and northeast of C.17, placing them along the sides of the pit. Only seven of the features (C.60, C.62, C.11, C.49, C.20, C.23 and C.67) were located at the northwestern and southeastern ends. Charcoal from the fill of stakehole C.51 was identified as hazel and/or alder. A radiocarbon date of cal BC 2122-1828 (UB-6718) was returned from charcoal from the stakehole. The stakeholes surrounding the pit did not form any discernible pattern or structure; it is likely that they formed a windbreak, spit or fire-side furniture, open to the northwest, associated with the pit. The trough C.45 was located under the northern portion of the mound C.4, c. 2.3m north of the pit C.17. It was rectangular in shape and measured 2.02m by 1.45m by 0.65m deep (Figure 8, Plate 3). It contained four fills (C.42, C.43, C.44 and C.87), the main peat fill (C.44) accumulated after the abandonment of the area. The basal fill (C.87) was the remains of a waterlogged and badly degraded piece of timber, which lay flat in the base and was possibly the remains of a lining. Eight stakeholes (C.90, C.92, C.127 C.129, C.128, C.130, C131 and C.132) were located in the corners of the trough. These all contained similar grey-black silty sand fills which suggested the timber posts had degraded in situ. The presence of the stakeholes further confirms that the trough may have been timber lined. The mound C.3 was located c. 6m to the northwest of mound C.4 (Figure 6). It measured 15.4m by 14m, making it the smaller of the two mounds. It was composed of grey-black clay silt and included frequent heat-shattered sandstone. The mound was very shallow being 0.1m-0.2m deep on average. The charcoal was identified as hazel and/or alder. A radiocarbon date of cal BC 2023-1773 (UB-6744) was returned from charcoal from the mound. The mound covered a trough, C.88 and two large pits C.80, C.110 and C.115, two small pits C.110 and C.74 and a number of stakeholes (Figure 9, plate 4). The trough C.88 measured 2.75m by 2m by 0.8m in depth. It contained six fills (C.133, C.134, C.135,Permalink: http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/04e1119-stagpark3/ 8
  • 15. 04E1119 Stagpark 3, Co. Cork - N8 Mitchelstown Relief Road ISSUE 10: Eachtra Journal - ISSN 2009-2237 C.136, C.137, C.138 and C.139) (Figure 10, Plate 5). The fills were a mix of sand and silty clays. The upper fill C.133 and fill C.136 included 50% heat-shattered stone. The basal fills were sandy. Six stakeholes (C.148, C.150, C.152, C.154, C.156, C.158) were recorded on the edge of the trough and four (C. 81, C.85, C.142, C.146) on the western perimeter. The largest of the stakeholes (C.156) mea- sured 0.13m by 0.1m by 0.24m in depth. The smallest stakehole (C.148) measured 0.07m by 0.09m by 0.02m in depth. The stakeholes within the trough were located, with the exception of C.158, to the northern section of the trough. The stakeholes on the perimeter were confined to the western edge. The stakeholes may have formed a windbreak, spit or fire-side furniture, open to the east. The pit C.80 was located c.1.9m south-west of trough C.88 (Figure 10). It was truncated by a field drain on the southeastern side. It was rectangular in plan and measured 1.3m by 1.1m by 0.3m. Four fills (C.79, C.93, C.94 and C.95) were recorded in the pit. The fills were silty and clay sands with inclusions of heat-shattered stone. The basal fill C.95 was coarse sand. Five stakeholes (C.118, C.119, C.120, C.121 and C.122) were located on the northern and western edges of the pit (Plate 6). They were located within 0.2m-0.25m of each other. They measured on average 0.06m by 0.05 and varied in depth from 0.05m-0.12m. The stakeholes may have formed a windbreak, spit or fire-side furniture, and in a manner similar to those associated with the trough C.88 the apparatus was open to the east. The pit C.115 was located 5.5m west of trough C.88. It was rectangular in plan and measured 2.6m by 1.1m by 0.35m in depth. The single clay silt fill included heat-shattered stones. The pit truncated a posthole C.117 to the west. It measured 0.35m in diameter by 0.3m in depth. An semi-circular arc of three pits (C.68, C.74 and C.110) three postholes (C.75, C.113 and C.125) and five stakeholes (C.105, C.106, C.107, C.108 and C.109) were located c. 3.6m northeast of pit C.115 and c. 2.5m northwest of trough C.88. The arc measured c. 6m and the possible entrance was to the southwest. The pits varied in size, the smaller two (C.68 and C.74) measured 0.48m by 0.4m and 0.32 by 0.31m respectively. The larger pit C.110 measured 1m by 0.5m. All of the pits were shallow being c. 0.2m in depth. The smaller postholes (C.113 and C.125) measured c. 0.18m in diameter by 0.2m in depth. The larger C.75 was cut by the pit C.74 to the east. The stakeholes measured on average 0.14m by 0.13m and varied in depth from 0.1m-0.15m. All of the features were filled with a grey-black silty clay with inclusions of pebbles and occasional charcoal. A large cut C.5 was located on the northern edge of the area of excavation. It measured 5.5m by 3m by a minimum of 1.4m in depth. The full depth of the cut could not be realised as it kept filling with rising water. It extended beyond the area of the excavation to the north. It is possible that the cut maybe a pit or the terminal of a ditch. The upper fill was a silty clay, similar to the natural sub-soil, the underlying fill was a peat deposit and the basal fill was a silty sand with inclusions of heat-shattered stone. It is possible that the feature is associated with modern drainage features.Permalink: http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/04e1119-stagpark3/ 9
  • 16. 04E1119 Stagpark 3, Co. Cork - N8 Mitchelstown Relief Road ISSUE 10: Eachtra Journal - ISSN 2009-2237 4.2.2 Stratigraphic Discussion Two fulachta fiadh were located within 5m of one another at Stagpark. The monuments survive as very low mounds of black silt with inclusions of heat-shattered stones and are generally situated close to a water source. No water source was recorded within the field and no water source is indicated on the 1st edition OS map sheet CO019. The underlying clay subsoil is impermeable and land drains were recorded in the field. Each of the two mounds overlay a trough, pits, postholes and stakeholes. No evidence of a hearth was recorded. No stratigraphic evidence was recorded to sug- gest which of the mounds and associated features predated the other or if they were in use simultane- ously. The radiocarbon dates returned for the sites would suggest that the mound C.4, in the southeast, predated the mound C.3 to the northwest. The mound C.4 overlay a pit and a rectangular trough. 25 stakeholes were located on the perimeter of the pit C.17. The stakeholes are likely to have formed a temporary structure in the vicinity of the pit. This may have been used for shelter or may have been linked to a structure associated with the pit. The trough was probably timber lined as stakeholes recorded in the corners of the rectangular trough would have formed part of the structure of a timber lining. The basal fills of the trough were sandy and may have accumulated from deposition of sand from the repeated use of heated sandstone in the trough. The mound C.3 overlay a trough, 2 large pits and a possible wooden structure. The trough was deeper than either of the large pits. A number of stakeholes were recorded on the upper side of the northern portion of the trough C.88 but there was no evidence to suggest that the trough was timber lined. Stakeholes in a similar and compatible position were recorded on the upper side of pit C.80. These stakeholes may have been linked to a similar structure associated with the trough and pit. A possible semi-circular structure was located to the northwest of the trough. The structure would have been constructed of wooden stakes with the entrance to the southwest. Alternatively the structure may have formed a shelter belt for the pit C.115 to the southwest. 4.3 Radiocarbon results Radiocarbon dates were returned from the Radiocarbon Laboratory at Queens University Belfast. The two Early Bronze Age dates returned from Queens were accelerator dates obtained from samples of charcoal. Table 1 Lab. Code Sample Mate- Context No. Yrs BP Calibrated Dates rial 2 sigma UB-6744 Charcoal 3 3561+/-38 cal BC 2023-1773 UB-6718 Charcoal 50 3599+/-38 cal BC 2122-1828Permalink: http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/04e1119-stagpark3/ 10
  • 17. 04E1119 Stagpark 3, Co. Cork - N8 Mitchelstown Relief Road ISSUE 10: Eachtra Journal - ISSN 2009-2237 4.4 Plant remains report The plant remains were examined by A. Brewer and P. Johnston (Appendix 4). Although all the sam- ples contained charcoal no charred seeds were recovered from the site. Charred seeds are consistently absent from burnt mound deposits. 5 Discussion and Interpretation The site occurs within an area where a cluster of Bronze Age fulachta fiadh sites have been identified. Three burnt mounds were recorded (CO019-019, -020 and -021) within 500m of the site, while two other burnt mounds were excavated as part of this road project; Stagpark 2 (04E1121) was 800m away to the north and Mitchelstown 2 (04E1071) was 2km to the north. The intense use of this small area for the purposes of heating stones and water has produced a date range that suggests occupation on a long-term, if perhaps intermittent basis from at least the Early Bronze Age. The lower heavier wet- ter ground in the area was used for sites such as these. With the exception of the burnt mound at Mitchelstown 2, which was located on the northern bank of the Gradoge River, the remaining burnt mounds are not located adjacent to any known or contemporary water sources. The underlying subsoil is however a heavy clay which holds water very effectively being almost impermeable. The archaeo- logical evidence indicates that contemporary Early Bronze Age occupation occurred on the higher drier ground, at Stagpark 1 (04E1120) 600m to the north. An extensive occupation site, dating to the Middle Bronze Age, was located on a limestone ridge on the northern bank of the Gradoge River at Mitchelstown 1 (04E1072) 2.8km to the north. 6 Assessment of archaeological and significance Viewed in tandem with the archaeological evidence from all of the sites on the route of the Mitch- elstown Relief Road, the site at Stagpark 3 is of archaeological significance as it provides additional evidence of Bronze Age activity in the Mitchelstown area. 7 Conclusion The fulachta fiadh at Stagpark 3 was contemporaneous with the Early Bronze Age activity at Stagpark 1 (04E1120) and with the ritual deposition of three pottery vessels on the northern bank of the Gra- doge River at Mitchelstown 2 (04E1071).Permalink: http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/04e1119-stagpark3/ 11
  • 18. 04E1119 Stagpark 3, Co. Cork - N8 Mitchelstown Relief Road ISSUE 10: Eachtra Journal - ISSN 2009-2237 8 Bibliography Barry, T.B. 1987 The Archaeology of Medieval Ireland, Routledge, London and New York. Cotter, E. (2005) Bronze Age Ballybrowney County Cork in Recent Archaeological Discoveries on National Road Schemes 2004 NRA. Doody, M. (1995) The Clight Dubh in Discovery Programme Reports 2 Project Results 1993. Royal Irish Academy / Discovery Programme Dublin 1995. Doody, M. (1999), ‘Ballyhoura Hills project’, Discovery Programme Reports 5, 97-110. Royal Irish Academy. Dublin. Daly, A., Grogan, E. (1992) Excavation of Four Barrows in Mitchelstowndown West, Knocklong, County Limerick. Discovery Programme Reports 1 pp44-60. Royal Irish Academy. Gardiner, M.J., Radford, T. 1980 Soil Associations of Ireland and Their Land Use Potential. An Foras Talúntais. Kelly, M. (1989) Early Ireland, An Introduction to Irish Prehistory. Cambridge University Press. Monk, M. (1995) A Tale of Two Ringforts: Lisleagh I and II in Journal of the Cork Historical and Archaeological Society Vol. 100 Power, B (1996) From the Danes to Dairygold A History of Mitchelstown. Mount Cashell Books. Power , B. 2000 White Knights, Dark Earls The Rise and Fall of an Anglo-Irish Dynasty. The Collins Press. Power, D., Lane, S., Egan, U., Byrne, E., Egan, U., Sleeman, M., with Cotter, E., Monk, J. (2000) Archaeological Inventory of County Cork Volume 4: North Cork Parts 1 and 2. The Stationery Office. Sleeman, D.G., McConnell, B. 1995 Geology of East Cork-Waterford Geological Survey of Ireland. NRA Archaeological Discoveries N8 Watergrasshill Bypass. NRA Archaeological Discoveries N8 Rathcormac Fermoy. Stout, M. (2000) The Irish Ringfort Four Courts Press Dublin. Waddell, J. (1998) The Prehistoric Archaeology of Ireland. Galway University Press. Woodman, P.C. (1989) ‘The mesolithic in Munster: a preliminary assessment’, in Bonsall, C (ed), The Mesolithic in Europe, 116-24. John Donald. Edinburgh.Permalink: http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/04e1119-stagpark3/ 12
  • 19. 04E1119 Stagpark 3, Co. Cork - N8 Mitchelstown Relief Road ISSUE 10: Eachtra Journal - ISSN 2009-2237 Woodman, P.C. (2000) ‘Hammers and Shoeboxes: New Agendas for Prehistory’ in New Agendas in Irish Prehistory. Papers in commemoration of Liz Anderson. Wordwell, 1-10.Permalink: http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/04e1119-stagpark3/ 13
  • 20. 04E1119 Stagpark 3, Co. Cork - N8 Mitchelstown Relief Road ISSUE 10: Eachtra Journal - ISSN 2009-2237 9 Figures Figure 1: Portion of discovery map showing route of N8 Mitchelstown Relief Road.Permalink: http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/04e1119-stagpark3/ 14
  • 21. 04E1119 Stagpark 3, Co. Cork - N8 Mitchelstown Relief Road ISSUE 10: Eachtra Journal - ISSN 2009-2237 Legend Bronze Age Medieval Post-medieval 04E1072 Mitchelstown 1 04E1071 Mitchelstown 2 04E1121 Stagpark 2 04E1120 Stagpark 1 04E1119 Spagpark 3 Figure 2: Portion of RMP sheets CO019 & CO010 showing route of the N8 Mitchelstown Relief Road.Permalink: http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/04e1119-stagpark3/ 15
  • 22. 04E1119 Stagpark 3, Co. Cork - N8 Mitchelstown Relief Road ISSUE 10: Eachtra Journal - ISSN 2009-2237 ell W ay nd Su Well Field Yeomens Field A Ballyarthur Field Parkanimrish Clyroe Field B Glen Field C Limekiln Field Donnellys Field D Laknock Field Sandpit Field Deer Park Garrane Warren Field New Orchard Park G ond Fishp High Field Mitchelstown Castle I Brick Field E H Milk Field Turnpike Field F J Reference Extent of Mitchelstown Demense Line of N8, Mitchelstown Relief Road A Barretts Grove B Old Pheasantry C Farm Yard D Kiltaunave Old Grave Yard E Carriganoura Wood F Whitegate Grove G Orchard Grove H Troopers Lough I Site of Church & Graveyard J Parkaphuca Figure 3: Portion of 1st edition maps sheets 10 & 19 showing Mitchelstown Demesne and the route of the N8 Mitchelstown Road.Permalink: http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/04e1119-stagpark3/ 16
  • 23. 04E1119 Stagpark 3, Co. Cork - N8 Mitchelstown Relief Road ISSUE 10: Eachtra Journal - ISSN 2009-2237 Area A Area B Figure 4: Route of the N8 Mitchelstown Relief Road showing location of all archaeological sites.Permalink: http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/04e1119-stagpark3/ 17
  • 24. 04E1119 Stagpark 3, Co. Cork - N8 Mitchelstown Relief Road ISSUE 10: Eachtra Journal - ISSN 2009-2237 Figure 5: Portion of route of N8 Mitchelstown Relief Road showing location of 04E1119.Permalink: http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/04e1119-stagpark3/ 18
  • 25. 04E1119 Stagpark 3, Co. Cork - N8 Mitchelstown Relief Road ISSUE 10: Eachtra Journal - ISSN 2009-2237 X = 180277 Y = 111401 129 130 128 92 131 45 127 90 132 39 141 103 60 31 102 37 101 8 100 27 25 63 58 41 34 17 35 33 53 71 11 51 49 20 23 X = 180277 Y = 111381 Extent of mound C.4 1m 0 5m Figure 6: Plan of extent of mound C.4.Permalink: http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/04e1119-stagpark3/ 19
  • 26. 04E1119 Stagpark 3, Co. Cork - N8 Mitchelstown Relief Road ISSUE 10: Eachtra Journal - ISSN 2009-2237 129 N 128 130 A1 92 131 A 45 127 90 132 39 103 141 102 31 60 37 B1 101 8 100 27 25 63 41 98 33 55 34 17 53 51 71 B 11 49 20 23 A A1 B B1 13 9 14 12 42 15 18 16 8 43 43 17 45 50 cm 0 1m Figure 7: Post-excavation plan and sections of trough C.45 and pits C.8 and C.17.Permalink: http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/04e1119-stagpark3/ 20
  • 27. 04E1119 Stagpark 3, Co. Cork - N8 Mitchelstown Relief Road ISSUE 10: Eachtra Journal - ISSN 2009-2237 Figure 8: Plan of extent of mound C.3.Permalink: http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/04e1119-stagpark3/ 21
  • 28. 04E1119 Stagpark 3, Co. Cork - N8 Mitchelstown Relief Road ISSUE 10: Eachtra Journal - ISSN 2009-2237 05,29 N A 85 81 152 154 150 156 148 158 88 142 146 A1 05,20 84 122 121 B1 120 80 119 118 B A A1 133 B B1 134 135 93 79 95 136 137 138 94 139 80 88 50 cm 0 1m Figure 9: Post-excavation plan and sections of trough C.88 and pit C.80.Permalink: http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/04e1119-stagpark3/ 22
  • 29. 04E1119 Stagpark 3, Co. Cork - N8 Mitchelstown Relief Road ISSUE 10: Eachtra Journal - ISSN 2009-2237 10 Plates Plate 1: View of trough C.45 and pit C.8 and C.17 from north. Plate 2: View of stakeholes on northern side of pit C.17 from west.Permalink: http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/04e1119-stagpark3/ 23
  • 30. 04E1119 Stagpark 3, Co. Cork - N8 Mitchelstown Relief Road ISSUE 10: Eachtra Journal - ISSN 2009-2237 Plate 3: View of trough C.45 from east. Plate 4: View of area of mound C.3 post- excavation from south-west.Permalink: http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/04e1119-stagpark3/ 24
  • 31. 04E1119 Stagpark 3, Co. Cork - N8 Mitchelstown Relief Road ISSUE 10: Eachtra Journal - ISSN 2009-2237 Plate 5: View of section of trough C.88 from east. Plate 6: View of pit C.80 and stakeholes C.118-C.122 from southeast.Permalink: http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/04e1119-stagpark3/ 25
  • 32. 04E1119 Stagpark 3, Co. Cork - N8 Mitchelstown Relief Road ISSUE 10: Eachtra Journal - ISSN 2009-2237 11 Appendices 11.1 Appendix 1: Matrices 1 47 46 4 9 10 19 22 24 26 28 30 32 36 12 11 20 23 25 27 29 31 37 33 34 35 18 21 8 13 14 15 16 17 2Permalink: http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/04e1119-stagpark3/ 26
  • 33. 04E1119 Stagpark 3, Co. Cork - N8 Mitchelstown Relief Road ISSUE 10: Eachtra Journal - ISSN 2009-2237 140 141 103 102 99 101 100 70 71 66 67 64 65 61 62 47 46 1 4 2 59 60 63 57 58 52 53 50 51 48 49 40 41 38 39Permalink: http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/04e1119-stagpark3/ 27
  • 34. 04E1119 Stagpark 3, Co. Cork - N8 Mitchelstown Relief Road ISSUE 10: Eachtra Journal - ISSN 2009-2237 1 97 3 69 72 81 83 85 93 116 124 68 74 82 84 86 79 115 125 73 95 112 111 75 94 117 114 123 113 110 118 119 120 121 122 80 2 1 97 3 133 104 134 135 105 106 107 108 109 136 137 139 159 157 155 153 151 149 158 156 154 152 150 148 88 2 1 44 54 143 147 42 55 142 146 43 56 87 5 89 91 126 90 92 127 128 129 130 131 132 45 2Permalink: http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/04e1119-stagpark3/ 28
  • 35. 04E1119 11.2 Appendix 2: Context Register Context # Grid Fill of Filled with Above Below Basic Interpretation Phase Basic description Artefacts 1 All All Topsoil 4 Loose brown silty clay topsoil with occasional stone inclusions 0.35m deep 2 All All Natural 1 Firm light grey/white clayey silt with orange mottling and frequent stone inclusions 3 NW corner Number given to material from smaller 2 Loose dark grey/black clayey silt of site northwestern burnt mound. Shal- with frequent heat shattered stone low nature of the mound compared inclusions. 15.4m x 14m to trough size would indicate that the mound was originally more substantial 4 E side of site Number given to material from the 2 Loose black clayey silt with frequentPermalink: http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/04e1119-stagpark3/ larger southeastern burnt mound. Shal- inclusions of heat shattered stone. Stagpark 3, Co. Cork - N8 Mitchelstown Relief Road low nature of the mound compared 19.2m x 15.4m to trough size would indicate that the mound was originally more substantial 5 5E25N 54,55,56 2 56 Large pit in edge of excavation. The ? Sub-circular pit 5.5m x 3m x 1.4m upper fills appeared to be modern but with gradual break of slope top and the lower ones were of rich black burnt concave and convex sides mound material. Wet conditions and rising water level meant that feature could not be fully excavated. No finds recovered and unsure as to date of pit 6 Cancelled context 7 Cancelled context 8 20E9N 9,12,18 13 21 Pit containing heat shattered stone 2 Sub-circular pit 1.9m x 1.55m x that cuts through earlier pit C.17. Was 0.35m deep with sharp break of located under the mound, suggesting slope top, steep sides, sharp break of two phases of site use. slope base and flat base. 9 20E9N 8 12 4 Fill of later pit cut C.8. Contains heat 2 Loose black clayey silt with frequent shattered stone inclusions of charcoal and heat shat- tered stone. 10 20E9N 11 11 4 Stakehole fill, no stake present so 2 Firm dark brownish grey sandy clay removed prior to infilling with frequent charcoal inclusions29 ISSUE 10: Eachtra Journal - ISSN 2009-2237
  • 36. 04E1119 Context # Grid Fill of Filled with Above Below Basic Interpretation Phase Basic description Artefacts 11 20E9N 10 2 10 One of a number of stake and post 2 Circular stakehole 0.08m x 0.07m holes surrounding intercutting pits C. with sharp break of slope top, 8 and C.17 straight/concave sides, gradual break of slope base and rounded base 12 20E9N 8 18 9 Re-deposited natural fill of pit C.8 2 Moderately compact orange/brown sandy clay with moderate small stone inclusions 1.1m x 0.85m x 0.25m deep 13 20E9N 17 14 8 Truncated fill of C.17 2 Soft mid grey silty clay with oc- casional charcoal fleck inclusions. 0.81m x 0.71m x 0.16m deep 14 20E9N 17 15 13 Truncated fill of C.17 2 Compact yellowish orange clay with occasional small stone inclusions.Permalink: http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/04e1119-stagpark3/ 0.84m x 0.72m x 0.24m deep Stagpark 3, Co. Cork - N8 Mitchelstown Relief Road 15 20E9N 17 16 14 Truncated fill of C.17 2 Soft dark grey clayey silt with oc- casional small stone and charcoal inclusions. 0.93m x 0.84m x 0.14m deep 16 20E9N 17 17 16 Truncated fill of C.17 2 Soft yellowish orange sandy clay with occasional pebble inclusions. 0.3m x 0.09m deep 17 20E9N 13, 14, 15, 16 2 16 Cut of large domestic pit, or possible 2 Sub-rectangular in shape, 4.15m earlier phase trough. Infilled prior to x 1.45m x 0.57m deep with sharp the build up of mound material as no break of slope top, vertical sides, heat shattered stone is present in the sharp break of slope base and flat fill. base 18 20E9N 8 21 9 Fill of later pit cut C.8. 2 Loose black clayey silt with frequent charcoal and small to medium stone inclusions 1.75m x 1.1m x 0.32m deep 19 20E9N 20 20 4 Charcoal rich posthole fill 2 Firm dark grey/black sandy silt with moderate stone and frequent charcoal inclusions30 ISSUE 10: Eachtra Journal - ISSN 2009-2237
  • 37. 04E1119 Context # Grid Fill of Filled with Above Below Basic Interpretation Phase Basic description Artefacts 20 20E9N 19 2 19 The base of a driven post cut. Appears 2 Circular post cut 0.12m x 0.1m x to have infilled prior to build-up of 0.15m deep with sharp break of mound slope top, concave sides, gradual break of slope base, rounded point and vertical inclination of axis 21 20E9N 8 8 18 Redeposited natural fill of later pit cut 2 Loose orange grey sandy clay with C.8. occasional small stone inclusions 0.9m x 0.12m deep 22 20E9N 23 23 4 Charcoal rich posthole fill 2 Firm dark grey/black sandy silt with frequent charcoal and occasional burnt stone inclusions 23 20E9N 22 2 22 Cut of driven post, one of a group of 2 Oval cut 0.15m x 0.13m x 0.19m post and stakes surrounding pits C.8 deep with sharp break of slope top, and C.17 concave sides, gradual break of slopePermalink: http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/04e1119-stagpark3/ base, rounded point and vertical Stagpark 3, Co. Cork - N8 Mitchelstown Relief Road inclination of axis 24 20E9N 25 25 4 Natural infilling of stakehole. 2 Soft dark grey sandy clay with oc- casional stone inclusions 25 20E9N 24 2 24 Cut of driven stake. One of a group of 2 Circular stakehole 0.07m x 0.06m stake and posts surrounding x 0.12m deep with sharp break of slope top, vertical sides, pointed base and vertical inclination of axis 26 20E9N 27 27 4 Fill of stakehole 2 Loose medium grey sandy clay with occasional small stone inclusions 27 20E9N 26 2 26 Cut of driven stake. One of a group of 2 Oval cut 0.1m x 0.08m x 0.12m stake and posts surrounding pits C.8 deep with sharp break of slope top, and C.17 vertical sides, sharp break of slope base, pointed base and vertical incli- nation of axis 28 20E9N 29 29 4 Infilling of stakehole 2 Loose grey/black sandy clay with frequent small stone inclusions 29 20E9N 28 2 28 Cut of possible stake. One of a group 2 Circular cut 0.05m x 0.05m x of stake and posts surrounding pits C.8 0.04m deep with sharp break of and C.17 slope top, vertical sides, sharp break of slope base, concave base and vertical inclination of axis31 ISSUE 10: Eachtra Journal - ISSN 2009-2237
  • 38. 04E1119 Context # Grid Fill of Filled with Above Below Basic Interpretation Phase Basic description Artefacts 30 20E9N 31 31 4 Infilling of stakehole 2 Loose dark brown sandy clay with no inclusions 31 20E9N 30 2 30 Cut of driven stake. One of a group of 2 Circular cut 0.06m x 0.06m x stake and posts surrounding pits C.8 0.11m deep with sharp break of and C.17 slope top, vertical sides, sharp break of slope base, pointed base and vertical inclination of axis 32 20E9N 33,34,35 33,34,35 4 Infilling of three closely grouped 2 Soft dark grey silty clay with oc- stakeholes casional charcoal and small pebble inclusions 33 20E9N 32 2 32 Cut of driven stake. One of a group 2 Circular cut 0.07m x 0.065m x of stake and posts surrounding. Filled 0.11m deep with sharp break of with the same material as closely slope top, vertical sides, sharp break grouped stakes C.34 and C.35 of slope base, pointed base andPermalink: http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/04e1119-stagpark3/ vertical inclination of axis Stagpark 3, Co. Cork - N8 Mitchelstown Relief Road 34 20E9N 32 2 32 Cut of driven stake. One of a group of 2 Circular cut 0.1m x 0.09m x 0.2m stake and posts surrounding pits C.8 deep with gradual break of slope and C.17. Filled with the same mate- top, steep and vertical sides, gradual rial as closely grouped stakes C.33 and break of slope base, tapered blunt C.35 base and vertical inclination of axis 35 20E9N 32 2 32 Cut of driven stake. One of a group of 2 Circular cut 0.095m x 0.09m x stake and posts surrounding pits C.8 0.06m deep with gradual and and C.17. Filled with the same mate- sharp break of slope top, vertical rial as closely grouped stakes C.33 and sides, gradual break of slope base, C.34 rounded point base and vertical inclination of axis 36 20E9N 37 37 4 Infilling of stakehole 2 Loose grey/black sandy clay with occasional decayed stone inclusions 37 20E9N 36 2 36 Cut of driven stake. One of a group of 2 Circular cut 0.05m x 0.05m x stakeholes surrounding pits C.8 and 0.12m deep with sharp break of C.17. slope top, vertical sides, sharp break of slope base, pointed base and vertical inclination of axis 38 20E9N 38 38 4 Infilling of stakehole 2 Loose grey/brown sandy clay with no inclusions32 ISSUE 10: Eachtra Journal - ISSN 2009-2237
  • 39. 04E1119 Context # Grid Fill of Filled with Above Below Basic Interpretation Phase Basic description Artefacts 39 20E9N 38 2 38 Cut of driven stake. One of a group of 2 Circular stakehole cut 0.1m x 0.1m stake and posts surrounding pits C.8 x 0.12m deep with sharp break of and C.17. slope top, vertical sides, sharp break of slope base, pointed base and vertical inclination of axis. 40 20E9N 41 41 4 Infilling of stakehole 2 Soft black silty clay with occasional charcoal and sub angular pebble inclusions 41 20E9N 40 2 40 Driven stake cut. One of a number of 2 Oval cut 0.075m x 0.07m x 0.08m stakes and posts surrounding pits C.8 deep with sharp break of slope top, and C.17 vertical sides, gradual break of slope base and rounded point 42 20E14N 45 43 44 Infill of trough C.45. This appears to 3 Moderately compact light brown/ be natural material that has slumped in orange silty clay with occasionalPermalink: http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/04e1119-stagpark3/ to the cut, altering the original shape of medium sized stone inclusions Stagpark 3, Co. Cork - N8 Mitchelstown Relief Road the sides 43 20E14N 45 87 42 Burnt mound material located in 3 Loose black sandy clay with medi- the base of trough C.45. The small um heat shattered stone inclusions. amount in the base would seem to have accumulated shortly after use as it lay underneath the slumped natural material C.42 44 20E14N 45 42 4 Peat layer that had accumulated in the 3 Moderately compact dark brown- trough after use and subsequent slump- ish black organic peat with very ing of natural material occasional small stone and frequent organic inclusions 45 20E14N 42,43,44,87 2 87 Cut of rectangular trough located at 2 Sub-rectangular cut 2.02m x 1.45m the northern edge of mound C. 4. Con- x 0.65m deep with rounded corners, tained post and stakeholes in the four sharp break of slope top, concave corners. There was a very thin and frag- sides, sharp break of slope base and ile possible wooden plank located in the flat base. base, suggesting a timber lining. The size of the trough would indicate that the mound was much more substantial originally. high water table meant that the trough filled with water naturally33 ISSUE 10: Eachtra Journal - ISSN 2009-2237
  • 40. 04E1119 Context # Grid Fill of Filled with Above Below Basic Interpretation Phase Basic description Artefacts 46 20E14N 4 1 This layer represents the build up of 3 Moderately compact dark brown/ peat after the on-site bronze age activity black peat with frequent organic and is situated across the northwestern inclusions portion of the mound 47 20E14N 4 Number given to modern field drain 4 Linear SE-NW orientated field drain running across site 48 20E9N 49 49 4 Infilling of stakehole 2 Moderately compact mid grey/ brown sandy clay with occasional small stone and charcoal inclusions 49 20E9N 48 2 48 Cut of driven stake located to the south 2 Oval cut 0.06m x 0.03m x 0.07m of pits C.8 and C.17. One of a number deep with sharp break of slope top, of posts and stakes surrounding these convex sides, gradual break of slope pits base, rounded base and a south to north inclination of axisPermalink: http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/04e1119-stagpark3/ 50 20E9N 51 51 4 Stakehole fill 2 Soft light grey clayey silt with oc- Stagpark 3, Co. Cork - N8 Mitchelstown Relief Road casional charcoal flecks 51 20E9N 50 2 50 Cut of driven stake. One of a number 2 Sub-circular stakehole 0.075m x of stakes and posts that surround pits 0.07m x 0.14m deep with sharp C.8 and C.17 break of slope, vertical sides, gradual break of slope base, pointed base and vertical inclination of axis 52 20E9N 53 53 4 Infilling of stakehole around pits C. 8 2 Soft dark grey clayey silt with no and C.17 inclusions 53 20E9N 52 2 52 Cut of driven stake located to the south 2 Oval stakehole 0.065m x 0.09m of pits C.8 and C.17. One of a number x 0.06m deep with sharp break of of posts and stakes surrounding these slope, vertical sides, gradual break pits of slope base, rounded blunt point and vertical inclination of axis 54 5E25N 5 55 1 Upper fill of large waterlogged pit C.5. ? Moderately compact light orange brown silty clay with occasional organic inclusions. 0.25m deep 55 5E25N 5 56 54 Peat like deposit in pit C.5. This was ? Firm/wet grey/brown organic mate- the most substantial deposit in the rial like not fully formed peat with section. organic inclusions. 0.5m deep.34 ISSUE 10: Eachtra Journal - ISSN 2009-2237
  • 41. 04E1119 Context # Grid Fill of Filled with Above Below Basic Interpretation Phase Basic description Artefacts 56 5E25N 5 5 55 Lower fill of pit C.5. This was mound ? Soft loose waterlogged black silty material. Depth was unknown as coarse sand and heat shattered even with pump water rose too fast to stone. Depth unknown excavate. 57 20E9N 58,63 58,63 4 Infilling of stakehole 2 Soft dark grey clayey silt with oc- casional charcoal flecking and small stone inclusions 58 20E9N 57 2 57 Cut of driven stakehole. One of a 2 Sub-oval stakehole cut 0.145m number of stakeholes surrounding pits x 0.115m x 0.22m deep with C. 8 and C.17 sharp break of slope top, vertical sides, gradual break of slope base, rounded point and vertical inclina- tion of axis 59 10E9N 60 60 4 Infilling of stakehole. 2 Moderately compact brownish greyPermalink: http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/04e1119-stagpark3/ silty clay with no inclusions Stagpark 3, Co. Cork - N8 Mitchelstown Relief Road 60 59 2 59 Cut of driven stake. One of a number 2 Circular stakehole 0.08m square of stakes and posts that surround pits x 0.13m deep with sharp break of C.8 and C.17 slope top, vertical sides, sharp break of slope base, pointed base and vertical inclination of axis 61 62 62 4 Infilling of stakehole 2 Moderately compact brownish grey sandy clay with occasional small stone inclusions 62 61 2 61 Cut of driven stake. One of a number 2 Circular stakehole 0.08m x 0.07m of stakes and posts that surround pits x 0.07m deep with sharp break of C.8 and C.17 slope top, vertical sides, sharp break of slope base, pointed base and vertical inclination of axis 63 20E9N 57 2 57 Cut of driven stake. One of a number 2 Sub-circular stakehole 0.1m square of stakes surrounding pits C.8 and x 0.13m deep with sharp break of C.17 slope top, vertical sides, gradual break of slope base, rounded point and vertical inclination of axis 64 65 65 4 Infilling of stakehole 2 Soft dark grey silty clay with occa- sional charcoal fleck inclusions35 ISSUE 10: Eachtra Journal - ISSN 2009-2237
  • 42. 04E1119 Context # Grid Fill of Filled with Above Below Basic Interpretation Phase Basic description Artefacts 65 64 2 64 Cut of driven stake located to the west 2 Oval stakehole 0.1m x 0.085m x of pits C.8 and C.17. One of a number 0.07m deep with sharp break of of posts and stakes surrounding these slope, vertical sides, gradual break pits of slope base, rounded blunt point and vertical inclination of axis 66 67 67 4 Infilling of stakehole 2 Soft mid grey clayey silt with occa- sional charcoal fleck inclusions 67 66 2 66 Cut of driven stake located to the south 2 Sub-circular stakehole 0.115m x of pits C.8 and C.17. One of a number 0.1m x 0.16m deep with sharp break of posts and stakes surrounding these of slope top, vertical sides, gradual pits break of slope base, rounded point and vertical inclination of axis 68 69 2 69 Cut of small shallow pit with no dis- 2 Oval pit cut 0.48m x 0.41m x 0.2m cernible function deep with sharp break of slope,Permalink: http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/04e1119-stagpark3/ vertical concave sides, sharp break Stagpark 3, Co. Cork - N8 Mitchelstown Relief Road of slope base and flat base 69 68 68 3 Natural infilling of small shallow pit 3 Moderately compact dark brown- ish grey sandy silt with occasional decayed stone inclusions 70 71 71 4 Infilling of driven post 2 Moderately hard mid grey clayey silt with frequent charcoal and occasional burnt stone inclusions. Charcoal located mainly in the centre of the cut 71 70 2 70 Cut of driven post located to the south 2 Sub-circular posthole 0.15m x of pits C.8 and C.17. One of a number 0.14m x 0.22m deep with sharp of stakes and posts that surround these break of slope top, concave sides, two pits sharp break of slope base, V-shaped base and vertical inclination of axis 72 74 74 1 Infilling of shallow pit 2 Soft black silty clay with frequent burnt stone inclusions 73 75 75 74 Infilling of posthole. Truncated by pit 2 Soft dark grey clayey silt with oc- C.74 casional small stone and charcoal inclusions. 0.93m x 0.84m x 0.14m deep36 ISSUE 10: Eachtra Journal - ISSN 2009-2237
  • 43. 04E1119 Context # Grid Fill of Filled with Above Below Basic Interpretation Phase Basic description Artefacts 74 72 73 72 Cut of shallow pit of unknown pur- 2 Circular pit 0.32m x 0.31m x 0.2m pose. Truncates posthole C.75 deep with sharp, gradual and im- perceptible break of slope top, steep sides, gradual break of slope base and flat base 75 73 2 73 Cut of posthole in close proximity to a 2 Sub-circular pit 0.66m x 0.45m x number of stakeholes. Cut by shallow 0.41m deep with sharp break of pit C.74 slope top, steep and vertical sides, gradual break of slope base and rounded point 76 Cancelled context 77 Cancelled context 78 Cancelled context 79 80 95 93 Infilling of domestic pit 3 Moderately compact dark greyPermalink: http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/04e1119-stagpark3/ sandy silt with decayed stone and Stagpark 3, Co. Cork - N8 Mitchelstown Relief Road charcoal inclusions 80 79,93,94,95 2 94 Cut of possible domestic pit. Truncated 2 Rectangular pit with rounded on the southern side by a modern field corners1.35m x 1.1m x 0.3m deep drain. The northern side contained five with sharp break of slope top, verti- equally spaced stakeholes in the base. cal concave sides, gradual break of These are assumed to be associated slope base and flat rectangular base with the pit somehow 81 82 82 3 Natural infilling of stakehole. 3 Soft mid brownish grey clayey sand with no inclusions 82 81 2 81 Driven stakehole on the northern edge 2 Circular stakehole 0.11m square of trough 6 x 0.19m deep with sharp break of slope top, vertical sides, sharp break of slope base, v-shaped base and east to west inclination of axis 83 84 84 3 Infilling of stakehole 2 Soft light grey sandy clay with no inclusions 84 83 2 83 Cut of driven stakehole located under 2 Sub-circular stakehole 0.11m x mound C.3 0.1m x 0.15m deep with sharp break of slope top, vertical sides, gradual break of slope base, pointed base and vertical inclination of axis37 ISSUE 10: Eachtra Journal - ISSN 2009-2237
  • 44. 04E1119 Context # Grid Fill of Filled with Above Below Basic Interpretation Phase Basic description Artefacts 85 86 86 3 Infilling of stakehole on northern edge 2 Compact dark grey fine sand with of trough 6. Located under mound C.3 no inclusions 86 85 2 85 Cut of stakehole on northern edge of 2 Oval stakehole 0.13m x 0.08m x trough C.6 0.12m deep with sharp break of slope top, vertical sides, sharp break of slope base, uneven base and west- east inclination of axis 87 45 45 43 Possible patchy remains of timber sur- 2 Mostly orange/brown. Fairly flat in face in trough C.45. The wood was so plan. V wet and brittle, completely decayed that it remained only as a thin saturated. 1.27m x 0.45m x 0.02m piece of almost brown staining at the deep base of the trough 88 133, 134, 2 139 Cut of oval trough for mound C.3. Lo- 2 Oval trough 2.75m x 2m x 0.8m Single 135, 136, cated on the eastern edge of the mound with gradual break of slope top, piece ofPermalink: http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/04e1119-stagpark3/ 137, 138, 139 steep sides, sharp break of slope worked Stagpark 3, Co. Cork - N8 Mitchelstown Relief Road base and flat base flint 89 90 90,45 87 Infilling of stakehole 3 Loose wet greyish black fine silty sand 90 89 45 89 Cut of driven stake/post in northwest 2 Sub-circular stakehole 0.13m square corner of trough C.45. Similar features x 0.22m deep with sharp break of are located in the other three corners of slope top, steep sides, sharp break of the trough suggesting they supported slope base, v-shaped base and verti- some form of structure cal inclination of axis 91 92 92 87 Infilling of stakehole 3 Loose wet greyish brown silty sand with no inclusions 92 91 45 91 Cut of driven stake in southwest corner 2 Sub-circular stakehole cut 0.09m of trough C.45. Similar features located x 0.07m x 0.18m deep with sharp in the other three corners would sug- break of slope top, vertical sides, gest a supported structure of some form sharp break of slope base, rounded point and slight south-north incli- nation of axis 93 80 79 3 Infill of domestic pit C.80. 3 Firm black silty sand 0.4m deep with burnt stone inclusions 94 80 123 95 Infill of domestic pit C.80. 3 Soft mid grey clayey silt with stone inclusions 0.09m deep38 ISSUE 10: Eachtra Journal - ISSN 2009-2237
  • 45. 04E1119 Context # Grid Fill of Filled with Above Below Basic Interpretation Phase Basic description Artefacts 95 80 94 79 Infill of domestic pit C.80. 3 Loose mid brownish grey coarse sand with decayed stone inclusions 0.3m deep 96 Cancelled context 97 98 3 1 Number given to plough furrow. Cuts 4 Linear plough furrow 0.12m wide through mound C.3 and southern edge x 0.1m deep filled with sub angular of domestic pit C.80 stones 98 Cancelled context 99 100, 101, 100, 101, 4 Fill of four closely grouped stakeholes 2 Loose mid grey sandy clay with 102, 103, 102, 103, on the northern edge of pit C.17 occasional small stone and charcoal 141 141 inclusions 100 99 2 99 Stakehole cut to the north of pit C.17. 2 Irregular stakehole cut 0.1m x 0.1m One of a number of posts and stakes x 0.09m deep with sharp break of that surround pits C.8 and C.17 slope top, steep and vertical sides,Permalink: http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/04e1119-stagpark3/ gradual break of slope base and Stagpark 3, Co. Cork - N8 Mitchelstown Relief Road rounded base 101 99 2 99 Stakehole cut to the north of pit C.17. 2 Oval stakehole 0.08m x 0.06m x One of a number of posts and stakes 0.12m deep with sharp break of that surround pits C.8 and C.17 slope top, vertical sides, sharp break of slope base, pointed base and vertical inclination of axis 102 99 2 99 Stakehole cut to the north of pit C.17. 2 Circular stakehole 0.07m x 0.07m One of a number of posts and stakes x 0.16m deep with sharp break of that surround pits C.8 and C.17 slope top, vertical sides, sharp break of slope base, pointed base and vertical inclination of axis 103 99 2 99 Stakehole cut to the north of pit C.17. 2 Circular stakehole 0.05m x 0.05m One of a number of posts and stakes x 0.09m deep with sharp break of that surround pits C.8 and C.17 slope top, vertical sides, sharp break of slope base, pointed base and vertical inclination of axis 104 105, 106, 105, 106, 3 Infilling of stakehole a number of 2 Soft greyish black silty clay with 107, 108, 107, 108, closely grouped stakeholes occasional pebble and charcoal 109 109 inclusions39 ISSUE 10: Eachtra Journal - ISSN 2009-2237
  • 46. 04E1119 Context # Grid Fill of Filled with Above Below Basic Interpretation Phase Basic description Artefacts 105 104 2 104 Cut of driven stake under what would 2 Circular stakehole 0.11m x 0.11m have been the eastern edge of mound x 0.12m deep with sharp break of C.3. One of a number of stakeholes in slope top, vertical sides, gradual this area break of slope base, pointed base and vertical inclination of axis 106 104 2 104 Cut of driven stake under what would 2 Oval stakehole 0.16m x 0.12m x have been the eastern edge of mound 0.1m deep with sharp break of slope C.3. One of a number of stakeholes in top, vertical sides, gradual break of this area slope base, rounded point and verti- cal inclination of axis 107 104 2 104 Cut of driven stake under what would 2 Sub-circular stakehole 0.12m x have been the eastern edge of mound 0.12m x 0.14m deep with sharp C.3. One of a number of stakeholes in break of slope top, vertical sides, this area gradual break of slope base,Permalink: http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/04e1119-stagpark3/ rounded point and vertical inclina- tion of axis Stagpark 3, Co. Cork - N8 Mitchelstown Relief Road 108 104 2 104 Cut of driven stake under what would 2 Cut of oval stakehole 0.14m x have been the eastern edge of mound 0.125m x 0.15m deep with sharp C.3. One of a number of stakeholes in break of slope top, vertical sides, this area gradual break of slope base, rounded point and vertical inclina- tion of axis 109 104 2 104 Cut of driven stake under what would 2 Circular stakehole with gradual have been the eastern edge of mound break of slope top and base, vertical C.3. One of a number of stakeholes in sides, pointed base and vertical this area inclination of axis 110 111, 114 2 114 Cut of possible domestic pit. Cut by 2 Sub-oval pit 1.02m x 0.5m x 0.24m posthole C.125 deep with gradual break of slope top and base, gradual and steep sides and flat base 111 110, 113 114 125 Infilling of possible domestic pit and 2 Soft black clayey silt 0.14m deep posthole. Infilled prior to on-site activ- with moderate charcoal sandstone ity as cut by posthole C.125 inclusions 112 117 117 115 Infilling of posthole, cut by pit C.115 2 Unknown40 ISSUE 10: Eachtra Journal - ISSN 2009-2237
  • 47. 04E1119 Context # Grid Fill of Filled with Above Below Basic Interpretation Phase Basic description Artefacts 113 111, 114 2 114 Posthole cut in close proximity to a 2 Sub-circular posthole 0.21m x 0.2m Flint number of other stakeholes x 0.23m deep with sharp break of Flake slope top, vertical sides, gradual break of slope base, rounded blunt point and vertical inclination of axis 114 110, 113 110, 113 111 Infilling of possible domestic pit and 2 Soft mid brown silty clay 0.1m deep posthole. Infilled prior to on-site activ- with occasional pebble and charcoal ity as cut by posthole C.125 fleck inclusions 115 116 112 116 Cut of possible domestic pit. Truncates 2 Sub-oval pit 2.6m x 1.1m x 0.35m posthole C.117 deep with gradual break of slope top and base, gently sloping sides and flat base 116 115 115 3 Infilling of possible domestic pit 2 Firm black clayey silt with burnt stone and charcoal inclusionsPermalink: http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/04e1119-stagpark3/ 117 112 2 112 Driven posthole cut truncated by pit 2 Circular posthole 0.35m x 0.35m Stagpark 3, Co. Cork - N8 Mitchelstown Relief Road C.115 x 0.31m deep with gradual break of slope top and base, vertical sides and rounded blunt point 118 123 80 123 One of a number of equally spaced 2 Circular stakehole 0.05m x 0.05m stakeholes within the northern edge of x 0.09m deep with sharp break of pit C.80 slope top and base, vertical sides, pointed base and vertical inclina- tion of axis 119 123 80 123 One of a number of equally spaced 2 Circular stakehole 0.06m x 0.06m stakeholes within the northern edge of x 0.13m deep with sharp break of pit C.80 slope top and base, vertical sides, pointed base and vertical inclina- tion of axis 120 123 80 123 One of a number of equally spaced 2 Circular stakehole 0.05m x 0.05m stakeholes within the northern edge of x 0.06m deep with sharp break of pit C.80 slope, vertical sides, pointed base and vertical inclination of axis 121 123 80 123 One of a number of equally spaced 2 Circular stakehole 0.07m x 0.07m stakeholes within the northern edge of x 0.12m deep with sharp break of pit C.80 slope, vertical sides, pointed base and vertical inclination of axis41 ISSUE 10: Eachtra Journal - ISSN 2009-2237
  • 48. 04E1119 Context # Grid Fill of Filled with Above Below Basic Interpretation Phase Basic description Artefacts 122 123 80 123 One of a number of equally spaced 2 Oval stakehole 0.06m x 0.04m x stakeholes within the northern edge of 0.05m deep with sharp break of pit C.80 slope, vertical sides, pointed base and vertical inclination of axis 123 118, 119, 118, 119, 94 Infilling of a number of stakeholes 2 Soft light brownish grey silty clay 130, 121, 130, 121, located along the base of pit C.80 with no inclusions 122 122 124 125 125 3 Infilling of driven posthole 2 Soft dark grey silty clay with oc- casional pebble inclusions 125 124 2 111 Cut of driven posthole that truncates 2 Circular posthole 0.17m x 0.15m x earlier pit C.110 0.2m deep with sharp break of slope top, vertical sides, gradual break of slope base and rounded point 126 127, 128 127 43 Infilling of stakeholes within the base 2 Soft wet black sandy silt with oc-Permalink: http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/04e1119-stagpark3/ of trough C.45 casional stone and frequent charcoal Stagpark 3, Co. Cork - N8 Mitchelstown Relief Road inclusions 127 126 45 126 Cut of stakehole located in southeast 2 Circular stakehole 0.08m x 0.08m corner of trough C.45. Similar features x 0.18m deep with sharp break of in the other corners would suggest a slope top and base, vertical sides supported structure of some kind and pointed base, with vertical inclination of axis 128 126 45 126 Cut of stakehole located in southeast 2 Circular stakehole cut 0.06m x corner of trough C.45. Similar features 0.06m x 0.16m deep with sharp in the other corners would suggest a break of slope top and base, vertical supported structure of some kind sides, pointed base and vertical inclination of axis 129 126 45 126 Cut of stakehole located in northeast 2 Sub-circular stakehole 0.08m x corner of trough C.45. Similar features 0.07m x 0.16m deep with sharp in the other corners would suggest a break of slope top, and base, vertical supported structure of some kind sides, pointed base and nearly verti- cal inclination of axis 130 126 45 126 Cut of stakehole located in southeast 2 Circular stakehole 0.04m x 0.04m corner of trough C.45. Similar features x 0.11m deep with sharp break of in the other corners would suggest a slope top, vertical sides, sharp break supported structure of some kind of slope base, pointed base and vertical inclination of axis42 ISSUE 10: Eachtra Journal - ISSN 2009-2237
  • 49. 04E1119 Context # Grid Fill of Filled with Above Below Basic Interpretation Phase Basic description Artefacts 131 126 45 126 Cut of stakehole located in southeast 2 Sub-circular stakehole 0.05m x corner of trough C.45. Similar features 0.04m x 0.1m deep with sharp in the other corners would suggest a break of slope top and base, vertical supported structure of some kind sides, pointed base and vertical inclination of axis 132 126 45 126 Cut of stakehole located in southeast 2 Circular stakehole 0.06m x 0.06m corner of trough C.45. Similar features x 0.14m deep with sharp break of in the other corners would suggest a slope top and base, vertical sides, supported structure of some kind pointed base and vertical inclina- tion of axis 133 88 134 2 Upper fill of trough C.88. Located to 3 Loose dark brown /black sand clay Single the east of mound. Although does not with 50% heat shattered stone piece of lie under the mound it does contain inclusions 0.3m deep worked hest shattered stone flintPermalink: http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/04e1119-stagpark3/ 134 88 135 133 Fill of trough C.88 3 Friable grey sandy silt with charcoal Stagpark 3, Co. Cork - N8 Mitchelstown Relief Road and small stone inclusions 0.19m deep 135 88 136 134 Fill of trough C.88 3 Loose red/black gritty sand with iron panning and small pebble inclusions 0.04m deep 136 88 137 135 Fill of trough C.88 3 Loose medium to dark grey silty clay with burnt stone and charcoal inclusions 0.22m deep 137 88 138 136 Fill of trough C.88 3 Loose wet brown organic layer with charcoal and wood inclusions 0.04m deep 138 88 139 137 Fill of trough C.88 3 Loose grey/red gritty sandy layer with 90% large stone inclusions 0.18m deep 139 88 88 138 Fill of trough C.88 3 Loose grey brown sandy silt with small stone inclusions 0.12m deep 140 2 4 Material located in shallow depression 2 Moderately compact dark grey along northwestern edge of mound C.4 sandy clay with occasional small stone and charcoal inclusions. 1.45m x 1.3m x 0.2m deep43 ISSUE 10: Eachtra Journal - ISSN 2009-2237
  • 50. 04E1119 Context # Grid Fill of Filled with Above Below Basic Interpretation Phase Basic description Artefacts 141 99 2 99 Cut of driven stake located on the 2 Oval cut 0.08m x 0.06m x 0.12m northern side of pit C.17. One of a deep with sharp break of slope top number of stakes and posts surround- and base, vertical sides and pointed ing pits C.8 and C.17 base. 142 143 2 143 Cut of posthole located in close 2 Circular posthole 0.12m x 0.1m x proximity and possibly associated with 0.4m deep with sharp break of slope trough C. 88 , vertical sides and pointed base. South to north inclination of axis 143 142 142 1 Infilling of posthole 3 Light brown silty clay with no inclusions 144 Cancelled context 145 Cancelled context 146 147 2 147 Cut of posthole located in close 2 Circular posthole 0.1m x 0.1m x proximity and possibly associated with 0.24m deep with sharp break ofPermalink: http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/04e1119-stagpark3/ trough C.88 slope, vertical sides and pointed Stagpark 3, Co. Cork - N8 Mitchelstown Relief Road base 147 146 146 1 Infilling of stakehole 3 Malleable brown silty clay with very occasional pebble inclusions 148 149 88 149 Cut of stakehole located within top of 2 Sub-circular stakehole 0.07m x cut for trough C.88, suggesting a sup- 0.05m x 0.2m deep with sharp ported structure of some kind break of slope, vertical sides and flat base 149 148 148 139 Infilling of stakehole 3 Friable brown silty clay with no inclusions 150 151 88 151 Cut of stakehole located within top of 2 Oval stakehole cut 0.13m x 0.1m cut for trough C.88, suggesting a sup- x 0.24m deep with sharp break ported structure of some kind of slope, steep sides and rounded point, with vertical inclination of axis 151 150 150 139 Infilling of stakehole 3 Light grey sandy silt with occasional pebble inclusions 152 153 88 153 Cut of stakehole located within top of 2 Sub-circular stakehole 0.07m x cut for trough C.88, suggesting a sup- 0.06m x 0.07m deep with sharp ported structure of some kind break of slope, straight sides and pointed base44 ISSUE 10: Eachtra Journal - ISSN 2009-2237
  • 51. 04E1119 Context # Grid Fill of Filled with Above Below Basic Interpretation Phase Basic description Artefacts 153 152 152 139 Infilling of stakehole 3 Sticky grey clay with occasional small pebble inclusions 154 155 88 155 Cut of stakehole located within top of 2 Oval stakehole 0.07m x 0.05m x cut for trough C.88, suggesting a sup- 0.09m deep with sharp break of ported structure of some kind slope, vertical sides and pointed base 155 154 154 139 Infilling of stakehole 3 Wet sticky grey clay with occasional pebble inclusions 156 157 88 157 Cut of stakehole located within top of 2 Oval stakehole 0.1m x 0.07m x cut for trough C.88, suggesting a sup- 0.29m deep with sharp break of ported structure of some kind slope top, vertical sides, gradual break of slope base and rounded point 157 156 156 139 Infilling of stakehole 3 Malleable brown silty clay with veryPermalink: http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/04e1119-stagpark3/ occasional pebble inclusions Stagpark 3, Co. Cork - N8 Mitchelstown Relief Road 158 159 88 159 Cut of stakehole located within top of 2 Circular stakehole 0.08m x 0.08m cut for trough C.88, suggesting a sup- x 0.16m deep with sharp break of ported structure of some kind slope, vertical sides and pointed base 159 158 158 139 Infilling of stakehole 3 Soft reddish brown sandy silt45 ISSUE 10: Eachtra Journal - ISSN 2009-2237
  • 52. 04E1119 Stagpark 3, Co. Cork - N8 Mitchelstown Relief Road ISSUE 10: Eachtra Journal - ISSN 2009-2237 11.3 Appendix 3: Context Register Find number Period Artefact type 04E1119:113:01 prehistoric Flint flake 11.4 Appendix 4: Charred plant remains from Stagpark 3, Co. Cork (04E1119) By Abigail Brewer 11.4.1 Introduction This report details the analysis of charred seeds and plant remains from samples taken during excava- tion of a burnt mound, pit and stakeholes excavated at Stagpark 3, Co. Cork. 11.4.2 Methodology The samples were collected on site as bulk soil and were processed using a simple flotation method. Each sample was saturated in water to allow carbonised plant material to float; this “flot” (the floating material) was then poured into a stack of geological sieves and trapped in the sieve meshes (the small- est measured 250µm). When all the carbonised material was collected the flot was then air-dried in paper-lined drying trays prior to storage in airtight plastic bags. All the samples were initially scanned under low magnification (using a binocular microscope with magnification x10 to x40) to identify the samples with most potential for analysis, the scanning results are listed in Table 1. None of the samples contained the remains of charred seeds. 11.4.3 Results Four samples were scanned for charred plant remains. Although all the samples contained charcoal no charred seeds were recovered from the site. Charred seeds are consistently absent from burnt mound deposits; several burnt mounds excavated by Eachtra Archaeological Projects have produced little or no macro-plant remains, for example at three burnt mounds excavated in advance of works on the N22 in Co. Kerry (04E0646, 04E0647 and 04E0647ext), all of which produced only negative results. While the debate rages regarding the function of burnt mounds, plant remains studies can only contribute a negative; they were evidently never involved in the processing of cereal foods.Permalink: http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/04e1119-stagpark3/ 46
  • 53. 04E1119 Stagpark 3, Co. Cork - N8 Mitchelstown Relief Road ISSUE 10: Eachtra Journal - ISSN 2009-2237 11.4.4 Non-Technical Summary This report examined the plant remains taken from a burnt mound excavated at Stagpark 3, Co. Cork. There were no charred seeds in the samples, an absence that is consistent in samples of charred remains from burnt mounds. Table 1: Scanning results from Stagpark 3, Co. Cork (04E1119) Context S.S. No. Cereals Weeds Charcoal Comments 3 1 **** 17g 3 2 **** 9g 50 3 **** 17g 55 6 **** 20g Appendix 5: Summary account of site archive Stagpark 3 04E1119 Type Description Quantity Notes Contexts Validated contexts from excavation 159 Plans 1:100 plan (sheets) 4 1:50 plan (sheets) 6 1:20 plan (sheets) 0 Sections 1:20 sections and profiles (Sheets) 5 Matrices 1 Full site matrix Photographs 51 Two rolls of film Registers Context 1 Photograph 1 Drawing 1 Finds 1 Samples 1Permalink: http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/04e1119-stagpark3/ 47
  • 54. 04E1119 Stagpark 3, Co. Cork - N8 Mitchelstown Relief Road ISSUE 10: Eachtra Journal - ISSN 2009-2237 11.6 Appendix 6: Dissemination Strategy Publications Excavations 2004 Text submitted January 2004 Publication pending NRA publication Text submitted February 2006 Publication pending Presentation Lecture given to Mitchelstown and Mallow Historical Societies May & October 2005 Overview of the Scheme was given to the IAI conference in Cork April 2005 It is the right of Cork County Council (the Council) to fulfil some or all of the stated publication requirements, either in part or in full, should it so decide, and that copyright is aggisned to the Council in order that it may make such information available to the public. It is the right of Cork County Council (the Council) to fulfil some or all of the stated presentation requirements, either in part or in full, should it so decide. 11.7 Appendix 7: Programme Schedule Dates & Deliveries Phase 1 testing June 2004 Phase 2 resolution Duration of excavation 13th Sept-14th Oct & 29th Nov-8th Dec 2004 Phase 3 post-excavation Postex Assessment & Stragegy Document submitted to Cork County Council March 2005 Interim Excavation Report Report submitted to Cork County Council August 2005 Final Excavation Report Report submitted to Cork County Council March 2006 Publications Excavations 2004 Summary submitted January 2005 NRA Monography Summary submitted to Cork County Council February 2006Permalink: http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/04e1119-stagpark3/ 48

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