Deconstructing Exergames
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Deconstructing Exergames

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Deconstructing Exergames Deconstructing Exergames Presentation Transcript

  • A Method for Tearing Apart and Quantifying Elements of Game Design in Exergames Ernesto Ramirez, Marc Adams, Simon J. Marshall, Greg J. Norman, Lindsay Dillon, Susan Caparosa Center for Wireless and Population Health Systems
  • What I’m playing...
  • Exergames: What’s the Point? Traditional Video Games 3
  • Exergames: What’s the Point? Traditional Video Games Fun Challenging Exciting 3
  • 4
  • SEDENTARY 4
  • The Exergame Difference Movement Activity Interactive Experience 5
  • What makes people play? Limited knowledge of the theoretical principles of game playing behavior. Adherence may be linked to psychological constructs: Enjoyment, Pleasure, Motivating, etc. Personal & Social factors related to game play environment. 6
  • What makes people play? Limited knowledge of the theoretical principles of game playing behavior. Adherence may be linked to psychological constructs: Enjoyment, Pleasure, Motivating, etc. Personal & Social factors related to game play environment. BUT WHAT ABOUT THE ACTUAL GAME? 6
  • Theoretical Principles The ABC’s of Operant Theory 7
  • Theoretical Principles The ABC’s of Operant Theory A Antecedent Stimuli Prompting Modeling Goals 7
  • Theoretical Principles The ABC’s of Operant Theory A B Antecedent Behavior Stimuli Desired Prompting Undesired Modeling Goals 7
  • Theoretical Principles The ABC’s of Operant Theory A B C Antecedent Behavior Consequences Stimuli Stimuli Desired + Reinforcement Prompting Undesired - Reinforcement Modeling Punishment Goals Extinction 7
  • Why Use Operant Theory? Games provide a unique “closed-loop” environment to examine the interactions between theoretical principles and behavior. Interactions between contingencies and behavior can be closely examined. Games provide immediate feedback on behavior. Exergames have not been previously examined within this well known theoretical context 8
  • A: Antecedents In game play antecedents typically function as: Instructions Modeling of behavior Visual and audible signals that inform player a
  • Antecedent Examples
  • Antecedent Examples Instructions Instructions
  • Antecedent Examples
  • Antecedent Examples Continuous modeling of behavior
  • B: Behavior Exergame behavior is quite different from traditional games
  • B: Behavior Exergame behavior is quite different from traditional games Traditional Games Thumb & Finger
  • B: Behavior Exergame behavior is quite different from traditional games Traditional Games Exergames Run Step Swing Throw Thumb & Finger Punch Dodge
  • Dimensions of Behavior Form/Topography - What is the behavior? Frequency - How many times does the behavior occur? Rate - Number of behavior responses over time Intensity - The “force” of the response Duration - Length of continuous behavior Latency - Period between game stimuli and player response
  • Behavior Examples Topography: What is the action?
  • Behavior Examples Topography: What is the action? Left and Right Jab
  • Behavior Examples Games can change behavior by influencing dimensions
  • Behavior Examples Level Hits Time Rate Games can 1 2 20 25 10 10 2.00 2.50 change behavior 3 45 15 3.00 4 55 15 3.67 by influencing 5 80 20 4.00 6 90 20 4.50 dimensions 7 125 25 5.00 8 140 25 5.60 9 180 30 6.00 10 200 30 6.67
  • C: Consequences & Contingencies Stimuli or feedback recieved during game play Reinforcement can be used to increase desired behavior(s) Gain points for correct play (+) Reduce speed of game (-) Penalties/Punishment can be used to decrease incorrect behavior(s) Loss of points Negative sounds and images
  • Contingency Examples For each hit (positive reinforcement) Point increase Punching sounds Red halo at punch site Screen shakes Player does not pass level ( positive punishment) “Failed” text on screen Negative sounds
  • The Process Independent Coding Coding Agreement Analysis Coding the Codes
  • Independent Coding Trained research assistants Play games Watch recorded game play Record observations in “real words”
  • Identifying Contingencies
  • Identifying Contingencies
  • Each time the player knocks down one white pin, the game: BEHAVIOR Presents an increment of 120 points +R Each time the player knocks down one gold pin, the game: BEHAVIOR Presents an increase of 240 points +R Presents an ‘energizing sound’. +R Presents “SUPERMODE” +R Presents music associated with SUPERMODE +R Decreases game pace (slows down) +R Presents cumulative count of pins +R Each time the player knocks down one black pin, the game: BEHAVIOR Presents “Penalty” + punish Decrease of 1 ball in stock - punish Presents negative sound + punish During SUPERMODE (ANTECEDENT), each time a player knocks down a white pin, the game: BEHAVIOR Presents an increment of 150 points +R Resets SUPERMODE time counter +R Adds one point to the pin count +R Adds 1 point to the bonus fraction +R When fraction = 1, bonus ball awarded +R
  • Qualitative Analysis Game “codes” are analyzed for Theoretical construct Construct dimension Additional details
  • Qualitative Analysis: Coding the Codes “For each punch on the boxing bag, the game presents a red visual halo at punch location.”
  • Qualitative Analysis: Coding the Codes “For each punch on the boxing bag, the game presents a red visual halo at punch location.” •Theoretical construct •Construct dimension •Additional details
  • Qualitative Analysis: Coding the Codes “For each punch on the boxing bag, the game presents a red visual halo at punch location.” •Theoretical construct Contingency •Construct dimension Positive Reinforcement •Additional details Continuous Reinforcement
  • Why? Develop system of understanding game design can be applied to all games Determine what game players enjoy Discover how game design is linked to actual game play Adherence and Sustainability
  • Next Steps Identify high and low fidelity games Associated behavioral principles Investigate game play in children using identified games Correlate principles and game play Identify core principles related to adherence
  • Other interesting dimensions We are aware that Operant Theory doesn’t cover everything Motivation Persuasion Interactivity Social Connections and Cooperation
  • Other interesting dimensions We are aware that Operant Theory doesn’t cover everything Motivation Persuasion Interactivity Social Connections and Cooperation But no one study can do it all!
  • Acknowledgements Robert Wood Johnson Foundation & Games for Health Initiative University of California, San Diego All of our coders and game players
  • Thank you erramirez@ucsd.edu Twitter: @e_ramirez Center for Wireless and Population Health Systems