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Quick and short explanation of how the internet works

Quick and short explanation of how the internet works

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  • 1. Web Technologies101Developer: Edd Parris | edd@nixonmcinnes.co.uk | 01273 764016 | @empika
  • 2. HighlightsOverview Part 1: How does the Internet work? A basic overview of what happens when you look at a page on the Internet. Part 2: Lets set up a web server. Part 3: The anatomy of a web page. Part 4: Some other cool things.
  • 3. Part 1: How does the Internet work? Lets walk through the steps of what happens when we look at a website in a browser. I like to think that the whole thing is a bit like ordering food in a restaurant.
  • 4. Part 1: How does the Internet work? A fancy restaurant The InternetsYou choose a restaurant to eat at. A website to look at.You look at a menu and choose a dish. Choose which webpage you want to see.You then ask the waiter for it for that item. Click a link or enter an address in your browser.The waiter then goes to the kitchen and asks Your browser contacts the server and asksthe chef to cook it for you. for the page.The chef cooks your food. The server fetches or creates the page.Once ready, the waiter returns to your table The server returns your page and yourand delivers your chosen food. browser displays it.
  • 5. Part 1: How does the Internet work? When you enter the address of a website to look at, firstly a DNS look up is made. DNS stands for Domain Name System and is like a giant telephone directory for the internet. Much like peoples names, we can easily remember Google.co.uk or Channel4.com, but it is a lot harder to remember a telephone number or the Internet equivalent, an Internet Protocol address (IP address). For example, 74.125.230.114 Find out more: http://j.mp/wt-101-dns
  • 6. Part 1: How does the Internet work? Once your computer has the IP address, it can then go out into the Internet and contact the server, requesting the page that you are asking for.
  • 7. Part 1: How does the Internet work? So we ask the server for a specific page. The server then responds with our page, or if the page we asked for doesnt exist we will be told that so. Either way, our browser will then display the results.
  • 8. Part 1: How does the Internet work? Lets recap...You choose a restaurant to eat at. A website to look at.You look at a menu and choose an item. Choose which webpage you want to see.You then ask the waiter for it for that item. Click a link or enter an address in your browser.The waiter then goes to the kitchen and Your browser contacts the server andasks the chef to cook it for you. asks for the page.The chef cooks your food. The server fetches or creates the page.Once ready, the waiter returns to your The server returns your page and yourtable and delivers your chosen food. browser displays it.
  • 9. Part 2: Lets set up a web server
  • 10. Part 2: Lets set up a web server Imagine a kitchen in a restaurant. Its full of fridges, ovens, hobs, chefs and ingredients. All the different elements are used to cook tasty food, which is then sent on its way to the customer. A server is a bit like a kitchen, there are various components used to construct a webpage and deliver it to the user.
  • 11. Part 2: Lets set up a web server First we need a server. (Find out more: http://j.mp/wt-101-server) Next we need a domain name and IP address. And then we need some files to put on our server for people to look at.
  • 12. Part 3: The anatomy of a web page No we have a server set up, lets see what an actual web page is made of and how to make one. Webpages are constructed from 3 basic building blocks, these are: CSS HTML Javascript (Cascading Style Sheets)
  • 13. Part 3: The anatomy of a web page So what do these things do? HTML: Creates page structure Displays Images Displays text and links Loads the CSS and Javascript files CSS: Controls the layout of the page along with the HTML Controls the look and feel Colors Fonts Decoration (borders, underline, etc) Javascript: Added interactivity Send and receive extra data without reloading the page
  • 14. Part 3: The anatomy of a web page
  • 15. Part 3: The anatomy of a web page Lets have a look at all of this in practice. Get the files here: https://github.com/empika/Web-tech-101-files
  • 16. Part 4: Some other cool things Here is a list of a million other interesting things we could talk about or you could investigate yourselves: History of the Internet/web Tim Berners-Lee Security and Privacy Mobile Scalability Cloud computing Internationalization Netbooks and thin clients APIs Semantic web AJAX The web of things HTML 5 Message queues CSS 3 IPv6 Server side technologies Data push and realtime data Browser advancement
  • 17. Thank you for your time! Thank you very much. I have been Edward Parris. This has been the Internet. I hope you enjoyed the presentation.