Very strong winds
Little soil and fresh water
Latitude at 66.5 north and south of the equator
High and low elevations some areas being flat where
others are rather mountainous. Above 4,200m
Lichens (fungi and algae)
Many species of moss in the Arctic, but few in
Arctic has 100+ flowering plants, but the Antarctic
has only 2.
These animals all have adapted to the very cold climate. For example
penguins, polar bears, seals, and walruses all have fat layers and thick coats, or
in the penguins case tightly packed feathers to retain heat. The has adapted
very well they also have no external ears and they lie closely in herds of 1,000+
to reduce heat loss and retain heat.
Annual precipitation of no more than 50cm.
Average Arctic temperatures range form 3°C to
14°C in the summer and around -30°C in the winter.
Average Antarctic temperatures range from 9°C
(coast) to -30°C (inland) and can drop as low as 89°C in the winter.
The sun shines for almost 24hrs in the summer, but
hardly ever in the winter.
Polar land masses and polar ice caps
Including Arctic, Antarctica, and Greenland
The factor that most affects living organisms is
The air pollution is causing Global Warming which is
melting the ice caps where these species live.
The water pollution is making the marine life sick
and causing problems for the animals that depend
these fish for food.
An invasive specie is the king crab. They are coming
from deep in the sea to the Antarctic a place where
they had not been for possibly a million years.
Scientists are concerned because they are eating
clams, snails, and brittle stars. The loss of these
mollusks can jeopardize the sea squirts which feed on
these organisms. The sea squirt is important because
scientist McClintock believes that it they produce
something that will cure skin cancer.
Here is one food web that can be found in Permanent
Mutualism is a relationship between two species where
they both benefit. An example of mutualism that can
be found in Permanent Ice is lichen. The fungi(fungal
hyphae) surrounds the algae(algal cells) which protects
it and provides the algae with water and salt. In return
the algae provides the fungi with sugar and oxygen.
An example of succession are the glacial shifts that
occur on a large area of land. When large areas of ice
shift new land in exposed. This makes way for plants
such as lichens and moss to grow, then for other plants
that are native to the area.
Predator vs. Prey
The polar bear is for the most part the apex predator in
the Permanent Ice.
Ex. Polar bear and seals
Seals and krill
BC Science 10 By McGraw-Hill Ryerson