Permanent Ice
EMMA MCGAFFNEY
Abiotic Characteristics
 Very strong winds
 Little soil and fresh water
 Mainly ice
 Latitude at 66.5 north and south ...
Biotic Characteristics
 Lichens (fungi and algae)
 Many species of moss in the Arctic, but few in

Antarctica.
 Arctic ...
Biotic Characteristics
Arctic:

Antarctic:

Polar Bears

Penguins

Walruses

Marine Mammals

Seals
Arctic Foxes
Marine Mam...
Climate
 Annual precipitation of no more than 50cm.
 Average Arctic temperatures range form 3°C to

14°C in the summer a...
Climatograph
Location
 Polar land masses and polar ice caps
 Including Arctic, Antarctica, and Greenland
Bioaccumulation
 The factor that most affects living organisms is

human pollution.
 The air pollution is causing Global...
Invasive Species
An invasive specie is the king crab. They are coming
from deep in the sea to the Antarctic a place where
...
Food Webs
Here is one food web that can be found in Permanent
Ice.
Biotic Relationships
Mutualism is a relationship between two species where
they both benefit. An example of mutualism that...
Succession
An example of succession are the glacial shifts that
occur on a large area of land. When large areas of ice
shi...
Predator vs. Prey
The polar bear is for the most part the apex predator in
the Permanent Ice.
Ex. Polar bear and seals
Sea...
Bibliography
http://answers.yahoo.com/question/index?qid=20130906002225AA70a
nY
http://polaricebiome.pbworks.com/w/page/17...
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Science10 h permanentice

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My Science 10H project on Permanent Ice.

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Science10 h permanentice

  1. 1. Permanent Ice EMMA MCGAFFNEY
  2. 2. Abiotic Characteristics  Very strong winds  Little soil and fresh water  Mainly ice  Latitude at 66.5 north and south of the equator  High and low elevations some areas being flat where others are rather mountainous. Above 4,200m
  3. 3. Biotic Characteristics  Lichens (fungi and algae)  Many species of moss in the Arctic, but few in Antarctica.  Arctic has 100+ flowering plants, but the Antarctic has only 2.
  4. 4. Biotic Characteristics Arctic: Antarctic: Polar Bears Penguins Walruses Marine Mammals Seals Arctic Foxes Marine Mammals Insects These animals all have adapted to the very cold climate. For example penguins, polar bears, seals, and walruses all have fat layers and thick coats, or in the penguins case tightly packed feathers to retain heat. The has adapted very well they also have no external ears and they lie closely in herds of 1,000+ to reduce heat loss and retain heat.
  5. 5. Climate  Annual precipitation of no more than 50cm.  Average Arctic temperatures range form 3°C to 14°C in the summer and around -30°C in the winter.  Average Antarctic temperatures range from 9°C (coast) to -30°C (inland) and can drop as low as 89°C in the winter.  The sun shines for almost 24hrs in the summer, but hardly ever in the winter.
  6. 6. Climatograph
  7. 7. Location  Polar land masses and polar ice caps  Including Arctic, Antarctica, and Greenland
  8. 8. Bioaccumulation  The factor that most affects living organisms is human pollution.  The air pollution is causing Global Warming which is melting the ice caps where these species live.  The water pollution is making the marine life sick and causing problems for the animals that depend these fish for food.
  9. 9. Invasive Species An invasive specie is the king crab. They are coming from deep in the sea to the Antarctic a place where they had not been for possibly a million years. Scientists are concerned because they are eating clams, snails, and brittle stars. The loss of these mollusks can jeopardize the sea squirts which feed on these organisms. The sea squirt is important because scientist McClintock believes that it they produce something that will cure skin cancer.
  10. 10. Food Webs Here is one food web that can be found in Permanent Ice.
  11. 11. Biotic Relationships Mutualism is a relationship between two species where they both benefit. An example of mutualism that can be found in Permanent Ice is lichen. The fungi(fungal hyphae) surrounds the algae(algal cells) which protects it and provides the algae with water and salt. In return the algae provides the fungi with sugar and oxygen.
  12. 12. Succession An example of succession are the glacial shifts that occur on a large area of land. When large areas of ice shift new land in exposed. This makes way for plants such as lichens and moss to grow, then for other plants that are native to the area.
  13. 13. Predator vs. Prey The polar bear is for the most part the apex predator in the Permanent Ice. Ex. Polar bear and seals Seals and krill
  14. 14. Bibliography http://answers.yahoo.com/question/index?qid=20130906002225AA70a nY http://polaricebiome.pbworks.com/w/page/17492418/FrontPage http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Polar_climate http://prezi.com/yu-zvbyeogn1/polar-ice/ http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2011/04/110419191022.htm http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2007/05/070516101548.htm http://answers.yahoo.com/question/index?qid=20081208214346AAS9b 2U http://ca.answers.yahoo.com/question/index?qid=20110707165710AAn0 qAn BC Science 10 By McGraw-Hill Ryerson

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