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Mycoplasma
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Mycoplasma

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  • 1. Mycoplasma G-ve
  • 2.  
  • 3.
    • Devoid of cell wall-highly pleomorphic
    • Lack even cell wall precursors-muramic acid
    • Cells are bounded by trilaminar unit membrane containing sterols
    • PPLO was replaced by Mycoplasma
  • 4.
    • FamilyMycoplasmataceae
    • Genus-Mycoplasma
    • Genus Ureaplasma
    • Family Acholeplasmataceae
    • Mycoplasma –saprophytic,parasitic,pathogenic
    • M.pneumoniae
    • M.hominis
    • U.Urealyticum
    • Acholeplasma laidlawii
  • 5.
    • Morphology
    • Smallest free living micro organisms—most plemarphic
    • Occur as granules and filaments of various sizes
    • In some—bulbous enlargement with a differebtiated tip structure—attached to suitable host cell carrying neuraminic acid receptors-may be responsible for the hemadsorption shown by some species
  • 6.
    • No spores,flagella,fimbria
    • Gliding motility
    • G-ve
    • In culture-high quanity of serum is necessary as a souce of cholesterol and other lipids
    • Colonies are typically biphasic,with fried egg appearance
    • Are chemo organotrophs
    • Unique among prokaryotes—requirement of cholesterol and sterols-which are incorporated in their surface membrane
  • 7.
    • Resistance-o penicillins,cephalosprins,lysozymes,which act on bacterial cell walls---but sensitive to tetracyclines and erythromycin,macrolides
    • -used for species differentiation
    • Growth is inhibited by gold salts
    • M.pneumoniae-can grow in presence of .002% methylene blue in agar,while many other species are inhibited
  • 8.
    • Surface antigens-glycolipids and proteins
    • Pathogenicity – produce surface infection by adhering to mucosa of respiratory,GI,GU tract.
    • Mycoplasma can cause—pneumonia & genital infections
    • Mycoplasmal pneumoniae--/primary atypical pneumoniae—by M.pneumoniae—typically –tracheobronchitis-
    • Only one third develops pneumoniae
  • 9.
    • Onset is gradual- with fever malaise,headache,sore throat
    • Paroxysmal cough with blood tinged sputum
    • Paucity of respiratory signs
    • Patchy radiological consolidation-starting at the hilum and fanning out to the periphery
    • Self limited-1-2 wks
    • Complications—bullous myringitis and otitis
  • 10.
    • Transmission –droplet infection
    • Lab dig-isolation,throat swabs---glucose and phenol red medium—growth indicated by acid production
    • M.pneumoniae-beta hemolysis and agglutinates guinea pig erythrocytes
    • Serolog.d –IF,HI,MI
    • CF,streptococcus MG,Cold agglutination tests..
  • 11. Streptococcus M G
    • Serum + heat killed suspension of Streptococcus M G suspension-----37C---overn8—agglutination
    • Titre 1:20 is positive
  • 12. Cold agglutination test
    • Principle :- Antibodies formed in atypical pneumonia---agglutinate O group RBC at low temp
    • Serum + O group RBC---4C ---overn8-----clumping
    • 1:32 --positive
  • 13.
    • Ureaplasma Urealyticum
    • Isolated from urogenital tract
    • Forms very tiny colonies
    • Called T-strains/T-form mycoplasmas
    • Hydrolyse urea-which is an essential growth factor in addition to cholesterol
    • Genital i9nfections-M.hominis,UU—transmitted by sexual contact----urethritis,proctitis,balanoposthitis,reiter’s syndrome,a/c salpingitis,pelvic inflammatory disease,cervicitis,vaginitis
    • Also associated with—infertility,abortion,PPf,chorioamniontitis,low birth weight
  • 14.
    • Mycoplasma-more inf. In hiv
    • Contaminant in cell culture
    • L forms- bacteria loses part or whole of the cell wall-may be stable /unstable
    • Stable forms—Mycoplasma
    • Unstable – will get back to normal forms