Extremophiles Speech

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It is a brief breakdown of of extremophiles living in the yellowstone hot springs.

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Extremophiles Speech

  1. 1. Extremophiles of Yellowstone Erin Sheriff
  2. 2. Extremophiles of Yellowstone Boiling hot springs in Yellowstone  National Park are colored by colonies of thermophiliccyanobacteria, eubacteria and archaebacteria. Extremophileswere first discovered  just 40 years ago in the hot springs of Yellowstone National Park. Thermophiles were the first  extremophile to be discovered, but other extremophiles have been found living in ice, deep under the surface of the ocean, in salty environments, and in environments with both high and low Ph levels.
  3. 3. CandidatusChloracidobacteriumTh ermophilum
  4. 4. Extremophiles of Yellowstone Hyperthermophiles are organisms that prefer  temperatures above 140º F, some even as high as 250°F (121°C), although those have trouble reproducing. They can withstand other environment stresses,  such as high acidity and radiation. Bacteria are so tiny that 500 of them could be  placed end to end across the period at the end of this sentence.
  5. 5. Grand Prismatic Orange color is due to pigmented bacteria of the  microbial mats Blue coloris therefracted skylight  The principal pigment for photosynthesis is  chlorophyll, which is green Chlorophyll is sometimes masked by  carotenoids, pigments related to vitamin A, which are orange, yellow, or red Carotenoids protect the cells from the bright sunlight  that occurs in Yellowstone, especially during the summer
  6. 6. Grand Prismatic The color of a mat depends principally upon the ratio of chlorophyll to carotenoids.
  7. 7. Grand Prismatic In the summer the chlorophyll content is often low, so that the microbial mats appear orange, red, or yellow.
  8. 8. Grand Prismatic In the winter, the mats are usually dark green, because at this time of year the sunlight is subdued and chlorophyll dominates over carotenoids. In fact, even a few cloudy days in mid-summer can lead to an increase in chlorophyll and a darkening of the mats.
  9. 9. Archaebacteria Thrive in boiling water at Yellowstone  National Park, at temperatures of198º F (92º C) These bacteria also thrive near steam  vents at the bottom of the ocean at temperatures exceeding239º F (115º C) Thermophilic bacteria Limestone  terraces formed by precipitation from calcium rich water flowing from a raised hotpool. Pink, green, and brown-colored archaebacteria occupy the thermal gradients in the flowing water (60-100°C).
  10. 10. Cyanidium Caldarium Acid hot springs in  Yellowstone National Park with a pH of below 4.0 support the eukaryotic algaCyanidium Caldarium This photosynthetic  alga can even survive in a pH of zero!
  11. 11. ThermusAquaticus Survives in temperatures too  high for photosynthetic bacteria, up to176º F (80º C). They are heterotrophic and  survives on minute amounts of organic matter in the water Heterotrophic is an organism  that uses organic substrates to get its chemical energy for its life cycle
  12. 12. ThermusAquaticus Supplied TAQ polymerase  This is an essential enzyme  for polymerase chain reaction, AKA PCR PCR is an artificial  technique for replicate DNA. But PCR is the rocket ship of replication, since it allows you to multiply a piece of DNA billions of times in a few hours.
  13. 13. Extremophiles to Human Many scientists believe that life as we know it might  first have arisen three billion or so years ago in high-temperature environments, and that the first organisms on earth might therefore have been thermophiles. Such thermophiles would then have continued to exist on earth in the intervening period, finding refuges in the hot springs that continue to dot the earth. In addition, these thermophiles would have been the forerunners of all other life forms including, eventually, humans.
  14. 14. Extremophiles to Human Extremophile Extremohuman Humans Today Of Yellowstone Of Yellowstone
  15. 15. Extremophile to Dog
  16. 16. Extremophile to Cat
  17. 17. Acid -vs- Alkaline Springs The  microorganisms in the acid springs are entirely different from those in the neutral to alkaline springs. Indeed, the organisms of acid hot springs have two environmental hurdles to overcome, high temperature and acidity.
  18. 18. How the bacteria get the minerals need Water collects through rain and snow. It sinks into the earth at depths  of 10,000 ft below. It gets heated up by the magma below the surface. With enough pressure and heat the water returns to the surface.  Along the way it dissolves chemicals from the surrounding rocks and  brings them to the surface. One important mineral, silica, deposits as it cools, forming the cones  and rims of the thermal features. Other minerals provide the nutrients that feed the microorganisms. Acid springs are formed when hydrogen sulfide meets oxygen of the  air and is changed into sulfur and sulfuric acid by bacteria called sulfur bacteria.
  19. 19. How Hot Springs Work
  20. 20. Extremophiles on other Planets Researchers have discovered a bizarre group of  microbes that live inside rocks in the inhospitable geothermal environment at Wyoming’s Yellowstone National Park. Scientists believe similar kinds of geothermal  environments may have once existed on Mars. hydrogen was the main energy source for microbes  in hot springs Hydrogen is the most abundant element in the  universe, If there is life elsewhere, it could be that hydrogen is its fuel.

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