Biodiesel State of The Industry and Fuel Quality - NBB USDA Coop Ext Webinar
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Biodiesel State of The Industry and Fuel Quality - NBB USDA Coop Ext Webinar

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Current State of the Industry, the Renewable Fuel Standard 2, and Key Components to Maintaining Fuel Quality in the Supply Chain from Production through End-use. ...

Current State of the Industry, the Renewable Fuel Standard 2, and Key Components to Maintaining Fuel Quality in the Supply Chain from Production through End-use.

Biodiesel, a renewable liquid fuel produced from oils, fats, and/or greases brings many benefits to many different public and private sector stakeholders that currently utilize diesel fuel to power their vehicles/fleets. Biodiesel is a nontoxic, biodegradable fuel with many superior attributes to conventional diesel fuel including rural economic development, increased engine lubricity, emissions, and sustainability and conservation of natural resources versus its petroleum counterpart. In addition, as part of the recent national Renewable Fuel Standard 2 (RFS2) biodiesel volumes are projected to increase in coming years and biodiesel can now be used in many different economic sectors that currently use diesel fuel such as agriculture, underground mining, railroads, marine, and construction. Most importantly, maintaining fuel quality throughout the “supply chain” is critical to biodiesel’s success as a national alternate fuel.
Due to the projected increases in biodiesel volumes, the National Biodiesel Board will conduct a national webinar to provide market and technical information on basic aspects of biodiesel as a blend stock for all diesel fuel market sectors. Specifically, we wish to provide information to Cooperative Extension Service personnel concerning the following:

o Biodiesel Myths and Facts
o Accepted biodiesel definition by the US EPA as an alternate fuel
o Biodiesel feedstocks
o The Renewable Fuel Standard-2 and its components (sustainability, qualified feedstocks and fuel pathways, ASTM definition, OEM acceptance)
o New markets for biodiesel in the RFS-2
o Rural economic impacts
o Sustainability – air, water, and energy
o Fuel Quality Specification – ASTM specifications and components for successful operation in diesel (compression-ignition) engines
o Purchasing biodiesel – what to include in the purchase order
o Need for “supply-chain management” – steps to success before, during, and after receiving biodiesel
o On-site handling and storage
o Cold weather concerns
o Engine warranties
o Educational resources and where to get current information

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Biodiesel State of The Industry and Fuel Quality - NBB USDA Coop Ext Webinar Presentation Transcript

  • 1. Biodiesel 2012 Current State of the Industry, the Renewable Fuel Standard 2,and Key Components to Maintaining Fuel Quality in the Supply Chain from Production through End-use A National Webinar for USDA Cooperative Extension Service presented by the National Biodiesel Board www.biodiesel.org
  • 2. The National Biodiesel BoardRepresents the biodiesel industry as thecoordinating body for research anddevelopment in the United States. Founded in 1992 by state soybeancommodity groups. Today NBB’s membership is comprised ofstate, national, and international feedstockand feedstock processor organizations,biodiesel suppliers, fuel marketers anddistributors, and technology providers.
  • 3. Biodiesel, n. -- a fuel comprisedof mono-alkyl esters of longchain fatty acids derived fromvegetable oils or animal fats,designated B100, and meetingthe requirements of ASTM D6751.Official IRS and EPA definition – goes tothe legal definition and to fuel quality.
  • 4. Biodiesel (B100) Definition Eliminates: – Raw Vegetable Oils and Fats – Non-Esterified Oils – Partially Esterified Oils – Coal Slurries – Blends With Diesel – Any other ‘Biomass Based Diesel’ Many of these have caused serious problems in diesel engines in past testing…. Or have not been scientifically tested at all !
  • 5. What is Biodiesel? Biodiesel ReactionReacting: In the presence of a catalyst Yields: 100 Pounds 100 poundsVegetable Oil Biodiesel or Animal Fat + + 10 Pounds 10 pounds Alcohol GlycerineProduces mono-alkyl esters – chemically similar to petrodiesel
  • 6. Biodiesel Attributes Blends with petrodiesel in any  Virtually Zero Sulfur percentage — Meets ULSD limits of 15 ppm or — Once it is blended it does less not separate back out  Zero Aromatics Reduces Toxicity Higher Cetane  Superior Lubricity with ULSD and — Over 50 vs. average Reduces Black Smoke (Particulates) petrodiesel around 44 — Smoother, more complete  BTU level about 1.8% less at a B20 burn blend High Flash Point Makes it  Potential Cold Flow Concerns Safer — Non hazardous shipping Biodiesel is NOT raw vegetable oil ! (over 200° F)
  • 7. Renewable Fuels Standard 2 (RFS2) 40.0 Advanced Biofuels 35.0 30.0BILLION GALLONS 25.0 20.0 15.0 10.0 RFS1 5.0 0.0 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 2018 2019 2020 2021 2022 Conventional Biofuels Cellulosic Other Advanced Biofuels Biomass-based Diesel (20% GHG reduction) (60% GHG Reduction) (50% GHG Reduction) (50% GHG Reduction) Note: 20% reduction for conventional biofuels applies only to new construction
  • 8. Feedstock Options EPA approved pathways or those under review Corn Oil from DGSCanola Oil (US & Canada) Yellow Grease Camelina Animal FatsBrown Grease Buckwheat Soybean Oil Algae
  • 9. Sustainability - Lower Emissions U.S. biodiesel reduces lifecycle carbon emissions by 57% – 86% compared to petrodiesel, qualifying it as an Advanced Biofuel under RFS-2 and making it the best carbon reduction tool of any liquid fuel commercially available. – Biodiesel from Waste Oils, Waste Grease and Animal Fats = 86% reduction in GHG Emissions – Biodiesel from Soy based oils = 57% reduction in GHG Emissions Emission Type B20 B2 Total Unburned Hydrocarbons -20% -2.2% Carbon Monoxide -12% -1.3% Particulate Matter -12% -1.3% Oxides of Nitrogen (NOX) +/-2% +/-.2%
  • 10. Sustainability - High Energy Balance Biodiesel has the highest energy balance of any commercially available fuel, returning 5.54 units of renewable energy for every 1 unit of fossil energy needed to produce it. This counts all energy used from “field-to-fuel”. Compression Ignition Platform (i.e. diesel engine system) is 30% More Fuel Efficient Than Spark Ignition (i.e. gasoline, CNG, propane)
  • 11. Sustainability – Food versus Fuel (Co-products of Food Production) With biodiesel, food isn’t sacrificed for fuel. Oils and fats for biodiesel are a minor by-product of producing food for humans and animals. Soybeans are 80% protein, 20% oil. Protein meal for livestock feed is the primary driver for soybean production Better utilization of the oil co-product can reduce the price of the protein meal. — No one grows livestock for its fat content — No one cooks more fried food to get used oil for biodiesel
  • 12. Biodiesel Feedstocks Soybean (major market share) Corn oil Each biodiesel feedstock varies by its free fatty acid content and the different proportions of Canola fatty acids found in each feedstock influence Camelina some biodiesel fuel properties Algae Cottonseed degree of saturation Sunflower Palm oil Beef tallow Pork lard Used cooking oils • Cold flow properties • Cetane number
  • 13. Market Diversity Makes for Flexible RFS-2 ComplianceON-HIGHWAY POWERUSERS GENERATION• Trucking • Municipalities• Fleets • Electric power• Passenger Vehicles generation HOME HEATING MINING • Underground • Bioheat as new operations opportunity vs. • Meets MSHA specs natural gasMILITARY AGRICULTURE RAILROADS• Jet fuelapplications• U.S. bases
  • 14. The Future . . . ? U.S. Biodiesel Production 3,000,000 Reference: National Biodiesel Board 2,500,000 RFS2 Implemented Biodiesel Tax Credit 2,000,000 ExtendedThousand Gallons 1,500,000 Economic Downturn RFS2 Uncertainly Lapse of Biodiesel Tax Credit 1,000,000 500,000 0 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2104 2015 2016 2017 (est)
  • 15. Economic Benefits Biodiesel helps our U.S. economy and improves our balance of trade. Using biodiesel creates added outlets for farm based products and high paid manufacturing jobs in rural parts of our country. The 800 million plus gallons of biodiesel being produced in the U.S. in 2011 has also created nearly 31,300 U.S. jobs.
  • 16. Fuel Quality & StandardsASTM Specifications exist for:  B100 (ASTM D6751)  B5 and lower (ASTM D975)  B6 to B20 (ASTM D7467)  BioHeat® (ASTM D396) Performance-based Standards !
  • 17. ASTM D6751Specification November 2011
  • 18. Solvency of Biodiesel Pure biodiesel (B100) has a solvent effect, whichmay release deposits accumulated on tank walls andpipes from previous diesel fuel use. With high blends of biodiesel (>20%), the releaseof deposits may clog filters initially and precautionsshould be taken to replace fuel filters until thepetroleum build-up is eliminated. This issue is less prevalent with B20 blends, andthere is no evidence that lower-blend levels such asB2-B5 have caused filters to plug.
  • 19. Fuel QualityASTM spec fuel improperly stored, transported, and/or handled can be affected and will not be ASTM spec fuel! Observed distribution problems could include: o Storage tanks contaminated with water or old fuel; bacterial growth o Trucks not cleaned; carry-over residues o Improper blending techniques o Aged fuel – oxidation, precipitates, sediments o ULSD occasionally out of spec
  • 20. Material Compatibility Biodiesel and biodiesel blends will form high sediment levels when in contact with brass, bronze, copper, lead, tin and zinc Biodiesel is compatible with stainless steel, aluminum, fluorinated polyethylene, fluorinated polypropylene, Teflon and most fiberglass Teflon, Viton, fluorinated plastics, and Nylon are compatible with B100 Consult with your OEM
  • 21. Upfront Preparation Identify all potential seller’s – the entity from whom you purchase Check them out with the NBB if you are unsure o Seller’s status with regard to their EPA registration o Any past fuel quality problems? Track record? Before hand: Establish consistent “Control Points” throughout your operation long before biodiesel arrives on-site – arrival, delivery, storage, fuel out to customer
  • 22. “Critical Points” to Maintaining Biodiesel Fuel QualityReputable producerchecked with NBB? All parts of the Certificate of Analysis & delivery Were transport tanks Are heated tanks agreed upon properly cleaned? necessary? by both parties? What will be the length of storage? Were all storage tanks cleaned before delivery? Were support personnel properly educated on Do above-ground tanks and storage and blending procedures? fuel lines need insulation? Was fuel blended properly?
  • 23. Certificate ofAnalysis(COA) fromBiodieselproducer tothe Recipientof theB100/B99.9
  • 24. After Product Arrival Verify fuel quality through a COA! o Correct purchase order or other documentation? o Does it meet ASTM D6751 (B100)? o Is ASTM D7467 (B6-B20) applicable? Collect and Retain at least (2) quarts of fuel at delivery. o Collect sample initially into a clear container for visual inspection
  • 25. Even though people say quality isimportant, at the end of the day peoplelook at price. So avoidbuying off specproduct becauseit looks like agood deal
  • 26. Storing Biodiesel What you presently do for diesel fuel, do the same for biodiesel (biocides, cold flow additives) Biodiesel should be consumed within 3 to 6 months depending upon a number of factors. Pay attention to fuel contaminants in general, air, water and fuel – where are you in the U.S.?
  • 27. Exposure to Air & WaterIt is not practical to keep air fromentering the tank - air enters throughvent pipes and contains large amounts ofmoisture.Water enters mostly as condensationfrom air, however vents and seals thatare poorly constructed or maintained canallow water to infiltrate the storage tank.Will increase the oxidation of fuel.Do not store fuels for long periods oftime in partially empty tanks withoutstabilizers.
  • 28. Basic Blending Facts Biodiesel can be blended with any kind of distillate fuel, diesel, kerosene (#1), heating oil, etc. The more mixing the better! Biodiesel is slightly heavier than diesel fuels (specific gravity of 0.88 compared to 0.85 for #2 and 0.80 for #1)
  • 29. Biodiesel and Cold Weather Operability Basic Facts about Biodiesel & Cold Weather B100 freezes faster than most US petrodiesel Untreated B20 freezes about 2-10°F faster than #2 petrodiesel, depending on: o the cold flow properties of the biodiesel o the cold flow properties of the petrodiesel o at blend levels of 20% and less (< B20), the cold weather parameters of the diesel fuel will dominate
  • 30. Three Important Cold Weather Parameters that Define Operability for Diesel Fuels & Biodiesel Cloud Point Temperature where crystals first appear Cold Filter Plugging Point The lowest operating temperature a vehicle will operate Pour Point Lowest temperature where fuel is observed to flow
  • 31. Key Considerations in the Distribution Chain Understand and identify feedstocks and cloud point o Tallow, Seed Oil, Waste Vegetable Oil, or combo o B100, B20, B5, BXX Understand and identify how biodiesel and petroleum are blended o Splash, In-line, In-tank, bottom loading o Heated / Ambient / Cold Collect and Retain Documents o Bill of Lading (detail type of fuel and quantity) o Certificate of Analysis (validate fuel meets ASTM specifications) o Chain of Custody (ensure lot traceability throughout its “lifecycle”) o Specify your operability conditions and requirements beforehand
  • 32. OEMs Supporting B20+http://www.biodiesel.org/resources/oems/default.shtm
  • 33. Biodiesel Handling and Use Guide http://www.nrel.gov/vehiclesandfuels/pdfs /43672.pdf Also on www.biodiesel.org
  • 34. Biodiesel ResourcesCall NBB: 1-800-841-5849info@biodiesel.orgwww.biodiesel.org• Biodiesel Training Toolkit http://www.uiweb.uidaho.edu/bioenergy/• News Releases & Information Resources• Technical Library, Spec Sheets & Videos• OEM Warranty Positions on Biodiesel For further information on USDA Energy http://about.extension.org/ programs:http://www.rurdev.usda.gov/Energy.html
  • 35. For Further Information Richard Nelson rnelson@ksu.edu 785-532-4999 Power Point Web Postinghttp://www.extension.org/pages/26874/ag-energy-webcast-series National Biodiesel Board www.biodiesel.org 800-841-5849