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Comparative Religions
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Comparative Religions

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AP World History.

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  • 1. Comparative Religions
    Elizabeth Pham
  • 2. Islam
  • 3. Islam
    How It Began:
    Founder: Muhammed
    Founded: 610 C.E. (Muhammed received first revelation)
    Point of Origin:
    Mecca
    Where It Spread:
    West and East Africa, Philippines, Central Asia, Western China, India, Malaysia, Indonesia, North America, and Europe.
    A Muslim must make a pilgrimage to Mecca once in their life. In the heart of Mecca, lays the Ka’aba. He/she must walk around the Ka’aba seven times and then, the Black Stone.
  • 4. Islam [cont.]
    How It Spread:
    Trade
    Where Most Influential Today:
    India and Indonesia, however being the fastest growing religion, North America is giving way to many Muslims.
    Followers, worldwide:
    1,387,454,500
    Prayer 5 times a day is part of the Five Pillars. When praying it is important to face the direction of Mecca, thus, everyone in the above picture is facing the same direction.
  • 5. Islam [cont.]
    Holy Book:
    The Qur'an (or Koran)
    Main God/gods/deities:
    Allah
    Basic Beliefs:
    Strictly monotheistic; Allah is the
    Muslims must practice 5 Pillars of Islam
    Submission to Allah
    Fasting during Ramadan
    Prayer 5 times a day
    Pilgrimage to Mecca
    Zakat (pay alms to needy)
    The sacred text of Islam is the Qur’an, which is shown
    in the above picture.
  • 6. Islam [cont.]
    Religious Leader Organization:
    Caliph is Islamic leader.
    Sects Evolved Overtime:
    Shiites
    Sunnis
    The Holy Mosque (MasjidAl-Haram) in Mecca is the most famous Mosque in the world and holds the holy Black Stone, the Ka’aba.
  • 7. Buddhism
  • 8. Buddhism
    How It Began:
    Founder: Siddhartha Gautama (The Buddha)
    Founded: c. 525 B.C.E.
    Point of Origin:
    near present-day Benares, India
    Where It Spread:
    Mainly throughout Asia and North America.
    The Life of a Buddhist Monk is meant to be simplistic. Thus, the shave their heads and wear robes in order to rid themselves of vanity.
  • 9. Buddhism [cont.]
    How It Spread: By Trade and as Ashoka the Great spread the word throughout his Mauryan Dynasty
    Where Most Influential: Buddhism is predominately practiced in Asia
    Followers, worldwide: 385,609,000
    Holy Book: The Tripitaka and Mahayana Sutras
    The Dharmashakra represents the Eightfold Path.
  • 10. Buddhism [cont.]
    Main God/gods/deities:
    no divine being
    Basic Beliefs:
    Karma
    Reincarnation
    Birth, Life, Death, Rebirth
    Four Noble Truths
    Life means suffering
    Origin of suffering is desire.
    The stopping of all suffering is possible
    By following the correct path, one can achieve Nirvana (the state of no suffering).
    The Eightfold Path will lead to the cessation of suffering.
  • 11. Buddhism [cont.]
    Religious Leader Organization:
    Monastic order where traditions passed down between monks and nuns
    Sects Evolved Overtime:
    Mahayana (Zen & Sokagakkai)
    Theravada
    Vajrayana (Tantrism)
    One of the eight auspicious symbols for Buddhism, the white lotus represents the state of spiritual perfection.
  • 12. Christianity
  • 13. Christianity
    How It Began:
    Founder: Jesus (of Nazareth)
    Founded: c. 33 C.E.
    Point of Origin:
    Palestine
    Where It Spread:
    Europe, North America, and South America
    A painting of Jesus Christ.
  • 14. Christianity [cont.]
    How It Spread:
    Constantine made it the official religion of the Roman Empire.
    Where Most Influential Today:
    Europe, North America, and South America
    Followers, worldwide:
    2,199, 817,400
    Jesus Christ died on the Cross in order to forgive everyone’s sins, thus, the cross is a symbol to represent Christianity.
  • 15. Christianity [cont.]
    Holy Book:
    The Bible
    Main God/gods/deities:
    God
    Basic Beliefs:
    Monotheistic
    Jesus died on the cross to forgive everyone's sins
    The Bible tells the life of Jesus
    Heaven and Hell
  • 16. Christianity [cont.]
    Religious Leader Organization:
    The Pope is head of the church.
    Sects Evolved Overtime:
    Main sects include
    Roman Catholic
    Eastern Orthodox
    Protestant
    A church of Eastern Orthodox, one sect of Christianity.
  • 17. Hinduism
  • 18. Hinduism
    How It Began:
    Founder: Not Specified
    Founded: c. 1500 B.C.E.
    Point of Origin:
    India
    Where It Spread:
    Mainly India, Nepal, Malaysia, Guyana, Suriname, and Sri Lanka.
    Symbol for Hinduism.
  • 19. Hinduism [cont.]
    How It Spread:
    Trade
    Where Most Influential Today:
    India and Nepal
    Followers, worldwide:
    875,726,000
    A statue of Shiva, a Hindu trinity God.
  • 20. Hinduism [cont.]
    Holy Book:
    Vedas, Upanishads, Sutras, Bhagavad Gita
    Main God/gods/deities:
    Brahman, Shiva, Vishnu, Devi
    Basic Beliefs:
    Four Vedas
    Karma
    Reincarnation
  • 21. Hinduism [cont.]
    Religious Leader
    Organization: Spiritual leaders known as gurus and sages.
    Sects Evolved Overtime:
    Shaivism
    Vaishnavism
    Vishnu, a Hindu trinity God.
  • 22. Judaism
  • 23. Judaism
    How It Began:
    Founder: c. 2000 B.C.E.
    Founded: Abraham
    Point of Origin:
    Israel
    Where It Spread:
    Mainly across Israel and United States
    For each night of Hanukah, a Jewish holiday,
    one candle is lit on the menorah.
  • 24. Judaism [cont.]
    How It Spread:
    Started by passing down through families.
    Where Most Influential Today:
    Israel
    Followers, worldwide:
    14,956,000
  • 25. Judaism [cont.]
    Holy Book:
    The Torah
    Main God/gods/deities:
    God
    Basic Beliefs:
    Monotheistic
    Stresses ethical behavior
    God has special relationship with Hebrews; they shall bear witness to God’s mercy.
    The Holy Book of Judaism, the Torah.
  • 26. Judaism [cont.]
    Religious Leader Organization:
    Other than the Rabbi, who teaches and preaches Judaism, there is no overall religious leader.
    Sects Evolved Overtime:
    Orthodox
    Conservative
    Reform
    Reconstructionist
    Humanist
    The Star of David.
  • 27. Confucianism
  • 28. Confucianism
    How It Began:
    Founder: Confucius
    Founded: 6th-5th Century C.E.
    Point of Origin:
    China
    Where It Spread:
    Koreans, Japan, Vietnam and Europe.
    The Chinese symbol for Confucianism.
  • 29. Confucianism [cont.]
    How It Spread:
    Chinese tradition; Became state doctrine for the Han Dynasty
    Where Most Influential Today:
    China
    Followers, worldwide:
    6,111,100
    An analect of Confucianism.
  • 30. Confucianism [cont.]
    Holy Book:
    Confucianism followed many different documents as sacred text, including, but not limited to: The Confucian Analects, The Doctrine of The Mean, The Book of Odes, The Book of Changes, The Book of Rites, and The Book of Filial Piety
    Main God/gods/deities:
    God
    Basic Beliefs:
    Because Confucianism was more of a moral code, the basic beliefs were simply the stressing of certain values:
    Li: ritual, propriety, etiquette, etc.
    Hsiao: love among family members
    Yi: righteousness
    Xin: honesty and trustworthiness
    Jen: benevolence towards others; the highest Confucian virtue
    Chung: loyalty to the state, etc.
  • 31. Confucianism [cont.]
    Religious Leader Organization:
    There’s no set religious leader for Confucianism.
    Sects Evolved Overtime:
    There are no formal sects of Confucianism, however Neo-Confucianism could be considered as Confucianism evolving over time, as it incorporates ideas from Buddhism and Daoism to form.
    A depiction of the founder of Confucianism, Confucius.