Comparative Religions
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Comparative Religions

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    Comparative Religions Comparative Religions Presentation Transcript

    • Comparative Religions
      Elizabeth Pham
    • Islam
    • Islam
      How It Began:
      Founder: Muhammed
      Founded: 610 C.E. (Muhammed received first revelation)
      Point of Origin:
      Mecca
      Where It Spread:
      West and East Africa, Philippines, Central Asia, Western China, India, Malaysia, Indonesia, North America, and Europe.
      A Muslim must make a pilgrimage to Mecca once in their life. In the heart of Mecca, lays the Ka’aba. He/she must walk around the Ka’aba seven times and then, the Black Stone.
    • Islam [cont.]
      How It Spread:
      Trade
      Where Most Influential Today:
      India and Indonesia, however being the fastest growing religion, North America is giving way to many Muslims.
      Followers, worldwide:
      1,387,454,500
      Prayer 5 times a day is part of the Five Pillars. When praying it is important to face the direction of Mecca, thus, everyone in the above picture is facing the same direction.
    • Islam [cont.]
      Holy Book:
      The Qur'an (or Koran)
      Main God/gods/deities:
      Allah
      Basic Beliefs:
      Strictly monotheistic; Allah is the
      Muslims must practice 5 Pillars of Islam
      Submission to Allah
      Fasting during Ramadan
      Prayer 5 times a day
      Pilgrimage to Mecca
      Zakat (pay alms to needy)
      The sacred text of Islam is the Qur’an, which is shown
      in the above picture.
    • Islam [cont.]
      Religious Leader Organization:
      Caliph is Islamic leader.
      Sects Evolved Overtime:
      Shiites
      Sunnis
      The Holy Mosque (MasjidAl-Haram) in Mecca is the most famous Mosque in the world and holds the holy Black Stone, the Ka’aba.
    • Buddhism
    • Buddhism
      How It Began:
      Founder: Siddhartha Gautama (The Buddha)
      Founded: c. 525 B.C.E.
      Point of Origin:
      near present-day Benares, India
      Where It Spread:
      Mainly throughout Asia and North America.
      The Life of a Buddhist Monk is meant to be simplistic. Thus, the shave their heads and wear robes in order to rid themselves of vanity.
    • Buddhism [cont.]
      How It Spread: By Trade and as Ashoka the Great spread the word throughout his Mauryan Dynasty
      Where Most Influential: Buddhism is predominately practiced in Asia
      Followers, worldwide: 385,609,000
      Holy Book: The Tripitaka and Mahayana Sutras
      The Dharmashakra represents the Eightfold Path.
    • Buddhism [cont.]
      Main God/gods/deities:
      no divine being
      Basic Beliefs:
      Karma
      Reincarnation
      Birth, Life, Death, Rebirth
      Four Noble Truths
      Life means suffering
      Origin of suffering is desire.
      The stopping of all suffering is possible
      By following the correct path, one can achieve Nirvana (the state of no suffering).
      The Eightfold Path will lead to the cessation of suffering.
    • Buddhism [cont.]
      Religious Leader Organization:
      Monastic order where traditions passed down between monks and nuns
      Sects Evolved Overtime:
      Mahayana (Zen & Sokagakkai)
      Theravada
      Vajrayana (Tantrism)
      One of the eight auspicious symbols for Buddhism, the white lotus represents the state of spiritual perfection.
    • Christianity
    • Christianity
      How It Began:
      Founder: Jesus (of Nazareth)
      Founded: c. 33 C.E.
      Point of Origin:
      Palestine
      Where It Spread:
      Europe, North America, and South America
      A painting of Jesus Christ.
    • Christianity [cont.]
      How It Spread:
      Constantine made it the official religion of the Roman Empire.
      Where Most Influential Today:
      Europe, North America, and South America
      Followers, worldwide:
      2,199, 817,400
      Jesus Christ died on the Cross in order to forgive everyone’s sins, thus, the cross is a symbol to represent Christianity.
    • Christianity [cont.]
      Holy Book:
      The Bible
      Main God/gods/deities:
      God
      Basic Beliefs:
      Monotheistic
      Jesus died on the cross to forgive everyone's sins
      The Bible tells the life of Jesus
      Heaven and Hell
    • Christianity [cont.]
      Religious Leader Organization:
      The Pope is head of the church.
      Sects Evolved Overtime:
      Main sects include
      Roman Catholic
      Eastern Orthodox
      Protestant
      A church of Eastern Orthodox, one sect of Christianity.
    • Hinduism
    • Hinduism
      How It Began:
      Founder: Not Specified
      Founded: c. 1500 B.C.E.
      Point of Origin:
      India
      Where It Spread:
      Mainly India, Nepal, Malaysia, Guyana, Suriname, and Sri Lanka.
      Symbol for Hinduism.
    • Hinduism [cont.]
      How It Spread:
      Trade
      Where Most Influential Today:
      India and Nepal
      Followers, worldwide:
      875,726,000
      A statue of Shiva, a Hindu trinity God.
    • Hinduism [cont.]
      Holy Book:
      Vedas, Upanishads, Sutras, Bhagavad Gita
      Main God/gods/deities:
      Brahman, Shiva, Vishnu, Devi
      Basic Beliefs:
      Four Vedas
      Karma
      Reincarnation
    • Hinduism [cont.]
      Religious Leader
      Organization: Spiritual leaders known as gurus and sages.
      Sects Evolved Overtime:
      Shaivism
      Vaishnavism
      Vishnu, a Hindu trinity God.
    • Judaism
    • Judaism
      How It Began:
      Founder: c. 2000 B.C.E.
      Founded: Abraham
      Point of Origin:
      Israel
      Where It Spread:
      Mainly across Israel and United States
      For each night of Hanukah, a Jewish holiday,
      one candle is lit on the menorah.
    • Judaism [cont.]
      How It Spread:
      Started by passing down through families.
      Where Most Influential Today:
      Israel
      Followers, worldwide:
      14,956,000
    • Judaism [cont.]
      Holy Book:
      The Torah
      Main God/gods/deities:
      God
      Basic Beliefs:
      Monotheistic
      Stresses ethical behavior
      God has special relationship with Hebrews; they shall bear witness to God’s mercy.
      The Holy Book of Judaism, the Torah.
    • Judaism [cont.]
      Religious Leader Organization:
      Other than the Rabbi, who teaches and preaches Judaism, there is no overall religious leader.
      Sects Evolved Overtime:
      Orthodox
      Conservative
      Reform
      Reconstructionist
      Humanist
      The Star of David.
    • Confucianism
    • Confucianism
      How It Began:
      Founder: Confucius
      Founded: 6th-5th Century C.E.
      Point of Origin:
      China
      Where It Spread:
      Koreans, Japan, Vietnam and Europe.
      The Chinese symbol for Confucianism.
    • Confucianism [cont.]
      How It Spread:
      Chinese tradition; Became state doctrine for the Han Dynasty
      Where Most Influential Today:
      China
      Followers, worldwide:
      6,111,100
      An analect of Confucianism.
    • Confucianism [cont.]
      Holy Book:
      Confucianism followed many different documents as sacred text, including, but not limited to: The Confucian Analects, The Doctrine of The Mean, The Book of Odes, The Book of Changes, The Book of Rites, and The Book of Filial Piety
      Main God/gods/deities:
      God
      Basic Beliefs:
      Because Confucianism was more of a moral code, the basic beliefs were simply the stressing of certain values:
      Li: ritual, propriety, etiquette, etc.
      Hsiao: love among family members
      Yi: righteousness
      Xin: honesty and trustworthiness
      Jen: benevolence towards others; the highest Confucian virtue
      Chung: loyalty to the state, etc.
    • Confucianism [cont.]
      Religious Leader Organization:
      There’s no set religious leader for Confucianism.
      Sects Evolved Overtime:
      There are no formal sects of Confucianism, however Neo-Confucianism could be considered as Confucianism evolving over time, as it incorporates ideas from Buddhism and Daoism to form.
      A depiction of the founder of Confucianism, Confucius.