Comparative Religions

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Comparative Religions

  1. 1. Comparative Religions<br />Elizabeth Pham<br />
  2. 2. Islam<br />
  3. 3. Islam<br />How It Began:<br />Founder: Muhammed <br />Founded: 610 C.E. (Muhammed received first revelation)<br />Point of Origin: <br />Mecca<br />Where It Spread: <br />West and East Africa, Philippines, Central Asia, Western China, India, Malaysia, Indonesia, North America, and Europe.<br />A Muslim must make a pilgrimage to Mecca once in their life. In the heart of Mecca, lays the Ka’aba. He/she must walk around the Ka’aba seven times and then, the Black Stone.<br />
  4. 4. Islam [cont.]<br />How It Spread: <br />Trade<br />Where Most Influential Today: <br />India and Indonesia, however being the fastest growing religion, North America is giving way to many Muslims.<br />Followers, worldwide:<br />1,387,454,500<br />Prayer 5 times a day is part of the Five Pillars. When praying it is important to face the direction of Mecca, thus, everyone in the above picture is facing the same direction.<br />
  5. 5. Islam [cont.]<br />Holy Book: <br />The Qur&apos;an (or Koran) <br />Main God/gods/deities: <br />Allah<br />Basic Beliefs: <br />Strictly monotheistic; Allah is the <br />Muslims must practice 5 Pillars of Islam<br />Submission to Allah<br />Fasting during Ramadan<br />Prayer 5 times a day<br />Pilgrimage to Mecca<br />Zakat (pay alms to needy)<br />The sacred text of Islam is the Qur’an, which is shown<br /> in the above picture.<br />
  6. 6. Islam [cont.]<br />Religious Leader Organization:<br />Caliph is Islamic leader.<br />Sects Evolved Overtime:<br />Shiites<br />Sunnis<br />The Holy Mosque (MasjidAl-Haram) in Mecca is the most famous Mosque in the world and holds the holy Black Stone, the Ka’aba.<br />
  7. 7. Buddhism<br />
  8. 8. Buddhism<br />How It Began:<br />Founder: Siddhartha Gautama (The Buddha)<br />Founded: c. 525 B.C.E.<br />Point of Origin: <br />near present-day Benares, India<br />Where It Spread: <br />Mainly throughout Asia and North America.<br />The Life of a Buddhist Monk is meant to be simplistic. Thus, the shave their heads and wear robes in order to rid themselves of vanity.<br />
  9. 9. Buddhism [cont.]<br />How It Spread: By Trade and as Ashoka the Great spread the word throughout his Mauryan Dynasty<br />Where Most Influential: Buddhism is predominately practiced in Asia<br />Followers, worldwide: 385,609,000<br />Holy Book: The Tripitaka and Mahayana Sutras<br />The Dharmashakra represents the Eightfold Path.<br />
  10. 10. Buddhism [cont.]<br />Main God/gods/deities: <br />no divine being <br />Basic Beliefs:<br />Karma<br />Reincarnation<br />Birth, Life, Death, Rebirth<br />Four Noble Truths<br />Life means suffering<br />Origin of suffering is desire.<br />The stopping of all suffering is possible<br />By following the correct path, one can achieve Nirvana (the state of no suffering).<br />The Eightfold Path will lead to the cessation of suffering.<br />
  11. 11. Buddhism [cont.]<br />Religious Leader Organization: <br />Monastic order where traditions passed down between monks and nuns<br />Sects Evolved Overtime:<br />Mahayana (Zen & Sokagakkai) <br />Theravada<br />Vajrayana (Tantrism)<br />One of the eight auspicious symbols for Buddhism, the white lotus represents the state of spiritual perfection.<br />
  12. 12. Christianity<br />
  13. 13. Christianity<br />How It Began:<br />Founder: Jesus (of Nazareth)<br />Founded: c. 33 C.E.<br />Point of Origin:<br />Palestine<br />Where It Spread: <br />Europe, North America, and South America <br />A painting of Jesus Christ.<br />
  14. 14. Christianity [cont.]<br />How It Spread: <br />Constantine made it the official religion of the Roman Empire.<br />Where Most Influential Today: <br />Europe, North America, and South America <br />Followers, worldwide: <br />2,199, 817,400<br />Jesus Christ died on the Cross in order to forgive everyone’s sins, thus, the cross is a symbol to represent Christianity.<br />
  15. 15. Christianity [cont.]<br />Holy Book: <br />The Bible<br />Main God/gods/deities: <br />God <br />Basic Beliefs:<br />Monotheistic<br />Jesus died on the cross to forgive everyone&apos;s sins<br />The Bible tells the life of Jesus<br />Heaven and Hell<br />
  16. 16. Christianity [cont.]<br />Religious Leader Organization:<br />The Pope is head of the church.<br />Sects Evolved Overtime: <br />Main sects include<br />Roman Catholic<br />Eastern Orthodox<br />Protestant<br />A church of Eastern Orthodox, one sect of Christianity.<br />
  17. 17. Hinduism<br />
  18. 18. Hinduism<br />How It Began:<br />Founder: Not Specified<br />Founded: c. 1500 B.C.E.<br />Point of Origin: <br />India<br />Where It Spread: <br />Mainly India, Nepal, Malaysia, Guyana, Suriname, and Sri Lanka.<br />Symbol for Hinduism.<br />
  19. 19. Hinduism [cont.]<br />How It Spread: <br />Trade<br />Where Most Influential Today: <br />India and Nepal<br />Followers, worldwide: <br />875,726,000<br />A statue of Shiva, a Hindu trinity God.<br />
  20. 20. Hinduism [cont.]<br />Holy Book:<br />Vedas, Upanishads, Sutras, Bhagavad Gita<br />Main God/gods/deities: <br />Brahman, Shiva, Vishnu, Devi<br />Basic Beliefs: <br />Four Vedas<br />Karma<br />Reincarnation<br />
  21. 21. Hinduism [cont.]<br />Religious Leader <br />Organization: Spiritual leaders known as gurus and sages.<br />Sects Evolved Overtime:<br />Shaivism<br />Vaishnavism<br />Vishnu, a Hindu trinity God.<br />
  22. 22. Judaism<br />
  23. 23. Judaism<br />How It Began:<br />Founder: c. 2000 B.C.E.<br />Founded: Abraham<br />Point of Origin: <br />Israel<br />Where It Spread: <br />Mainly across Israel and United States<br />For each night of Hanukah, a Jewish holiday,<br /> one candle is lit on the menorah.<br />
  24. 24. Judaism [cont.]<br />How It Spread:<br />Started by passing down through families.<br />Where Most Influential Today:<br />Israel<br />Followers, worldwide:<br />14,956,000<br />
  25. 25. Judaism [cont.]<br />Holy Book: <br />The Torah <br />Main God/gods/deities: <br />God <br />Basic Beliefs: <br />Monotheistic<br />Stresses ethical behavior<br />God has special relationship with Hebrews; they shall bear witness to God’s mercy.<br />The Holy Book of Judaism, the Torah.<br />
  26. 26. Judaism [cont.]<br />Religious Leader Organization: <br />Other than the Rabbi, who teaches and preaches Judaism, there is no overall religious leader.<br />Sects Evolved Overtime:<br />Orthodox<br />Conservative<br />Reform<br />Reconstructionist<br />Humanist<br />The Star of David.<br />
  27. 27. Confucianism<br />
  28. 28. Confucianism<br />How It Began: <br />Founder: Confucius<br />Founded: 6th-5th Century C.E.<br />Point of Origin: <br />China<br />Where It Spread: <br />Koreans, Japan, Vietnam and Europe.<br />The Chinese symbol for Confucianism.<br />
  29. 29. Confucianism [cont.]<br />How It Spread: <br />Chinese tradition; Became state doctrine for the Han Dynasty<br />Where Most Influential Today: <br />China<br />Followers, worldwide:<br />6,111,100<br />An analect of Confucianism. <br />
  30. 30. Confucianism [cont.]<br />Holy Book: <br />Confucianism followed many different documents as sacred text, including, but not limited to: The Confucian Analects, The Doctrine of The Mean, The Book of Odes, The Book of Changes, The Book of Rites, and The Book of Filial Piety<br />Main God/gods/deities: <br />God<br />Basic Beliefs:<br />Because Confucianism was more of a moral code, the basic beliefs were simply the stressing of certain values:<br />Li: ritual, propriety, etiquette, etc.<br />Hsiao: love among family members<br />Yi: righteousness<br />Xin: honesty and trustworthiness<br />Jen: benevolence towards others; the highest Confucian virtue<br />Chung: loyalty to the state, etc.<br />
  31. 31. Confucianism [cont.]<br />Religious Leader Organization: <br />There’s no set religious leader for Confucianism.<br />Sects Evolved Overtime:<br />There are no formal sects of Confucianism, however Neo-Confucianism could be considered as Confucianism evolving over time, as it incorporates ideas from Buddhism and Daoism to form.<br />A depiction of the founder of Confucianism, Confucius.<br />

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