0
Collective Intelligence for
OER Sustainability
1
Simon Buckingham Shum & Anna De Liddo
OLnet Project, Knowledge Media Inst...
OLnet
aims
to
search

out
the
evidence
for

use
and
reuse


of
OER

and


build
a
collec7ve

intelligence

infrastructure
...
Examples of OER Collective Intelligence
  The following tend to be adoption obstacles for OER in
Africa…
  OER xyz faile...
Examples of OER evidence
4
OER Sustainability
5
~
Sustainability as a
property of ecosystems
6
OER Sustainability
Sustainability
 Resilience
 Resilience Thinking
 Resilience Platforms
 OER Threats/Opps
 OER Collective Intelligence
...
Resilience
  Walker, et al. (2004) define resilience as
“the capacity of a system to absorb
disturbance and reorganize wh...
Resilience in Socio-Ecological Systems
  Walker, B., C. S. Holling, S. R. Carpenter, and A. Kinzig. 2004. Resilience, ada...
Resilience in Socio-Ecological Systems
  Walker, B., C. S. Holling, S. R. Carpenter, and A. Kinzig. 2004. Resilience, ada...
Resilience
11
http://www.futureofed.org/driver/Platforms-for-Resilience.aspx
“System shocks and disruptions in the arenas ...
Resilience Thinking (explosion of resources on this)
  A resilient world (Walker, 2008)…
12
promotes biological, landscap...
Resilience Thinking
  A resilient world (Walker, 2008)…
13
promotes biological,
landscape, social and
economic diversity
...
Resilience Thinking
  A resilient world (Walker, 2008)…
14
embraces and works with
natural ecological cycles
A forest tha...
Resilience Thinking
  A resilient world (Walker, 2008)…
15
consists of modular
components
When over-connected, shocks are...
Resilience Thinking
  A resilient world (Walker, 2008)…
16
possesses tight feedbacks
Feedbacks allow us to detect thresho...
Resilience Thinking
  A resilient world (Walker, 2008)…
17
promotes trust, well
developed social networks
and leadership
...
Resilience Thinking
  A resilient world (Walker, 2008)…
18
places an emphasis on
learning, experimentation,
locally devel...
Resilience Thinking
  A resilient world (Walker, 2008)…
19
has institutions with
"redundancy" in governance
structures
Re...
Resilience Thinking
  A resilient world (Walker, 2008)…
20
mixes common and private
property with overlapping
access righ...
Resilience Thinking
  A resilient world (Walker, 2008)…
21
considers all nature’s un-
priced services
– such as carbon st...
Resilience Platforms
22
http://www.futureofed.org/driver/Platforms-for-Resilience.aspx
Resilience Platforms
23
http://www.futureofed.org/driver/Platforms-for-Resilience.aspx
Creating flexibility and innovation...
Resilience in knowledge-intensive ecosystems
24
When knowledge and understanding are
key variables in the system, resilien...
Resilience Thinking: OER opportunities + threats
25
Threat to established educational
paradigm?
(Opportunity for OER/Open
...
Resilience Thinking: OER opportunities + threats
26
Threat to established educational
paradigm?
(Opportunity for OER/Open
...
Resilience Thinking: OER opportunities + threats
27
Threat to OER/Open Social
Learning?
Threat to established educational
...
Resilience Thinking: OER opportunities + threats
28
Public doc on SBS blog: http://people.kmi.open.ac.uk/sbs/2010/10/resil...
Resilience Thinking: OER opportunities + threats
29
Public doc on SBS blog: http://people.kmi.open.ac.uk/sbs/2010/10/resil...
Collective Intelligence for resilience?
30
Collective Intelligence for resilience?
31
Sources include: Weick (1995); Kurtz & Snowden (2003); Browning, L. and Boudès,...
Collective Intelligence for resilience?
32
Sources include: Weick (1995); Kurtz & Snowden (2003); Browning, L. and Boudès,...
the key idea…
sensemaking revolves around
conversations
perspective and context are key: we don’t
always agree
contested c...
How can we pool the OER evidence base and
debate open issues?...
34
How can we pool the OER evidence base and
debate open issues?...
35
How can we pool the OER evidence base and
debate open issues?...
36
interpretation
interpretation
interpretation
interpret...
How can we pool the OER evidence base and
debate open issues?...
37
interpretation
interpretationinterpretation
interpreta...
How can we pool the OER evidence base and
debate open issues?...
38
predictscauses
interpretation
interpretationinterpreta...
How can we pool the OER evidence base and
debate open issues?...
39
prevents
predictscauses
interpretation
interpretationi...
Building the story that makes sense of the
evidence… i.e. plausible narrative and arguments
40
Question
Answer
Supporting
...
Building the story that makes sense of the
evidence… i.e. plausible narrative and arguments
41
Question
Answer
Supporting
...
Building the story that makes sense of the
evidence… i.e. plausible narrative and arguments
42
Question
Answer
Supporting
...
43
http://cohere.open.ac.uk
Convergence of…
web annotation
social bookmarking
concept mapping
structured debate
a prototyp...
Structured deliberation and debate in which
Questions, Evidence and Connections are
first class entities (linkable, addres...
45
Structured deliberation and debate in which
Questions, Evidence and Connections are
first class entities (linkable, add...
Analyst-defined visual connection language
46
47
Structured deliberation and debate in which
Questions, Evidence and Connections are
first class entities (linkable, add...
— web annotation of OER (Firefox extension)
seeing the connections people make as
they annotate the web using Cohere
Visualizing all the connections that a
set of ana...
Visualizing multiple learners’
interpretations of global
warming sources
Connections have been filtered
by a set of semant...
— web annotation for sensemaking
Social
Network
Social
Discourse
Network
Concept
Network
— geospatial mashup of ideas
Nodes in the semantic
network containing
geolocation data can be
visualized in Google Maps
— timeline viz. mashup of ideas
Nodes in the semantic
network containing temporal
data can be visualized in MIT
Simile’s t...
A large scale OER CI exercise:
Are you on the map? (whose map?...)
  120 OER project reports from Hewlett Foundation
  W...
Sustainability
 Resilience
 Resilience Thinking
 Resilience Platforms
 OER Threats/Opps
 OER Collective Intelligence
...
In more detail…
articles, books, news, movies, software, community…
57
http://cohere.open.ac.uk
http://projects.kmi.open.a...
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Title: Collective Intelligence for
OER Sustainability

Session by Simon Buckingham Shum and Anna de Liddo

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  1. 1. Collective Intelligence for OER Sustainability 1 Simon Buckingham Shum & Anna De Liddo OLnet Project, Knowledge Media Institute Open University UK Open Education 2010, Barcelona http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/2.0/uk
  2. 2. OLnet
aims
to
search
 out
the
evidence
for
 use
and
reuse

 of
OER
 and

 build
a
collec7ve
 intelligence
 infrastructure
that
 makes
this
a
visible,
 and
evolving
map
of
 the
movement’s
 knowledge
and
open
 challenges
 olnet.org

  3. 3. Examples of OER Collective Intelligence   The following tend to be adoption obstacles for OER in Africa…   OER xyz failed to transfer to a new context because…   There appear to be 5 main strategies to OER sustainability, of which only 2 have robust evidence…   The following arguments for OER have proven most compelling to state educational boards…   Successful OER initiatives seem to share these competencies in the core team…
  4. 4. Examples of OER evidence 4
  5. 5. OER Sustainability 5
  6. 6. ~ Sustainability as a property of ecosystems 6 OER Sustainability
  7. 7. Sustainability  Resilience  Resilience Thinking  Resilience Platforms  OER Threats/Opps  OER Collective Intelligence 7 Complexity Line of argument…
  8. 8. Resilience   Walker, et al. (2004) define resilience as “the capacity of a system to absorb disturbance and reorganize while undergoing change, so as to still retain essentially the same function, structure, identity, and feedbacks” 8
  9. 9. Resilience in Socio-Ecological Systems   Walker, B., C. S. Holling, S. R. Carpenter, and A. Kinzig. 2004. Resilience, adaptability and transformability in social–ecological systems. Ecology and Society, 9, (2): 5. http://www.ecologyandsociety.org/vol9/iss2/art5 9 Fig. 1a. Three-dimensional stability landscape with two basins of attraction showing, in one basin, the current position of the system and three aspects of resilience, L = latitude, R = resistance, Pr = precariousness. Latitude: the maximum amount the system can be changed before losing its ability to recover Resistance: the ease or difficulty of changing the system Precariousness: the current trajectory of the system, and how close it currently is to a limit or “threshold”
  10. 10. Resilience in Socio-Ecological Systems   Walker, B., C. S. Holling, S. R. Carpenter, and A. Kinzig. 2004. Resilience, adaptability and transformability in social–ecological systems. Ecology and Society, 9, (2): 5. http://www.ecologyandsociety.org/vol9/iss2/art5 10 Fig. 1b. Changes in the stability landscape have resulted in a contraction of the basin the system was in and an expansion of the alternate basin. Without itself changing, the system has changed basins. It may not yet be possible to model a human community in such quantitative terms, but the broader principles of Resilience Thinking apply to non- ecological systems more clearly
  11. 11. Resilience 11 http://www.futureofed.org/driver/Platforms-for-Resilience.aspx “System shocks and disruptions in the arenas of energy, finance, climate, and health care are key forces of destabilization in this century. Institutional strategies that focus on resisting disruption and maintaining the status quo will not offer sufficient responses.”
  12. 12. Resilience Thinking (explosion of resources on this)   A resilient world (Walker, 2008)… 12 promotes biological, landscape, social and economic diversity embraces and works with natural ecological cycles consists of modular components possesses tight feedbacks promotes trust, well developed social networks and leadership places an emphasis on learning, experimentation, locally developed rules, and embracing change has institutions with "redundancy" in governance structures mixes common and private property with overlapping access rights considers all nature’s un-priced services
  13. 13. Resilience Thinking   A resilient world (Walker, 2008)… 13 promotes biological, landscape, social and economic diversity Diversity is a major source of future options and of a system's capacity to respond to change.
  14. 14. Resilience Thinking   A resilient world (Walker, 2008)… 14 embraces and works with natural ecological cycles A forest that is never allowed to burn loses its fire- resistant species and becomes very vulnerable to fire.
  15. 15. Resilience Thinking   A resilient world (Walker, 2008)… 15 consists of modular components When over-connected, shocks are rapidly transmitted through the system - as a forest connected by logging roads can allow a wild fire to spread wider than it would otherwise.
  16. 16. Resilience Thinking   A resilient world (Walker, 2008)… 16 possesses tight feedbacks Feedbacks allow us to detect thresholds before we cross them. Globalization is leading to delayed feedbacks that were once tighter. For example, people of the developed world receive weak feedback signals about the consequences of their consumption.
  17. 17. Resilience Thinking   A resilient world (Walker, 2008)… 17 promotes trust, well developed social networks and leadership Individually, these attributes contribute to what is generally termed "social capital," but they need to act in concert to effect adaptability - the capacity to respond to change and disturbance.
  18. 18. Resilience Thinking   A resilient world (Walker, 2008)… 18 places an emphasis on learning, experimentation, locally developed rules, and embracing change When rigid connections and behaviors are broken, new opportunities open up and new resources are made available for growth.
  19. 19. Resilience Thinking   A resilient world (Walker, 2008)… 19 has institutions with "redundancy" in governance structures Redundancy in institutions increases the diversity of responses and the flexibility of a system.
  20. 20. Resilience Thinking   A resilient world (Walker, 2008)… 20 mixes common and private property with overlapping access rights Because access and property rights lie at the heart of many resource-use tragedies, overlapping rights and a mix of common and private property rights can enhance the resilience of linked social-ecological systems.
  21. 21. Resilience Thinking   A resilient world (Walker, 2008)… 21 considers all nature’s un- priced services – such as carbon storage, water filtration and so on - in development proposals and assessments. These services are often the ones that change in a regime shift – and are often only recognized and appreciated when they are lost.
  22. 22. Resilience Platforms 22 http://www.futureofed.org/driver/Platforms-for-Resilience.aspx
  23. 23. Resilience Platforms 23 http://www.futureofed.org/driver/Platforms-for-Resilience.aspx Creating flexibility and innovation amid system failures “Platforms for resilience - enabling responsive flexibility, distributed collaboration, and transparency - will allow institutions to meet such challenges through innovation, adaptation, and openness.”
  24. 24. Resilience in knowledge-intensive ecosystems 24 When knowledge and understanding are key variables in the system, resilience depends on the capacity for learning e.g. awareness of discrepant evidence, critical practice, reflection and dialogue when confronted by challenges or shocks to the system.
  25. 25. Resilience Thinking: OER opportunities + threats 25 Threat to established educational paradigm? (Opportunity for OER/Open Social Learning?)
  26. 26. Resilience Thinking: OER opportunities + threats 26 Threat to established educational paradigm? (Opportunity for OER/Open Social Learning?)
  27. 27. Resilience Thinking: OER opportunities + threats 27 Threat to OER/Open Social Learning? Threat to established educational paradigm? (Opportunity for OER/Open Social Learning?)
  28. 28. Resilience Thinking: OER opportunities + threats 28 Public doc on SBS blog: http://people.kmi.open.ac.uk/sbs/2010/10/resilience-thinking-edu
  29. 29. Resilience Thinking: OER opportunities + threats 29 Public doc on SBS blog: http://people.kmi.open.ac.uk/sbs/2010/10/resilience-thinking-edu
  30. 30. Collective Intelligence for resilience? 30
  31. 31. Collective Intelligence for resilience? 31 Sources include: Weick (1995); Kurtz & Snowden (2003); Browning, L. and Boudès, T. (2005); Hagel et al (2010)
  32. 32. Collective Intelligence for resilience? 32 Sources include: Weick (1995); Kurtz & Snowden (2003); Browning, L. and Boudès, T. (2005); Hagel et al (2010)
  33. 33. the key idea… sensemaking revolves around conversations perspective and context are key: we don’t always agree contested collective intelligence 33 Towards an OER Collective Intelligence Infrastructure
  34. 34. How can we pool the OER evidence base and debate open issues?... 34
  35. 35. How can we pool the OER evidence base and debate open issues?... 35
  36. 36. How can we pool the OER evidence base and debate open issues?... 36 interpretation interpretation interpretation interpretation
  37. 37. How can we pool the OER evidence base and debate open issues?... 37 interpretation interpretationinterpretation interpretation interpretation (a hunch – no grounding evidence yet) interpretation
  38. 38. How can we pool the OER evidence base and debate open issues?... 38 predictscauses interpretation interpretationinterpretation interpretation interpretation (a hunch – no grounding evidence yet) interpretation Is pre-requisite for
  39. 39. How can we pool the OER evidence base and debate open issues?... 39 prevents predictscauses interpretation interpretationinterpretation interpretation interpretation (a hunch – no grounding evidence yet) Is inconsistent with interpretation challenges Is pre-requisite for
  40. 40. Building the story that makes sense of the evidence… i.e. plausible narrative and arguments 40 Question Answer Supporting Argument… Challenging Argument… challengessupports responds to Assumption motivates
  41. 41. Building the story that makes sense of the evidence… i.e. plausible narrative and arguments 41 Question Answer Supporting Argument… Challenging Argument… challengessupports responds to Hunch motivates
  42. 42. Building the story that makes sense of the evidence… i.e. plausible narrative and arguments 42 Question Answer Supporting Argument… Challenging Argument… challengessupports responds to Data motivates
  43. 43. 43 http://cohere.open.ac.uk Convergence of… web annotation social bookmarking concept mapping structured debate a prototype infrastructure for collective intelligence/social learning
  44. 44. Structured deliberation and debate in which Questions, Evidence and Connections are first class entities (linkable, addressable, embeddable, contestable…) 44
  45. 45. 45 Structured deliberation and debate in which Questions, Evidence and Connections are first class entities (linkable, addressable, embeddable, contestable…)
  46. 46. Analyst-defined visual connection language 46
  47. 47. 47 Structured deliberation and debate in which Questions, Evidence and Connections are first class entities (linkable, addressable, embeddable, contestable…)
  48. 48. — web annotation of OER (Firefox extension)
  49. 49. seeing the connections people make as they annotate the web using Cohere Visualizing all the connections that a set of analysts have made — but unfiltered, this may not be very helpful
  50. 50. Visualizing multiple learners’ interpretations of global warming sources Connections have been filtered by a set of semantic relationships grouped as Consistency — semantic filtering of connections De Liddo, A. and Buckingham Shum, S. (2010). Cohere: A prototype for contested collective intelligence. In: ACM Computer Supported Cooperative Work (CSCW 2010) - Workshop: Collective Intelligence In Organizations, February 6-10, 2010, Savannah, Georgia, USA. http://oro.open.ac.uk/19554
  51. 51. — web annotation for sensemaking
  52. 52. Social Network Social Discourse Network Concept Network
  53. 53. — geospatial mashup of ideas Nodes in the semantic network containing geolocation data can be visualized in Google Maps
  54. 54. — timeline viz. mashup of ideas Nodes in the semantic network containing temporal data can be visualized in MIT Simile’s timeline
  55. 55. A large scale OER CI exercise: Are you on the map? (whose map?...)   120 OER project reports from Hewlett Foundation   What is the evidence base around OER impact?   What are the unresolved questions that help set the roadmap?   Reports analysed by OER researchers and via computational linguistics engine… …feeding into a set of multi-dimensional interactive knowledge maps   To be shared with the OER community Spring 2011, inviting mass participation to update the evidence base, and create a living conversation, generating dynamic maps that we can collectively own 55
  56. 56. Sustainability  Resilience  Resilience Thinking  Resilience Platforms  OER Threats/Opps  OER Collective Intelligence 56 Complexity Summary
  57. 57. In more detail… articles, books, news, movies, software, community… 57 http://cohere.open.ac.uk http://projects.kmi.open.ac.uk/hyperdiscourse http://OLnet.org
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