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2013.12.08 uoc open seminar eve lamberg

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  • 1. Eve Lamberg, lecturer of Financial Accounting and PhD student at Estonian Business School ( EBS ) Presentation of the doctoral research 9th of December 2013 eLearn Center (eLC), Universitat Oberta de Catalunya ( UOC )
  • 2. Design-based research  Introduction  Phase 1: an educational problem and equivalency theory  Phase 2: Development of an accounting model  Phase 3: Iterative cycles of testing and redesign of an accounting model prototype  Phase 4: Reflection 8 December 2013 2
  • 3. Inroduction (1) In 1991, Elliott and Jacobson (1991, p. 54) drew attention to the fact that accounting must move into the information technology (IT) era. Elliott identified five stages of the ‘value chain of information’ to illustrate the value that accounting should provide (Albrecht, 2002, p. 44): 1. stage Business events 8 December 2013 2. stage 3. stage 4. stage 5. stage Data Information Knowledge Decision Eve Lamberg 3
  • 4. Inroduction (2) KNOWLEDGE high value DATA low value INFORMATION medium value 8 December 2013 Eve Lamberg Data, information and knowledge are different in nature: DATA comprise facts, observations or perceptions. Data can be easily stored and communicated using electronic media. INFORMATION involves the manipulation of data. KNOWLEDGE refers to information that enables decisions and actions. outline 4
  • 5. Phase 1: educational problem (2) According to Lamberg (2012) there is an obstacle to adapting to the changes in the IT era in which entrepreneurship students operate. The research results highlight that the terms data and information are used interchangeably in an accounting definition. For example:  Accounting is the information system that measures business activity, processes the information into reports, and communicates the results to decision makers (Horngren et al., 2005, p. 4).  Accounting is the information system that measures business activity, processes the data into reports, and communicates the results to decision makers (Horngren et al., 2007, p. 4). 8 December 2013 Eve Lamberg outline 5
  • 6. Phase 1: educational problem (1) 9. stage closing entries 8. stage financial statements 7. stage adjusted trial balance 1. stage business events 2. stage prepare documentation The accounting cycle is a series of stages 3. stage in recording business events record from the time in journals a transaction occurs to its reflection in the financial statements Boulianne (2012). 4. stage post to ledgers 6. stage adjusting entries 8 December 2013 5. stage unadjusted trial balance Eve Lamberg I argue that although computerized accounting information system (AIS) has replaced manual accounting in organizations, entrepreneurship students experience difficulty with the traditional accounting cycle in the IT era resulting in a negative perception. outline 6
  • 7. Equivalency theory (1)  „Equivalency theory“ recognize that the method of knowledge acquisition may be different. Students should have learning experiences that are tailored to the environment and situation in which they find themselves (Simonson, Schlosser, & Hanson, 1999).  According to Chinese philosopher Confucius (551 BC479 BC) "I hear and I forget. I see and I remember. I do and I understand" is an approach to learning that describes a relation between the learner and the activity s/he is doing. 8 December 2013 Eve Lamberg 7
  • 8. Equivalency theory (2)  Bloom’s higher level learning facilitates the „learning by doing” pedagogy that is fundamental in education for entrepreneurship.  The main challenge for educators is to create the appropriate learning environment which reflects the life world of the entrepreneurs (Pfeifer & Borozan, 2011, p. 218).  The introductory-level instructional design should incorporate as many useful empirical tools as possible that consider the needs of a variety of user (Mostyn, 2012, p. 227). 8 December 2013 Eve Lamberg outline 8
  • 9. Phase 2: Development of an accounting model (1) The need of entrepreneurship students is to understand how the financial statements are produced from the business events. Knowledge of IT impact on both accounting and learning. According to constructivist paradigm people perceive the world differently and accounting models will change over time. 8 December 2013 Eve Lamberg 9
  • 10. Phase 2: Development of an accounting model (2) Different types of knowledge should be managed differently:  declarative knowledge may be characterized as „know what knowledge” (facts such as definitions)  procedural knowledge may be characterized as „know how knowledge” (practical understanding such as hands-on experience). The following figures help entrepreneurship students understand the „know-what knowledge“ and „know-how knowledge“ that is a necessary prerequisite in the acquisition of skill. 8 December 2013 Eve Lamberg 10
  • 11. Phase 2: Development of an accounting model (3) ACCOUNTING KNOWLEDGE Financial statements ( output of AIS) INFORMATION interrelated elements A=L+O Asset (A) sub-elements ... ... items cash retained profit DATA about business activities inflow Liability (L) outflow Equity (E) income expense BUSINESS ACTIVITIES (input of AIS) (Figure 5 Declarative knowledge of conceptual AIS, Lamberg 2012) 8 December 2013 Eve Lamberg 11
  • 12. Phase 2: Development of an accounting model (4) Conceptual AIS 1. Stage business activities 3. stage RECORDING business activities to DATA 2. stage SUMMARIZING DATA to INFORMATION CONVERTING INFORMATION to KNOWLEDGE Financial Statements KNOWLEDGE (Figure 6 Procedural knowledge of conceptual AIS, Lamberg 2012) 8 December 2013 Eve Lamberg outline 12
  • 13. Phase 3: testing and redesign of an accounting prototype (1) conceptual models • Source of knowledge: Tallinn University of Technology; Dipl. System Engineer (1984) accounting theory • Source of knowledge: Estonian Business School; EMBA 2002 Comprehensive model validation systematic observation • Source of knowledge: 2002-2012 at the EBS teaching and development of an accounting prototype solution • Source of knowledge: 2013 - ... At the UOC testing and redesign of an accounting prototype with the UOC students Figure Direction in the educational design research process 8 December 2013 Eve Lamberg 13
  • 14. Phase 3: testing and redesign of an accounting prototype (2)  Spreadsheet software is used to develop a prototype solution of my accounting model as a communication tool to visualize and explain accounting process to affect students' learning experience  Procedural knowledge (data -> information-> knowledge) is not regulated by the FASB “Framework for the Preparation and Presentation of Financial Statements” and should conform to the changing environment and resources learners have available (Lamberg, 2012). 8 December 2013 Eve Lamberg 14
  • 15. Description of the proposed intervention (1) Estudis d’Economia i Empresa Introducció a la Comptabilitat (Introduction to the Accountancy) Semestre 1314-2/March 2014 Participants  The UOC is a representative virtual university where the learning is related to constructivist learning.  Participants of the Introduction to the Accountancy course are influenced by learning experiences that are central to the investigation. UOC tutors and students look for engaging learning experience and researcher-designer looks for feedback to improve the AIS prototype with spreadsheet IT. 8 December 2013 Eve Lamberg 15
  • 16. Description of the proposed intervention (2)  The course „Introduction to the Accountancy“ is organized in 5 Continuous assessment activities (Prova d’avaluació continuada PAC) as follows: PAC1 PAC2 PAC3 PAC4 PAC5 10 points 10 points 10 points 10 points 10 points 8 December 2013 Eve Lamberg 16
  • 17. Description of the proposed intervention (3) PAC2 I part 5 points II part 5 points 8 December 2013 Eve Lamberg The PAC2 is broken down in 2 parts:  I part (5 points) includes 3 dependent exercises  II part (5 points)includes a case activity during all the PAC1-PAC5 17
  • 18. Description of the proposed intervention (4) 4 virtual classrooms: PAC2 I part control group  2 virtual classrooms in PAC2 I part pilot test group  2 virtual classrooms in with the prototype of my accounting model 8 December 2013 Eve Lamberg the control group: 2 x 75 ≈ 150 students. the pilot test group: 2 x 75 ≈ 150 students. outline 18
  • 19. Phase 4: Reflection  Analyse the pilot test's results: points of the assessment, students’ estimated time to complete PAC2 I part, number and type of errors.  Analyse tutors’ and students' opinion (how easy the prototype is to learn and use, how satisfying the accounting activity with this model is) through an online survey 8 December 2013 Eve Lamberg 19
  • 20. Thank You for your kind attention! Questions? 8 December 2013 Eve Lamberg outline 20
  • 21. References          Albrecht, W. S. (2002). Accounting Education on the Edge. BizEd, 40-45. Boulianne, E. (2012). Impact of Software Utilization on Students’ Knowledge Acquisition: A Significant Change in Accounting Education Paper presented at the CAAA Annual Conference 2012. http://ssrn.com/abstract=1981357 Elliott, R. K., & Jacobson, P. D. (1991). U.S. Accounting: A National Emergency. Journal of Accountancy, 172(5), 54. Horngren, C.T., Harrison, W.T., Bamber, L.S. (2005). Accounting. 6th ed. New Jersey: Pearson Education, Inc. Horngren, C.T., Harrison, W.T., Bamber, L.S. (2007). Accounting 7th ed. New Jersey: Pearson Education, Inc. Lamberg, E. (2012). Obstacles to the Perception of the Traditional Accounting Cycle in the Learning Process. Journal of Business Management (6), 161-169. Mostyn, G. R. (2012). Cognitive Load Theory: What It Is, Why It's Important for Accounting Instruction and Research. Issues in Accounting Education, 27(1), 227-245. doi: 10.2308/iace-50099 Pfeifer, S., & Borozan, D. (2011). Fitting Kolb's Learning Style Theory to Entrepreneurship Learning Aims and Contents. International Journal of Business Research, 11(2), 216-223. Simonson, M., Schlosser, C., & Hanson, D. (1999). Theory and distance education: A new discussion. American Journal of Distance Education, 13(1), 60-75. 8 December 2013 Eve Lamberg 21
  • 22. The accounting cycle Luca Pacioli (the father of Accounting) published the accounting cycle in 1494 (Summa de arithmetica, geometrica, proportioni et proportionalita) that Venetian merchants used during the Italian Renaissance. He demonstrated year-end closing entries and proposed that a trial balance be used to prove a balanced ledger: the total of the debit values must balance the total of the credit values. This is a balanced scale model for understanding the balance between debits and credits. Debit-credit rule was introduced before „equals“ sign. Robert Recorde introduced the "equals" (=) sign in 1557. "Equals" means “equivalent” not “identical”. 8 December 2013 Eve Lamberg back 22
  • 23. Concepts of Equivalency theory  Equivalency - the learning experiences of the learner should     have equivalent value even though these experiences might be very different. Learning Experience - Some may need a greater amount of observing while others require a larger dosage of doing. Appropriate Application - learning experiences should allow delivery of instructional ideas that fit the expectations and facilities available to learners Students - Students are the ones involved in the formal, institutionally based learning activity - the course or unit of instruction. Outcomes - the outcomes of a learning experience are those obvious, measurable, and significant changes that occur cognitively and effectively in learners because of their participation in the course or unit. 8 December 2013 Eve Lamberg back 23