An Assessment on Hygienic Practices and Sanitation Procedures of Pizza Hut as Perceived by HRM Trainees in Different Colleges in Lucena City
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An Assessment on Hygienic Practices and Sanitation Procedures of Pizza Hut as Perceived by HRM Trainees in Different Colleges in Lucena City






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An Assessment on Hygienic Practices and Sanitation Procedures of Pizza Hut as Perceived by HRM Trainees in Different Colleges in Lucena City An Assessment on Hygienic Practices and Sanitation Procedures of Pizza Hut as Perceived by HRM Trainees in Different Colleges in Lucena City Document Transcript

  • CHAPTER 1 Introduction Background of the Study Food is a basic necessity. The industry which deals with preparing food items/products refers to the food service industry. The food service industry is always remaining in high demand because of its genre. These industries include restaurants, fast foods, cafeterias, catering operations, food carts etc. Filipinos love to eat and that’s the reason why you will see a lot of restaurants and fast foods restaurants scattered in the cities. Good sanitation practices in restaurants are important not only to reduce direct and crosscontamination of food but also to increase the morale and efficiency of workers and to satisfy the customers from and aesthetic point of view sanitation. is more than just cleanliness. It includes all practices involved protecting food from risk of contamination, harmful bacteria, and poisons. The primary tenet of food service sanitation is absolute cleanliness. It begins with personal hygiene, the safe handling of food during preparation and clean utensils equipment, appliances storage. The cleanliness and personal hygiene of food workers are extremely important in the food service and food processing establishment. Every person who works in the foodservice facility is responsible for having good personal hygiene and clean work attire. This is important for the manager, cooks, servers, dishwashers, and cashiers. Full-time and part-time employees are equally responsible for food safety. In fact, food safety begins with each person. Food handlers are potential sources of microorganisms that cause illness and food spoilage.Management must select clean and healthy employees and ensure that they conducthygienic practices. Anyone can contaminate food with a harmful microorganism
  • and not even know it. Bacteria are present on and in human bodies-hands, hair, throat, and intestines. They are also on clothing and on common items that are handled regularly, such as money, pens, and pencils. The simple act of patting one’s hair or rubbing one’s ear can contaminate hands with staphylococci bacteria and, if not washed, hands can contaminate a food and cause food borne illness. Anyone can contaminate food with a harmful microorganism and not even know it. The personal hygiene, attire, and general health habits of foodservice employees play a crucial role in keeping harmful microorganisms away from the food. Hygienic practices in handling and preparation of food are great importance prevention of food contamination and poison. The researcher as a BS HRM student choose this topic because there are several subjects she already taken-up and it can use as references. She also wants to learn and understand the importance of sanitation and hygienic practices in a food service industry. With these scenarios and the good intention of contributing useful information, the researcher were motivated to study an assessment on hygienic practices and sanitation procedures perceived by food service crews of selected fast food restaurant in Lucena City Statement of the Problem This study focuses on “An Assessment on Hygienic Practices and Sanitation Procedures of Pizza Hut as Perceived by HRM Trainees of Different Collegesin Lucena City” Specifically, it seeks to answer the following questions: 1. What is the demographic profile of the respondent’s base on:
  • a. Age b. Gender c. School Currently Enrolled d. Assigned Area 2. How do HRM trainees of Pizza Hut follow hygienic practices in terms of: 1.1 Personal Hygiene 1.2 Kitchen Hygiene 3. What are some factors affecting safety and sanitation procedure in a restaurant? 4. How do HRM trainees of Pizza Hut follow sanitation procedures in terms of 1.1 Dining Area 1.2 Kitchen Area 1.3 Storage Area Conceptual Framework The study entitled “An Assessment on Hygienic Practices and Sanitation Proceduresof Pizza Hut as Perceived by HRM Trainees of Different Colleges inLucena City”. The study aims to assess the respondents regarding hygienic practices and sanitation procedures during their on the job training in the restaurant. The respondents were 25 selected HRM student trainees in different Colleges in Lucena City, who took their restaurant practicum in Pizza Hut,SM CityLucena.
  • Paradigm Used in this Study INPUT Hygienic Practices and Sanitation Procedures perform by HRM trainees during their on the job training Definition of Terms PROCESS To be able to determine the hygienic practices and sanitation procedures/guidelines follow by HRM trainees of Pizza Hut. OUTPUT To ensure food is free from: 1. Foodcontamination 2. Food Spoilage 3. Food Poisoning For easier understanding of the study, certain terms used by the researcher were defines as follows: Cross Contamination- is the transfer of disease causing microorganism, such as bacteria and viruses, from one food to another. Evaluation- is the structured interpretation and giving of meaning to predict or actual impacts of proposals or results. Fast Food Restaurant- generally refers to the type of restaurants that sell quick, inexpensive take-out food. Food contamination- refers to the presence in food of harmful chemicals and microorganisms which can cause consumer illness. Food Handler- Any person who handles opened or unopened food, equipment, utensils or surfaces used for food preparation and serving.
  • Food Safety-refers to the conditions and practices that preserve the quality of food to prevent contamination and food borne illnesses. Good hygiene practices- all practices regarding the conditions and measures necessary to ensure the safety and suitability of food at all stages of food chain. Kitchen Hygiene-refers to the set standards that should be observed and maintained in the kitchen. Personal Hygiene- involves those practices performed by an individual to care for one's bodily health and well-being, through cleanliness. Sanitation- formulation and application of measures design to protect public health. Theoretical Framework Due to a heightened public awareness as a result of all types of media coverage concerning food borne illnesses, the level of training for employees working in the food industry in general needs to be increased. This is a responsibility that the food industry has to their clients and the general public. Regardless of type of processing or food handling operation, the number one consideration in food sanitation is people. It is people who set the rules, follow the rules, and also break the rules of sanitation. A sanitation program is as good as the attitude, willingness, and efforts of people. That is why the most important aspect of a sanitation program is ongoing personnel training. It is essential that the full meaning of sanitation and its wide economic scope be accepted by everyone concerned in the food system-including management. Personnel training should include appropriate sanitation principles and food handling practices, manufacturing controls,
  • and personal hygiene Good personal hygiene is a basic requirement for implementing a strong food safety program. All foodservice employees must follow Standard Operating Procedures for personal hygiene that comply with the Food Code and that are customized for their work area. Despite this fact, it is interesting to note that research conducted by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration shows that poor personal hygiene practices can be seen in retail foodservice establishments, which includes elementary schools, hospitals, nursing homes and restaurants. Hygiene practices should be communicated prior to employment and reaffirmed with periodic training programs. Workers can carry pathogens internally and on their hands, skin and hair. It is imperative that they follow and understand basic food protection practices and maintain a high degree of personal cleanliness and good sanitation practices to prevent food product contamination. Management should serve as role models for good work habits and acceptable hygienic practices. They should. Once continually emphasize how important it is. Policies should reassure the employees that they will not lose their jobs if they report an illness or communicable disease employees understand what is expected of them, effective supervision of employee practices should be used to ensure that employees follow proper procedures. Training should be conducted annually and reviewed whenever incorrect practices are observed.
  • Significance of the Study This study would be beneficial to the following: To Researcher It serves as a foundation of knowledge, as to learn and understand on how sanitation procedures and hygienic practices have an important role in a food service industry. To CEFI HRM students This study will result in efficient and reliable source of information that would help students to have a better understanding on how importance the hygienic practices and sanitation in a food service establishment. To School Administrator This study will provide information in better understanding of food safety, sanitation and hygiene. Thus, the school administrator may gain additional knowledge regarding hygienic practices and sanitation guidelines to prevent food contamination, food spoilage and food poisoning. To Food Service Management It will provide information on how to maintain hygienic conditions in any food service establishment. Food service management is obligated to protect the health of customers and personnel. Educating and training of personnel in the principles of sanitation and good personal hygiene are essential. A person’s behavior regarding sanitation and personal habits have a significant effect on the safety of food.
  • To Future Researcher It serves as a basis in conducting further researcher related to this study and importantly, this research will educate people who work in a food service industry on how to be responsible to their work as they provide foods to the customers that contribute to food safety. Scope and Delimitation This research entitled“An Assessment on Hygienic Practices and Sanitation Procedures of Pizza Hut as Perceived by HRM Trainees of Different Colleges in Lucena City. This study focuses on sanitation procedures and hygienic practices. The respondents of this study are 30 selected HRM students in different colleges who took their restaurant practicum in Pizza Hut, SM City Lucena.
  • CHAPTER II Review on Related Literature and Studies Related Literature (Alvarez, 2010 pp.147) “Cleanliness and personal hygiene of food workers are extremely important in the food service and food processing establishments”.It means that all employees shall maintain a high degree of personal cleanliness and shall conform to good hygienic practices during allthose working periods.Alvarez enumerated several guidelines for food service employees. Employees hygiene practices includes the following, first all employees must wash their hands with soap and water when they are arrive at work and before starting food preparation, all employees mush wash their hands with soap and water after they used the toilet, after covering mouth or nose after sneezing or coughing, employees with long hair must wear hats, hair nets or other form of hair restraint, employees must wear clean clothes, employees with cuts or sores on their hands must wear disposable latex gloves, finger cots or other water proof covering as needed, employees with diarrhea or severe coughing are not allowed to work, employees coats and other private articles must be stored in a designated area, employees should eat only during assigned breaks, not while working in the kitchen, and lastly all non-working and unauthorized persons must be restricted fromthe food preparation and service areas. Furthermore, personal habits affect food safety. In preparing food, food workers must remove their watches, rings, bracelets and all other jewelry on the arms or handsout of food.Fingernails must be trimmed so they are easy to clean. Hair restraints are intended to keep
  • hands out of hair and hair out of food. Hair must be effectively restrained whenever you are working around food or food preparation areas. Poor personal hygiene practices can contaminate food and food surfaces (Ang, 2010 pp26). The most common source of food borne illness can be traced to food handlers. Common personal hygiene violations that can result in food borne illness include failure to wash hand properly, failure to follow proper hygiene habits, working when sick, and lack of training in personal hygiene practices. Furthermore, cross contamination occurs when microorganisms are transferred from a contaminated food contact surface of food to a non-contact surface or food. According to Environmental Health Department, National Environment Agency, 2007 considering all persons working in a retail food establishment should practice good personal and food hygiene to ensure that food served to consumers is safe for consumption. It is important for front-line service staffs, waiters and waitresses to observe good hygiene practices so as to avoid introducing contamination into the food being served. Their food handling and personal hygiene practices may also influence customer decisions in re-visiting the food establishment. The following guidelines inform food establishment operators and service staff of the good hygiene practices that should be adopted when serving food to customers. Food safety hygiene applies to any venue that operates a permanent or temporary kitchen or smaller food preparation area for storing, preparing, displaying and serving food, for example: commercial catering and retail venues like restaurants, cafes, clubs, hotels, event venues, conference venues fast food outlets retail food outlets such as sandwich shops and food courts, tour operators who prepare and serve food at temporary sites.
  • (Cabuhal,2010 pp.119) stated that food manager preventive measures implements to ensure food safety should begin during hiring stage of food service industry workers. This strategy is accomplished through the health screening and careful training of food service employees after they had been hired. Policies should be designed, implemented and monitored to cover employees’ illnesses, proper attire, and personal hygiene habits. The specific methods aimed to fulfill the intent of these policies are frequently referred to as infection control procedures. From the online the most important food safety tool is clean hands. Hand washing gets rid of the microorganisms on hands that can make people sick. It is important to wash your hands often throughout the day, even when they look clean.Washing your hands often is the most important thing you can do to keep microorganisms out of your body and out of the food you prepare. Food workers must know when and how to wash their hands. Workers are required to wash their hands before they begin food preparation and any time hands may be contaminated, such as after using the toilet, after handling raw meat, fish, or poultry, after handling garbage or dirty dishes, after taking a break, eating, drinking, or smoking, after sneezing, coughing, or blowing the nose, after using chemicals, after handling money or a cash register. According to (Subida, 2007 pp.168) food isbeing contaminated as a result of food handlers with poor personal hygiene whose hands are not washes in between preparing different type of food, after touching any source of bacteria like nose, mouth, hair, contaminated equipment, contaminated raw food or ingredient, contaminated kitchen utensils like chopping boards and knives, using the same utensil for preparing two or more different foods. There are
  • basic principles of food protection against bacteria. First, wash hands, cutting boardsand all dishes that came into contact with raw meat, fish, or poultry. Secondmake sure raw food and cooked foods are kept separated. Third cover all foods. Fourth cook all meat, fish and poultry thoroughly. Fifth get rid of garbage or refuse carefully in covered bins. And lastly sanitize all equipment. (Ang, 2010 pp.106) stated that “small batch preparation” is a technique can be used to promote safety during preparation. There are several guidelines in preparing safe food. First, handle foods as little as possible. Second, use tongs, spatulas, or other utensils instead of hands. Third, use clean sanitized equipment work tables. Clean and sanitize cutting surfaces and equipment after handling raw poultry, meat, fish or eggs before working on another food. Fourth, clean as you go. Do not wait to clean the workplace until the end of the workday. Fifth, wash raw fruits and vegetables thoroughly. Sixth, when bringing foods out of refrigeration, do not bring out more than what can be processes in an hour.Seventh, keeps foods cover whenever possible unless in immediate use. And last, do not mix leftover with freshly prepared foods. Related Studies Local Studies Based on the study conducted by Joyce Macaraeg, 2012 a person behavior in sanitation and personal habits can have a significant effect on the safety of food product. Food handlers should be trained to ensure appropriate behavior. The cleanliness and personal hygiene of food workers are extremely important. Therefore, good personal hygiene is essential for those who handle foods. A desirable behavior includes when and how to wash hands properly. Maintaining good personal habits such as bathing, restraining hair, keeping finger nails short and clean,
  • washing hands after using toilets etc. and maintaining good health and reporting when sick to avoid spreading possible infections. Furthermore, based on the study conducted by Grimaldo, 2012, food shall be protected from cross-contamination by separating raw foods from ready-to-eat foods during storage, preparation, holding, and display. Equipment and utensils including knives, cutting boards, and food storage containers must be thoroughly cleaned and sanitized afterbeing used for raw animal foods and before being used for ready-to-eat food. In addition she suggested that organizations should establish personal hygiene rules that are clearly defined and uniformly and rigidly enforced. These regulations should be documented, posted and clearly spelled out in booklets. Policy should address personal cleanliness, working attire, acceptable food handling practices, and the use of tobacco and other prohibited practices. Foreign Studies There are several studies that have discussed that the main causes of microbial contamination typically occurring in foodservice establishments are contaminated supplies, dirty food contact surfaces, poor personnel hygiene practices, inappropriate storage temperatures, and insufficient cooking (Käferstein, 2003; Griffith & Clayton, 2005; WHO, 2007; EFSA,2007; Jones et al., 2008).More in detail, various studies have demonstrated that the main sources of cross contamination during processing come from food contact surfaces, equipment and employees (Gill et al., 2001; McEnvoy et al., 2004; Tsalo et al., 2007; Aarnisalo et al.,2006; Bagge-Ravn et al., 2003; Cools et al., 2005; Fuster-Valls et al., 2008). Equipment and surfaces can be source of direct contamination when they have not been effectively cleaned or remained wet between cleaning and use (Evans et al., 2004). Food handlers have a major role in the
  • prevention of food borne diseases since they may cross contaminate raw and ready-to-eat food, and be asymptomatic carriers of food poisoning microorganisms (Walker et al., 2003). Hand washing interventions may be more effective if perceptions of food workers are considered. For example, concern for customers health, concern for personal health, and taking pride in providing a quality product were factors seen by participants as positively influencing hand washing practice. Developing an understanding of how these factors could be incorporated into hand washing training could enable development of behavioral interventions to encourage hand washing. Much of the current hand washing training relies on the knowledge, attitude, and practice (KAP) model (Clayton et al., 2002),
  • CHAPTER III Research Methodology This chapter presents the methods and procedures used by the researcher in conducting the study. It includes research design, research environment, sources of data, sampling design and instrumentation including its construction, validation, data collection, data processing and statistical treatment. Research Design The descriptive methods of research will be used in this study to identify the importance of sanitation procedures and hygienic practices in a food service business. This type of research design was used by the researcher because its appropriateness to the nature of the study, particularly in describing a systematically situation. Research Environment This study will be conducted at SM City Lucena due to the proximity of the respondents who took their restaurant practicum/on the job training in Pizza Hut. Sources of Data The sources of data in this study will be composed of 25 selected HRM traineesin different Colleges in Lucena City who took their on the job training/ restaurant practicum in Pizza Hut, SM City Lucena.
  • Sampling Design In order to gather necessary data, the researcher used purposive sampling which means they will be chosen as a respondent because they are working as an on the job trainees in Pizza Hut, SM City Lucena. Instrumentation To facilitate the study, the researcher used type of questionnaire. The questionnaire was composed of fourth parts. The first part is the demographic profile of the respondent’s based on age, gender; school currently enrolled and assigned area. Second part determined the hygienic practices perceived by HRM trainees, during their restaurant practicum in Pizza Hut, SM City Lucena. The third part is about factors affecting safety and sanitation procedures of Pizza Hut. And last part is about sanitation procedures in terms of dining area, kitchen area and storage area. Data gathering was done during working periods and the respondents were randomly approached and were given questionnaire. Validation Before tally the answer in the questionnaires, the researcher reviews the answer of the respondents to check the completeness of the information. Data Collection Upon approval of the questionnaire, the researcher requested permission to undertake the study from the manager/supervisor of Pizza Hut, SM City Lucena. Right after the approval, the researcher immediately administered the questionnaire to the respondents. Following cordial
  • greeting to her respondents, a short explanation about the study and all the accomplished questionnaires were immediately collected by the researcher. Data Processing The responses to the questionnaires were analyzed and interpreted in the tables sided by the use of statistical treatment. Statistical Treatment The data gathered in this study were tallied and arranged them accordingly. The research data were further presented in tabular form, as well as in graphical way of presenting them properly. Percentage scores were computed out of tallied scores. This was done to summarize the responses made by HRM trainees in different colleges who been took their restaurant practicum/on the job training in Pizza Hut, SM City Lucena. In converting the raw scores into percentage, the formula is: P =Fx100 N Where: P= Percentage F= Frequency N= Total number of respondents
  • References: Books: Alvarez, Helen U.(Food Safety, Sanitation and Hygiene) Mind Shapers Co. Inc 2010 Ang, Mary Jane C. (Food Safety and Sanitation) C&E Publishing Inc.2010 Cabuhal,Gina Marie (Food Safety and Sanitation Hygiene) Mind Shapers Co. Inc. 2010 Managing A Food Safe-Kitchen (A Guide in Sanitation and Food Service Professionals, 2006) Periodical: Personal Hygiene and Food Safety (Food Quality & Safety Magazine, June/July 2006) Unpublished Thesis: Clayton, D& GriffithC. (2004). Observation of food safety practices in catering using notational analysis. British Food Journal, 106, 211-227. Evans, James C. & Corry, J.L. (2004) Microbial contamination of food refrigeration equipmentJournal of Food Engineering, 62, 225-232 Grimaldo, Gretchel “Assessment on Safety Hygiene and Sanitation Standards Practiced by MangInasal and Gerry’s Grill” 2012 Macaraeg, Joyce “Value of Personal Hygiene and Sanitation as Perceived by Staffs of MangInasalang Gerry’s Grill” 2012 Electronic Sources: Environmental Health Department, National Environment Agency, Accessed 2009 Food Safety and Sanitation Accessed August 08, 2011 Safety Management Services Food Handler Accessed March 2009 The Importance of Cleaning and Sanitation of Kitchen Equipment Accessed 2007
  • Calayan Educational Foundation Inc. College of Hotel Restaurant and Tourism Management An Assessment on Hygienic Practices and Sanitation Procedures of Pizza Hut as Perceived by HRM Trainees of Different Colleges in Lucena City Submitted by Briemdale Cadiz BS HRM-III Submitted to: Dr.Jaime Buzar Adviser October 25, 2013