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Cambridge | Jan-14 | Energy for Development: business opportunities for community minigrids
Cambridge | Jan-14 | Energy for Development: business opportunities for community minigrids
Cambridge | Jan-14 | Energy for Development: business opportunities for community minigrids
Cambridge | Jan-14 | Energy for Development: business opportunities for community minigrids
Cambridge | Jan-14 | Energy for Development: business opportunities for community minigrids
Cambridge | Jan-14 | Energy for Development: business opportunities for community minigrids
Cambridge | Jan-14 | Energy for Development: business opportunities for community minigrids
Cambridge | Jan-14 | Energy for Development: business opportunities for community minigrids
Cambridge | Jan-14 | Energy for Development: business opportunities for community minigrids
Cambridge | Jan-14 | Energy for Development: business opportunities for community minigrids
Cambridge | Jan-14 | Energy for Development: business opportunities for community minigrids
Cambridge | Jan-14 | Energy for Development: business opportunities for community minigrids
Cambridge | Jan-14 | Energy for Development: business opportunities for community minigrids
Cambridge | Jan-14 | Energy for Development: business opportunities for community minigrids
Cambridge | Jan-14 | Energy for Development: business opportunities for community minigrids
Cambridge | Jan-14 | Energy for Development: business opportunities for community minigrids
Cambridge | Jan-14 | Energy for Development: business opportunities for community minigrids
Cambridge | Jan-14 | Energy for Development: business opportunities for community minigrids
Cambridge | Jan-14 | Energy for Development: business opportunities for community minigrids
Cambridge | Jan-14 | Energy for Development: business opportunities for community minigrids
Cambridge | Jan-14 | Energy for Development: business opportunities for community minigrids
Cambridge | Jan-14 | Energy for Development: business opportunities for community minigrids
Cambridge | Jan-14 | Energy for Development: business opportunities for community minigrids
Cambridge | Jan-14 | Energy for Development: business opportunities for community minigrids
Cambridge | Jan-14 | Energy for Development: business opportunities for community minigrids
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Cambridge | Jan-14 | Energy for Development: business opportunities for community minigrids

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Presentation by AbuBakr S Bahaj, Southampton University, Smart Villages Technology Workshop, Cambridge 14 January 2014 …

Presentation by AbuBakr S Bahaj, Southampton University, Smart Villages Technology Workshop, Cambridge 14 January 2014

The purpose of the workshop was to bring together leading UK researchers to discuss emerging technologies for the sustainable production and use of energy in rural communities in developing countries, and to take a ‘look ahead’ at scientific developments and technologies that might be influential over the next 10 - 20 years. It was held under the auspices of the ‘smart villages’ initiative, a three - year project to advance sustain able energy provision for development in off - grid villages in Africa, Asia and Latin America.

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  1. www.energy.soton.ac.uk Energy and Climate Change Division – www.energy.soton.ac.ukProf A S Bahaj : The Role of Energy in Development Energy for Development: business opportunities for community minigrids Professor AbuBakr S Bahaj Energy and Climate Change Division, Sustainable Energy Research Group Faculty of Engineering & the Environment University of Southampton, Southampton, SO17 1BJ United Kingdom
  2. Prof A S Bahaj : The Role of Energy in Development Energy and Climate Change Division – www.energy.soton.ac.uk Energy generation and services  Exploit local natural resources, understand how these can be coupled with economic, social and environmental impacts.  Local abilities - the provisions for societies will differ by region.  System design - need to be less complex & anticipate loads.  Storage systems.  A supply chain including technical support will need to be in place.  If local natural resources are inadequate or inappropriate, a supply chain for the delivery of energy services based on fossil fuels will need to be established. Need to take into account the following factors: Possibilities for energy generation:  renewable energy - regionally and temporally variable, initial capital cost (fuel free).  fossil energy – cost, maintenance and supply chain! 1000 kWh/m2.a 1000 .. 1500 kWh/m2.a 1500 .. 2000 kWh/m2.a 2000 .. 2500 kWh/m2.a >2500 kWh/m2.a
  3. Prof A S Bahaj : The Role of Energy in Development Energy and Climate Change Division – www.energy.soton.ac.uk Energy provisions Intervention strategies Internal / external donor provides investment Local investment! Training given. Revenue generated. Community has interest in project and are prepared to run it. Scheme is sustainable and is replicable. External donor supply and install equipment Minimum training, No supply chain or revenue generation. Minimal community engagement After some time, system fails and is not repaired etc. X Community engagement is key A better pattern, something like the following: ==
  4. Prof A S Bahaj : The Role of Energy in Development Energy and Climate Change Division – www.energy.soton.ac.uk === This sits at the heart of the E4D project. Energy provisions 1. Capital costs 2. Operational costs 3. Income generation. Options: • Banks • Micro financing companies • Governments • etc How can such an intervention be financed? Intervention strategies Aim for the better pattern: – Finance Internal / external donor provides investment Local investment! Training given. Revenue generated. Community has interest in project and are prepared to run it. Scheme is sustainable and is replicable. Community engagement is key ==
  5. Prof A S Bahaj : The Role of Energy in Development Energy and Climate Change Division – www.energy.soton.ac.uk E4D project aims  To establish and implement, easy to replicate, sustainable decentralised off-grid electricity.  Specific to the promotion of both development, alleviate poverty and improves wellbeing in rural communities in East Africa.  Tailor made solutions to meet the productivity needs of target communities.  Develop easy to apply tools, to ensure long term financial viability whilst addressing the associated societal and health impacts.  Tools and designs to replicate the projects. Replication of Rural Decentralised off-grid Electricity Generation through Technology and Business Innovation www.energyfordevelopment.net
  6. Prof A S Bahaj : The Role of Energy in Development Energy and Climate Change Division – www.energy.soton.ac.uk Community led energy supply services  Community ownership and enhanced wellbeing.  Commerce creating value especially of trade / agricultural production.  Services that can address other societal needs such as educational and primary health requirements.  Cottage industries / SMEs geared to enhance the wellbeing and wealth of the community.  The needed platform for capacity building to enhance growth / retain capabilities / expand. Core businesses and community ownership to be enhanced / created and developed. This can provide/facilitate the following: Various possibilities for the organisation of an energy supply provider:  Initial set-up and technology capital costs.  Funding streams to be addressed at the outset.  Holistic approach – community at centre.  Revenue generation!
  7. Prof A S Bahaj : The Role of Energy in Development Energy and Climate Change Division – www.energy.soton.ac.uk Community based energy supply services Kenya: Kitonyoni Implementation approach:  Understanding country / region.  Developing knowledgebase.  Assess and review aspirations / needs.  Community based structures.  Enhancing what is already there.  Business approach / revenue generation. established.  System design and overall procurement.  Installation.  Operational analysis.  Business case evidence.  Replication. Kitonyoni sub-location Mwania sub- location
  8. Prof A S Bahaj : The Role of Energy in Development Energy and Climate Change Division – www.energy.soton.ac.uk People/km2 Population density 0-5 km 5-10 km 10-20 km 20-50 km 50-100 km 100-250 km Distance from the grid Understanding country / region. =>Exclude <50 people/km2 =>Exclude <15 km from grid Kenya: regional understanding (People/km2).km
  9. Prof A S Bahaj : The Role of Energy in Development Energy and Climate Change Division – www.energy.soton.ac.uk Kenya: Makueni district : 160km south of Nairobi, 27.1 km2, population density 96 persons/km2, total population app. 2,590 Mii Kangondi Kavingoni Kwa Kavise Kiliza Kitonyoni ! ! ! ! !!!!!!!! ! !!!! ! ! !! !!!!!!!!!!! ! ! " Mwania 0 2 41 Kilometers Where do Households mostly charge their mobile phones? Using own electricty Using neighbours electricity At Kitonyoni/Mwania TC Other Kitonyoni_roads Kitonyoni/Mwania Sub Location Assessing needs Control Community
  10. Prof A S Bahaj : The Role of Energy in Development Energy and Climate Change Division – www.energy.soton.ac.uk Lighting data from the catchment areas. - Kitonyoni (left) and Mwania (right) Kenya: Makueni district Mii Kangondi Kavingoni Kwa Kavise Kiliza Kitonyoni ! ! ! ! !!!!!!!! ! !!!! ! ! !! !!!!!!!!!!! ! ! " Mwania 0 2 41 Kilometers Do HH own a paraffin lantern? Yes No Kitonyoni_roads Kitonyoni/Mwania Sub Location Do Households own paraffin lanterns? Assessing needs Control Community
  11. Prof A S Bahaj : The Role of Energy in Development Energy and Climate Change Division – www.energy.soton.ac.uk Each dot on represents a household and the legend identify the available platform for device charging. Mii Kangondi Kavingoni Kwa Kavise Kiliza Kitonyoni 0 2 41 Km Solar Panels Own Generator Vehicle Battery No Electricity in HH Other Kitonyoni_roads Kenya: Kitonyoni Assessing consumption -0.02 0.00 0.02 0.04 0.06 0.08 0.10 0.12 0.14 0.16 0.18 Relativefrequency Monthly lighting spend (KSh) Poly. (Kitonyoni) Poly. (Mwania) Lighting cost from the catchment areasPower availability
  12. Prof A S Bahaj : The Role of Energy in Development Energy and Climate Change Division – www.energy.soton.ac.uk Concept and project development Kenya: E4D Concept Business consumption Lighting (Lanterns) Mobile Phone Charging Sale of Water Remote charging Stations On-going income Households / education Local Trading Centre Community Members Sub Location Development Benefit Group Cooperative & Committees Initial Capital Initial Income for Co-Op through Shareholder & Membership
  13. Prof A S Bahaj : The Role of Energy in Development Energy and Climate Change Division – www.energy.soton.ac.uk Power supply/income structure Kenya: Kitonyoni == power supply RLSsystemineveryhousehold Trading Centre Business Business School Health Centre Business RLSsysteminevery household Minigrid – connecting businesses, health centre & schools #40. Residential housing have rechargeable lighting systems # target 500 households. Business Business ESCO Minigrid Churches
  14. Prof A S Bahaj : The Role of Energy in Development Energy and Climate Change Division – www.energy.soton.ac.uk System deployment / connectivity Kenya: Kitonyoni == Deployment Provide lighting to over 500 households and power to businesses − Trade Centre : Via minigrid network in the − Households: Via rechargeable lantern / battery − Develop legislative framework to attain project sustainability (a)
  15. Prof A S Bahaj : The Role of Energy in Development Energy and Climate Change Division – www.energy.soton.ac.uk System design / installation Kenya: Kitonyoni == System installed 13.5 kWp PV, 4 strings each @ ~60V ~9A 4No.48V80A 15 kW, 1500 rpm, 230V, single phase, max 21.5 kW 48V800Ah 2No. 10kVA
  16. Prof A S Bahaj : The Role of Energy in Development Energy and Climate Change Division – www.energy.soton.ac.uk Business models Kenya: Kitonyoni: Tariffs ESCO/ Co-operative Society Battery Charging Business Retail Businesses Health Clinic/ School Tariff 1 - Tiered Tariff 2 - Fixed Lanterns supply Energy supply Microcredit • Provide lighting 3000 people, power to 40 businesses. • Rainwater harvesting from canopy. • Income generation for the Co-operative and the project. Churches Households as direct customer for battery charging
  17. Prof A S Bahaj : The Role of Energy in Development Energy and Climate Change Division – www.energy.soton.ac.uk Additionality Kenya: Kitonyoni – rain harvesting Various possibilities could be envisaged that combine energy and water provision in water stressed areas:  Canopy used to harvest rain water.  Energy supply that combines the provision of electricity for normal use in businesses/housing as well as water pumping.  Additional revenue generation for the cooperative.  Scaling of the approach is possibel?
  18. Prof A S Bahaj : The Role of Energy in Development Energy and Climate Change Division – www.energy.soton.ac.uk Community based energy supply services Kenya: Achievements Access Affordability assessment Pricing Operation Payment mechanism Monitoring & evaluation Governess Operations & maintenance Ownership finance Community engagement Outputs Templates to replicate Local supply chain Private Sector engagement Project economics Project economics
  19. Prof A S Bahaj : The Role of Energy in Development Energy and Climate Change Division – www.energy.soton.ac.uk Community status Kenya: Kitonyoni
  20. Prof A S Bahaj : The Role of Energy in Development Energy and Climate Change Division – www.energy.soton.ac.uk Impacts and development Kenya: E4D Concept Business consumption Lighting (Lanterns) Mobile Phone Charging Sale of Water Remote charging Stations On-going income Households / education Local Trading Centre Community Members Sub Location Development Benefit Group Cooperative & Committees Initial Capital Initial Income for Co-Op through Shareholder & Membership Health Jobs / new businesses Community invigoration Poverty alleviation Impacts
  21. Prof A S Bahaj : The Role of Energy in Development Energy and Climate Change Division – www.energy.soton.ac.uk Community based energy supply services Kenya: Kitonyoni extension = some examples Maternity unit Grid extension Mobile power
  22. Prof A S Bahaj : The Role of Energy in Development Energy and Climate Change Division – www.energy.soton.ac.uk Concept and project replication Project timeline Network formation (2012/3) Major conference (2014) Outputs (2011 – 2014): Workshops, publications, capacity building and training 2 village systems to be installed (2013/4) 1st village system installed (2012) Baseline surveys (2010/11) Endline surveys impacts 4th village system installed (2014) ENERGY FOR DEVELOPMENT
  23. Prof A S Bahaj : The Role of Energy in Development Energy and Climate Change Division – www.energy.soton.ac.uk Concept and project replication Future/Replication Kitonyoni, Kenya • 13.5kWp Solar PV • 15kWp Generator • 48V 800Ah Storage Oloika, Kenya • 13.5kWp Solar PV • 48V 800Ah Storage Bambouti, Cameroon • 6kWp Solar PV
  24. Prof A S Bahaj : The Role of Energy in Development Energy and Climate Change Division – www.energy.soton.ac.uk Community based energy supply services Kenya: Kitonyoni This work is supported by the EPSRC and in collaboration with many partners – www.energyfordevelopment.net
  25. www.energy.soton.ac.uk Energy and Climate Change Division – www.energy.soton.ac.ukProf A S Bahaj : The Role of Energy in Development This work is part of the activities of the Energy and Climate Change Division and the Sustainable Energy Research Group at the University of Southampton and is supported by RCUK / EPSRC /DFID Thank you .. www.energyfor development.net

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