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Jornades Llengües Estrangeres, Yolanda Scott-Tennent, "Slips, errors and attempts, an inevitable part of communication, but what can we do about them ?"

Jornades Llengües Estrangeres, Yolanda Scott-Tennent, "Slips, errors and attempts, an inevitable part of communication, but what can we do about them ?"

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  • 1. “A person who never made a mistake never tried anything new.” Albert Einstein Slips, Errors and Attempts “I never make stupid mistakes. Only very, very clever ones.” John Peel “The only real mistake is the one from which we learn nothing.” John Powell IX Jornades de Llengües Estrangeres a Tarragona November 2011 Yolanda Scott-Tennent yscottt@xtec.cat Making mistakes is a part of learning (steps), just as correcting is part of teaching. Errors, attempts and slips/IX 1 Errors, attempts and slips/IX 2 Jornades LLE Tarragona/Y.Scott- Jornades LLE Tarragona/Y.Scott- Tennent/yscottt@xtec.cat Tennent/yscottt@xtec.cat Main Causes Slips • Homophones and homographs: He had put it their before leaving. • L1 influence/interference ( in grammar, lexis , but also in pronunciation e.g. schwa sound before ‘s) • Omission My mother was ___ dentist and she wanted me to be __: , too. - unknowingly ( false friends, expressions,etc. • Confusing “this” for “that” or “these” for “those” e.g. I wet myself [after spilling a glass of liquid) • Inventing short words e.g. Magnific • Non –correspondondence between singular and plural - deliberately ( because don’t know how but want to e.g. She knows an interesting sto John finished school a year ago and now live__ in New York get message across) It have complex rules • Pluralising adjective They are excellents records • Think they know rule, but not well enough > • Word order (in short , simple sentences Arrived the police The teacher thinks that inappropriately applied A life very much controlled a student could self- • Wrongly acquired prepositions/conjunctions and even structures e.g. –ed on irregular past of verbs Arrive to instead of … in/at or make up a rule That film was better that Titanic but it was the same that we had correct these mistakes. I think he’s more strong than his friend. e.g.Your room is more tidier than mine. They could probably be easily corrected if pointed out. ( careless and easily solved) Errors, attempts and slips/IX 3 Errors, attempts and slips/IX 4 • Lack of attention/interest, tired, distracted, etc. Jornades LLE Tarragona/Y.Scott- Jornades LLE Tarragona/Y.Scott- Tennent/yscottt@xtec.cat Tennent/yscottt@xtec.cat Diagnosis for slips Errors • Largely unavoidable • Sts couldnt correct these even if pointed out. • Vary from student to student, course to course. • Generally don’t matter much. Although the people are very nice, but I dont like it here. That was the first English film which I have understood it. It is fortunate the fact that she loves you. • T generally • To avoid excessive correction and stunting recognises what sts Student can’t self-correct a wanted to produce mistake, but the teacher students’ production, leave unheeded ? + knows whether are/should be able to use correct knows the class is/should be form. familiar with the correct form. Errors, attempts and slips/IX 5 Errors, attempts and slips/IX 6 Jornades LLE Tarragona/Y.Scott- Jornades LLE Tarragona/Y.Scott- Tennent/yscottt@xtec.cat Tennent/yscottt@xtec.catErrors, attempts and slips/IX JornadesLE Tarragona/November11/Y.Scott-Tennent 1
  • 2. Diagnosis for errors Attempts • Generally require more remedial • Student tries but no real idea how to structure X work. correctly ( at that point in their learning process). • Most common causes > L1 I hope I would go my grandmothers house next > misunderstanding/incorrect acquisition of a semantic or summer. syntactic rule Life is every time more expensive > overgeneralization and How more I read, less I understand. indiscriminate application. I want that you help me with this • Sts familiar with form but need teacher for exact correct form. • Sometimes, comprehensible, although incorrect. Sometimes, lost. Make sure exact form student wanted to use, otherwise may be This, no, really, for always my time, and then I happy. over-correcting. Teacher knows students not yet learned language needed, Errors, attempts and slips/IX 7 or what student means/ structure he/she is trying to use is 8 Errors, attempts and slips/IX Jornades LLE Tarragona/Y.Scott- Tennent/yscottt@xtec.cat unclear. Jornades LLE Tarragona/Y.Scott- Tennent/yscottt@xtec.cat Diagnosis for attempts A word about these categories • Constantly changing > student progresses • Welcome - student is producing and creating in TL ( engaged ?) Hopefully : • Could avoided by Attempt > mistake > slip making students aware of limitations encouraging construction on what know avoiding plunge into unconsolidated/unknown structures just • Know why > easier to try to solve. to communicate. balance between desire to express oneself, experiment and communicate vs correctness/appropriateness. • Require guidance to avoid becoming errors, and even worse, • If many . priority or stages fossilized ones. “ • to point out consistent errors memorably > translation e.g. agree> estar estar de acuerdo Teaching exists to serve learning. After all, we can learn without teachers, Errors, attempts and slips/IX 9 but we cannot teach without learners.”and slips/IX Errors, attempts 10 Jornades LLE Tarragona/Y.Scott- Jornades LLE Tarragona/Y.Scott- Tennent/yscottt@xtec.cat Tennent/yscottt@xtec.cat Chain and Choice Previously, we have to decide • Whether the “effects of the red pen “ Chain problems ( word order, missing • Who or double subjects or objects) • When On the spot or delayed correction ? Or Type of student(multiple intelligence)/situation/priority, etc. Choice problems : wrong word, word/verb form, tense, etc. session : fluency/accuracy activity Misuse of dictionary • What The use of false friends Invented words (e.g. “to breakfast”) Not all easy to correct Fossilized errors [ translation to avoid pitfalls and erroneous acquisition] Confusion in translating ( e.g. a scientific instead of a scientist”) Non –correspondence (interference of L1) • How Confucius, “I hear and I forget, I see and I remember, I do and I understand”. Errors, attempts and slips/IX 11 Errors, attempts and slips/IX 12 Jornades LLE Tarragona/Y.Scott- Jornades LLE Tarragona/Y.Scott- Tennent/yscottt@xtec.cat Tennent/yscottt@xtec.catErrors, attempts and slips/IX JornadesLE Tarragona/November11/Y.Scott-Tennent 2
  • 3. • Teacher/expert correction There are many types of correction Code : correction key; fingers, signa language and techniques Repeat • sentence up to mistake • Self- correction • sentence including mistake • echo without correcting the mistake ( rising intonation ?) Learner autonomy, lose Ask for repetition or Question : “go? In the past?” / “past?” fear of ridicule, etc. Ask a question to expose mistake • Peer correction Provide options or Prompt ( dinner with MMMM wife) (Advantages: cooperative, etc. Over-react Dis- good model ? Accept criticism from peer ? Always same know- it- all?) Lack of comprehension • Class activity correction : Chain correction : other students try to correct Pair work, auctions, kynaesthetic Highlight ( whiteboard, beamer,etc.) activity,etc. Delayed action correction – reaction time Errors, attempts and slips/IX 13 Errors, attempts and slips/IX 14 Jornades LLE Tarragona/Y.Scott- Jornades LLE Tarragona/Y.Scott- Tennent/yscottt@xtec.cat Tennent/yscottt@xtec.cat Others So, what can we do ? • Phonemic chart [ pronunciation ] • Aspects considered before • Hand signals [ intonation;tenses] • Type of mistake > cause. • Avoid insufficient correction - usually result of not fixing • Symbols ( timeline) root of the problem> automatic oral/ written correction • Visual aids gives students little opportunity to understand mistake , cause and put it right. • Correction key [written work] • Correction not punishment or ridicule. Teacher helping , • Correction grid [oral work] not chastising . • Sts should not be afraid of making mistakes > learning • Published materials : online materials, steps > may lead to self-correction > more observant Grammar books class assistance,> learner autonomy. Errors, attempts and slips/IX 15 Errors, attempts and slips/IX 16 Jornades LLE Tarragona/Y.Scott- Jornades LLE Tarragona/Y.Scott- Tennent/yscottt@xtec.cat Tennent/yscottt@xtec.cat Taking action • • Analogies between words and structures to recycle acquired knowledge General advice > tackling texts and exams or grammar-related points. • Foresee problem areas • CHECK structures sufficiently assimilated to use freely later on. by areas - to be + age > Create their own examples, after presentation stage / other stages. to be + adjectives/adverbs (e.g. to be right and not to have reason) there is/there are + quantifiers “se” in passive structures =/ reciprocal pronoun • Combine oral and written checking > oral production easy to make slips; written work shows up mistakes more genuinely. However , written work allows ample “que” - as the subject/object time for re-editing. Combine both. in comparatives after “different/same/similar” as a relative pronoun ( when can it be omitted ?) • Recycle forms periodically , do just forge ahead with programme. intention ( so that,..) in expressions (think so) • Insist/ check frequently (better "waste" time now than go back constantly later) • DOn’t ask students to do things not capable of doing yet. • Acquired mistakes> work specifically on particular points, emphasize use or form of particular structures, recycle constantly and employ correction tactics • Develop the habit of self-correction as from very early levels. suggested. [ adults or late teenagers> point out the cause of the mistake • Provide memnonic devices. younger students > done with care- insisting on incorrect form too often may make students remember it instead of the correct version. REMEDIAL work is the most difficult and tiresome • Supply topical examples :humour ? (more memorable) • Type /reason for mistake not always clear or depend > apply different • Give examples rather than rules approaches Errors, attempts and slips/IX 17 Errors, attempts and slips/IX 18 Jornades LLE Tarragona/Y.Scott- Jornades LLE Tarragona/Y.Scott- Tennent/yscottt@xtec.cat Tennent/yscottt@xtec.catErrors, attempts and slips/IX JornadesLE Tarragona/November11/Y.Scott-Tennent 3
  • 4. Subject/verb agreement Omission I have had two operation__ The thieves stole eighteen millions. • Gap/cloze exercises [adjective/noun agreement) ( with/without word provided ) e.g. subject/object He took off his glasses and put it on. agreement revision) • Object: Yes, I like …. very much. • Questions > answers which [pronoun/object or subject agreement] show problem. (box with root options) • Preposition : All ….. our employees We think he have a lot of money. have four weeks holiday. He don’t care about me any more. • Find mistakes in Many people is visiting Barcelona these days. Hot Potatoes : Multiple choice • Impersonal “it” [subject/object]: sentences/texts (individually/ One thousand dollars are a large sum of money Short Answers pairs/class[teams]) Jumbled sentences .....Is important to talk to the teacher Everybody have problems in this country. ; Is ......true that you are married?; Crossword Is .......raining again ? [subject/verb form agreement ] Matching • Choose correct option Cloze test (Gap fill) • Articles : I dont have ...... car, but I between two/ more sentences The manager and the secretary was not in yesterday. J Clic : Puzzles have ......apartment ; He is ……. that say same. [two subjects or objects] Matching manager at Shell Exxon. Crosswords The furniture are expensive. [uncountable Word search grids • Auxiliaries : Robert loves Anna nouns] Identification and more than Fred ......... Exploring activities Here are the two boy’s books. Write the answer • Pronoun : The man ……. knows you [possessive/genitive forms] Text from school is here. Errors, attempts and slips/IX 19 Errors, attempts and slips/IX 20 Jornades LLE Tarragona/Y.Scott- Jornades LLE Tarragona/Y.Scott- Tennent/yscottt@xtec.cat Tennent/yscottt@xtec.cat Unnecessary inclusion Wrong choice Due to grammatical criteria • Multiple choice options ( tailored to • Verb Forms : What must you to do? • Spot extra word class) HOT POT) • Double negatives: Im not speaking to • Articles: The Military service is not ( again, nobody in this class. • Provide the correct option (HOT POT- Cloze or HTML box options) a very good idea; My favorite sport is the football ; Its a nice weather individual/pairs/class) • Pronouns : An airplane is a machine who flies ; I went out to meet a friend of me • Plural nouns and irregular verbs today. http://a4esl.org/q/h/vf004-bp.html • Modifiers : This apartment is too • Choose correct option • Non-correspondence of possessive adjectives/pronouns with subject/object : He from English Grammar Quizzes (Different much expensive. (two possibilities) gave her wife a present for hers birthday. levels ) http://a4esl.org/a/g.html Vocabulary Quizzes (Different levels) • Pronouns : Please go and see who • Collocation ( prepositions) Sheila is capable http://a4esl.org/a/v.html to cooking our supper.; Whats the longest he is knocking at the door.; The food we eat every day at home it is • Reconstruct sentence river of the world [Useful for several types of mistakes] very good; Everything what he said cards ( but more than • Vocabulary ( operator/surgeon; Can you was true. needed !) borrow me the car? ; make/do; tell/say; Is • Word Bingo there any place for me in your car? ) • Word games and puzzles Prepositions: My sister Lydia is • Mistake dictations going to marry with a doctor.; Im Lexical criteria (false friends) sympathetic • Spot the mistake tired; Im going to home right now.. or nuances • Translation Conocer/conèixer: meet/know/get to know • Grammar Games e.g. Rinvolucri’s Deixar dejar : go out/leave/let/allow/lend some/a few /any, false friends, irregular Comparatives: Istambul is more Trobar/encontrar: find/meet/run into/come across past path, grammar tennis cheaper than Paris. Errors, attempts and slips/IX 21 Errors, attempts and slips/IX 22 Jornades LLE Tarragona/Y.Scott- Others: Homophones : They’re/their/there are; Tarragona/Y.Scott- Jornades LLE Tennent/yscottt@xtec.cat two/to/too Tennent/yscottt@xtec.cat • Verb tense or form (didn’t talked, If I would have • Hot Potatoes M/C – known about the party, I would have gone to it, I like sing; Where are you come from ?; I get it for you right away ; When I will be in Madrid, Im time clauses Word Order going to visit the Prado Museum.; Had you a car when you lived in California? • Listening correction • Indirect questions and Non-question • Wrong grammatical form He went to the bank for Finding expressions : I wonder if is he coming or not. • Jumbled sentences. getting/for to get some money; Martha is yet at I do not understand what is he talking about.; home. podcasts/listening How interesting is this!; comprehension • Irregular forms: He taked the wrong road. She exercises to practise • Misplacement of subject or object: I gave to Patricia the book; Can you explain me this Hot Potatoes Jmix works very hardly the structure ( e.g. ELT English structure?; Having not finished her housework, she could not go out with her • Adjectives/comparative forms: Tom is really Podcast> Basic friends. interesting in politics, I’m the only son in the Conversations> Past Standard family. I have not brothers. ; Our company • Short answers: Im tired. So I am.; I dont have a charges less that others.; [Sign at the checkout tenses key to open the door. Neither I do. Drag and drop of a supermarket]: “Ten items or less”. Alternatively, you/they • Question form : Why are waiting those people? record a text, and then • Point of reference When we go to the party on Saturday, let’s bring a bottle of wine. further production and • Adjectives: Many visitors say my Moodle page is a tool very useful. ; A Brazilian old couple The same with cards/ listen or you record will visit us next month. blue tack [on board] • Word form : She speaks and writes English very sentences that are good ; Which color are your eyes?; Press the • enough : He is not enough rich to buy a house. button and then after the coke will come out. ; right/wrong and they The fire spread very quickly, but everyone could must listen out. • Adverbial clauses : They go every day to escape. school. ; It was very late, so I opened very quietly the door; I wont probably see you tomorrow. • Prepositions: The lawyers office is in the first floor . • Separable phrasal verbs :Your new shoes are Errors, attempts and slips/IX 23 very nice, but please put on them Errors, attempts and slips/IX 24 Jornades LLE Tarragona/Y.Scott- Jornades LLE Tarragona/Y.Scott- Tennent/yscottt@xtec.cat Tennent/yscottt@xtec.catErrors, attempts and slips/IX JornadesLE Tarragona/November11/Y.Scott-Tennent 4
  • 5. Some good reasons for using Direct Translation translation • I have 32 years. (I have 32 years old). • How long do you know Helen? • MOTIVATING and challenging at all levels and rewarding as results are immediate. • I born/am born in Buenos Aires. • He is in Canada since April • I am working at 20 minutes from Reus. • Im tired. Im wanting to go home • Favours both teacher >native speakers of Spanish/Catalan/Basque/Gallego, etc. and of English - both • [on the phone] Hello. Here is Peter • Tell me how she is ( meaning “what she’s aware difficulties when learning the language like”) Simpson./I am Peter Simpson. • I am agree with you. • Today is hot • Easy to correct, evaluate, explain, cheap and easy to manufacture and can be tailor made, etc. • Please, open page 15 of your book. Lets • They go to differents places every begin from page 15. year. • Flexible exercise> homework/ used last 5 mins in class. • Oow!! I cut me the finger with this knife!! • She drinks much coffee every day • I want that you are happy in our house. • Learner training and autonomy> aware of their failings, of • Can you see the children of Mrs. difficult areas in a language, shows importance of using tools at Kelly? • Is it going to rain tomorrow? I dont hope so. disposal ( e.g dictionaries) properly. • Do you go out tonight? • I cut my hair at the hairdresser’s once a Errors, attempts and month. slips/IX 25 Errors, attempts and slips/IX 26 Jornades LLE Tarragona/Y.Scott- Jornades LLE Tarragona/Y.Scott- Tennent/yscottt@xtec.cat Tennent/yscottt@xtec.cat Translation ? • Hola, et truco per tal de dir-te que estic d’acord amb el que prepareu per la festa de fi de curs. Vull que em truquis al més aviat possible. Adeu! • Acquire CONFIDENCE, helps use language more fluently and lose self-consciousness . Eventually structure acquired >stop translating and becomes part of active knowledge. • Hello, I call you so that /for to say you that I am agree with that which you prepare for the party of the end of • Type of mistakes common with a number students course. I want that you phone [to] me the sooner as > no one feels singled out or ridiculed possible. Goodbye! > T usually helping more than one student at a time. • base and vital tool for projects and cross-curricular activities • You may want to make the lesson amusing by showing how mistranslations can produce ludicrous results. Errors, attempts and slips/IX 27 Errors, attempts and slips/IX 28 Jornades LLE Tarragona/Y.Scott- Jornades LLE Tarragona/Y.Scott- Tennent/yscottt@xtec.cat Tennent/yscottt@xtec.cat Notice at Catanya Airport, Sicily Incorrect acquisition I never would of • It is usually solved by thought that he could clarifying and pointing behave like that out the correct form. They’d arrived by then ( they would) She’s gonna come tomorrow. Errors, attempts and slips/IX 29 Errors, attempts and slips/IX 30 Jornades LLE Tarragona/Y.Scott- Jornades LLE Tarragona/Y.Scott- Tennent/yscottt@xtec.cat Tennent/yscottt@xtec.catErrors, attempts and slips/IX JornadesLE Tarragona/November11/Y.Scott-Tennent 5
  • 6. Spelling and Punctuation A thought … Its going to be sunny • Dictation • Exercises around specific point very tomorrow. useful, but then increase text, content, etc. • Double correction of Homophones/homographs written work with and add variety …..see what happens. correction key. Deadly compositions !!! • Word search grids. • Crosswords. Errors, attempts and slips/IX 31 Errors, attempts and slips/IX 32 Jornades LLE Tarragona/Y.Scott- Jornades LLE Tarragona/Y.Scott- Tennent/yscottt@xtec.cat Tennent/yscottt@xtec.cat Some internet pages to work on • Frankfurt International School : Error corrrection mistakes in class or as homework http://esl.fis.edu/grammar/correctText/index.htm • New English File Elementary Is there a mistake? http://elt.oup.com/student/englishfile/elementary/d_phrasebank/ef_el em_practicaleng01?cc=cz&selLanguage=cs • ESL Common Errors Workbook Memorizing language structures and vocabulary http://elt.oup.com/student/englishfile/elementary/g_ef_elem_builder? http://wps.ablongman.com/long_faigley_penguinhb_1/0, cc=cz&selLanguage=cs 7325,506655-,00.html Revision (past tenses) http://elt.oup.com/student/practicegrammar/irreg/opg_irregular_01?c c=global&selLanguage=en • Tests on Common Errors in English: Homophones and • Common Errors Quiz other confusing words http://a4esl.org/q/h/9704/rv-mistakes.html http://www.esldesk.com/common-errors-english Errors, attempts and slips/IX 33 Errors, attempts and slips/IX 34 Jornades LLE Tarragona/Y.Scott- Jornades LLE Tarragona/Y.Scott- Tennent/yscottt@xtec.cat Tennent/yscottt@xtec.cat Some internet pages to have a look Teacher oriented correction at • Peer correction Back to back correction : http://eslsite.com/rd/Error_Correction/back_to_back_correction.html • Top 50 Funniest Innocent Mistakes in • Pair work correction English Future tenses : http://eslsite.com/rd/Error_Correction/future_corrections.html Sentence correction gymkhana http://eslsite.com/rd/Error_Correction/sentence_corrections.html http://www.innocentenglish.com/funny- english-mistakes-bloopers/funny-english- • Class activities Correct mistakes that everybody makes : student-mistakes/funniest-student- http://www.eslhandouts.com/materials/Mistakes%20that%20everybody%20makes.pdf Auditives bloopers.html Kynaesthetic correction ( younger groups) http://eslsite.com/rd/Error_Correction/jump_left_right.html Missing word http://eslsite.com/rd/Error_Correction/missing_word.html Too many words http://eslsite.com/rd/Error_Correction/too_many_words.html • Golden Errors • Individual work One to one feedback grid http://eslsite.com/rd/Error_Correction/giving_feedback.html http://eslprof.com/start.htm Errors, attempts and slips/IX 35 Errors, attempts and slips/IX 36 Jornades LLE Tarragona/Y.Scott- Jornades LLE Tarragona/Y.Scott- Tennent/yscottt@xtec.cat Tennent/yscottt@xtec.catErrors, attempts and slips/IX JornadesLE Tarragona/November11/Y.Scott-Tennent 6
  • 7. Some books to leaf through… • Brians, Paul : Common Errors in English Usage - partially online http://public.wsu.edu/~brians/errors/errors.html • Fitikides , T.J. Common mistakes in English by, Pearson Education. • HEATON, J. & TURTON, N.D.: Dictionary of Common Errors (& Workbook), Longman, 1988. • MERINO, J. : What is wrong, what is right ? , Alhambra, 1981. • MURPHY, R. & RODELLAR, M.J.:”Las "trampas" del inglés. ¿Podemos evitar los errores típicos de los hispanoparlantes? Ed. de Vecchi, Barcelona, 1987. • ONEILL, M.: ¿ El inglés ? ¿ Sin problemas ! • Ed. Edward Arnold, 1989. • VANN, R., MEYER, D. & LORENZ, F.O : Error Gravity: a study of faculty opinion of SL errors., TESOL Quarterly (18), 3:427:440,1984 • Guide Error Correction Exercises for Spanish-speaking Students of English Level c1 Book 1 and 2 by Michael Kennedy-Scanlon, Juli Cebrián and John Bradbury : Servei de Publicacions de la Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona, 2010 Errors, attempts and slips/IX 37 Jornades LLE Tarragona/Y.Scott- Tennent/yscottt@xtec.catErrors, attempts and slips/IX JornadesLE Tarragona/November11/Y.Scott-Tennent 7