Needs,behaviors Document/data types,content
Information needs, audience types, objects, meta-information, existing
expertise, experience,tasks, structure, future structure, volume
Business models & goals,
Corporate culture, technology,
funding, politics, resources,
Only 15% feel findability as
opposed to “search” is understood and
addressed within their organization.
What is Information Architecture?
IA is the art and science of structuring
organizing, and labeling information to
help people find and manage information
Content & Tasks
Rosenfeld & Morville
Phase 1 Phase 2 Phase 3 Phase 4 Phase 5
Research Strategy Design Implementation Administration
Review existing Create conceptual Transform high-level Build, Test, Launch Evaluate & Improve
materials to framework for strategy into an IA
gain high-level Structuring & Includes: Day to Day Maintenance:
understanding of organizing web site − Organizing & Tagging (effort required tied directly
goals/business High-level The most “work” Documents to content churn)
context, existing happens here: − Testing − Select & Evaluate new
IA, content, & Recommends: − Controlled vocabs. − Troubleshooting content
Intended audiences − IA Administration − Taxonomies − Developing − Classification management
− Technology − Thesauri Documentation − Indexing management
Meetings with Integration − Metadata schema − Developing Training − CV & Thesauri management
strategy team, − Top-down vs − Blueprints Programs
content owners, Bottom-up − Wireframes Periodic Evaluation/Updates
IT, users, − Organization &
stakeholders Labeling Systems Continuous Evaluation &
− Doc Type ID Improvement
− Metadata field
− Navigation System
Who are they?
Which audiences are the most important?
What motivates them to come to
What do they want from this site?
What do they need from this site?
How do they navigate?
What terms do they use to
search, browse, and
What are their most important
How do I get my arms around the content we have?
What content has value?
What content can I get rid of?
How do I make answers emerge from content?
How should content be
organized and labeled?
What is this content object?
How can I describe it?
What distinguishes it
from other content objects?
How can I make it ﬁndable?
Who in this organization makes the decisions?
What are the primary business goals and objectives
for increased ﬁndability?
What does the decision-maker want from the site?
What political and cultural factors might impact
What similar initiatives
have worked in the past?
What similar initiatives have
failed in the past and why?
What resources (people,
technology, time, $$$)
How will the architecture be
Putting Together a Stratgey and Design
Top-Down vs. Bottom-Up
Exact Schemes: divide information into well-defined and
mutually exclusive sections (easy to design, maintain, and use)
Ambiguous Schemes: divide information into categories
that defy exact definition (difficult to design & maintain, can be
difficult to use. Supports process of associative learning by
grouping items in intellectually meaningful ways)
–Topic or Subject
Parametric / Hybrids
Analytics and Suggestions
(Weighted) Term Summing
Term density and proximity
Links and conections
Analytics (Explicit and Implicit)
User preferences and afﬁliations
Search Brings Results... TOO MANY Wrong Results
Enterprise Potential Potential Potential
Answer Answer Answer
You Search Answer
Potential Potential Potential Potential Potential Potential
Answer Answer Answer Answer Answer Answer
1. You Search 4. Check 2nd result
Not the right answer
2. You Find MANY hits
... Check ### result
3. Check 1st result Not the right answer
Not the right answer Later that day:
... Check ### result
Did I get the right
Not the right answer
... Check ### result Did the opportunity pass
Not the right answer us by?
... Check ### result Is this the most current
Not the right answer information?
Findability Guides the User to Find THE Answer
Answer Potential Potential
Potential Answer Answer
Potential Potential Potential
Answer Answer Answer Answer
1. You have a need to 2. Interface exposes 3. Search provides some 4. Taxonomy provides a 6. When all of these
extract valuable multiple ways to get to precision in retrieval, further layer of components are used in
information from the information, the but can often include precision tandem, you are
vast collection of simplest being a shared false positives or provided with “the
Enterprise Content drive or arrangement by content irrelevant to 5. Analytics provides answer”
file folders your focus further precision by
putting the query and
content in context
Search is only
PART of the
Areas of Medicine Members
Diseases & Treatments
Treatment Dr. Mark Robbins - Chief Surgery - ACME General
Research Hospital - is a specialist in eyes ears and throat Docum
surgery and oncology. His recent experience
includes experimental procedures in the treatment patent
of laser surgery related to stigmatism.
reas of experience He holds two patents and a trademark for his
work in nano-based technology for providing attorne
or this attorney sight to the blind.
He us a graduate of the University of Illinois,
and did his residency at the New England
Let’s Get 2.0
Facebook: Information Architected
Facebook: Carl Frappaolo