OVERVIEWAfter World War II, the Soviet Union and the United States emerge as rivals. This rivalry is mainly diplomatic and strategic, but also leads both to become involved in military actions around the world. The rivalry dominates world politics for four decades. (Teacher read)
TIMELINE1945 – U.N. formed; Cold War begins1947 – Truman Doctrine, Marshall Plan1949 – Communists take control of China, NATO formed1953 – Korean War ends (1950- 1953)
1954 – Civil Rights Movement begins1957 – Soviets launch Sputnik1959 – Cuban revolution1961 – Berlin Wall Built1962 – Cuban Missile Crisis1964 – More troops sent to Vietnam
From Stettin in the Baltic toTrieste in the Adriatic, an ironcurtain has descended acrossthe continent. Behind that line lieall the capitals of the ancientstates of central and easternEurope, Warsaw, Berlin, Prague, In substance,Vienna, Budapest, Belgrade, Mr. ChurchillBucharest, and Sofia; all thesefamous cities and the now stands inpopulations around them lie in the position ofthe Soviet sphere and all are a firebrand ofsubject, in one form or another,not only to Soviet influence but to war.very high and increasing ameasure of control from Moscow.
IMPORTANT PEOPLE• Dean Acheson• Nikita Khrushchev• Charles de Gaulle• John F. Kennedy• Martin Luther King, Jr.
CONFRONTATION• USSR feared the Capitalist West• USA feared Communism –USA wanted Eastern European nations to govern themselves after WWII
• Stalin feared the Eastern European countries would be anti-Soviet if free• Truman Doctrine – The USA would give $$$ To countries threatened by Communist expansion
MARSHALL PLAN• June 1947 – European Recovery program begins –Rebuilds war-torn Europe• USSR and its satellite states don’t take part, set up Council for Mutual Economic Assisstance
CONTAINMENT•USA sets up policy of containment to stop spread of Communism.
CRISIS IN BERLIN• W. Germany unified, creates a West German State in 1948• USSR opposes, blockade West Berlin• US, GB airlift supplies into West Berlin• Blockade ends 1949
CON’T•Berlin divided into two parts, East and West
THE COLD WAR SPREADS• Chinese Communists take control of China in 1949• Fall of China, USSR first atom bomb test starts an arms race b/w the USA and USSR
NATO• April 1949-North Atlantic Treaty Organization formed (NATO)• Military alliance-members agreed to help if another is attacked• Warsaw Pact – USSR and Eastern European nations form a military alliance
KOREAN WAR• North Korea (Commie) invades South Korea (Democratic)• USA helps S. Korea try to repel North• Lasts 3 years, boundaries don’t change
SPACE RACE• USSR puts Sputnik I into orbit in 1957• Sparks fears in USA of lag behind USSR technology, missiles
BERLIN WALL• August 1961 – Nikita Khrushchev orders wall built between East and West Berlin to prevent escape from East.
CUBAN MISSILE CRISIS• Bay of Pigs – JFK orders secret invasion of Cuba to overthrow Communist Castro –Invasion fails• USSR sends arms and military to Cuba –Places nuclear missiles in Cuba
CON’T• JFK orders blockade of Cuba to stop missiles from getting there• Khrushchev agrees to remove missiles if JFK promises not to invade Cuba• Close call to nuclear war
VIETNAM AND THE DOMINO THEORY• Commie N. Vietnam invades S. Vietnam –USA applied domino theory to Vietnam: if Vietnam fell to Communism, other Asian countries would fall, like dominoes
ANTIWAR MOVEMENT•Growing political unrest at home due toVietnam war•USA ended up withdrawing fromVietnam
COLD WAR PHASES CAUSES: THE SPARK: TURNING POINT: Mutual mistrust Berlin Blockade China goes Commie Two ideologies Soviet Aggression USSR gets A-Bomb Arms Race FINAL STAGE: KOREAN WAR: VIETNAM: 1980s 1950-53 1965-75Reagan bankrupted Ended a draw (not Commies won USSR good) EFFECTS: USSR dead Communism discredited