Era of European Exploration1500-1600“God, Gold, Glory”God- spread ChristianityGold-find gold for the countryGlory- receive recognition for exploration in New World
Europe Eyes the Americas• Christopher Columbus lived during a time when Spain was at war and many people were in poverty.• Queen Isabella and King Ferdinand paid for Columbus to go on an expedition to find a new passage to China.•Expedition: a journey undertaken by a group of people with a definite purpose.
Christopher ColumbusKing Ferdinand and Queen Isabella of Spain
•Columbus saw land and thought it wasthe Indies (Asia).•He got off the boat and named thefriendly people indios.•He wasn’t in the Indies…He was inwhat we now know as the Bahamas!•He continued to sail on to find theriches he had promised the Spanishmonarch.
“In 1492, COLUMBUS Sailed the Ocean Blue”• Columbus believed that the earth was round. He thought he could sail to Asia (referred to as the Indies) faster and easier by traveling westward rather than eastward.• He could then establish profitable routes to Asia. (He could trade along the way.)• Queen Isabella thought this would be a great idea because it would establish trade with Asia ($) and would help spread the Catholic faith.
• On his voyages, Columbus established the first permanent colony on Hispaniola (named Santo Domingo).• Columbus did not find gold or the new passage to Asia, but his voyages did inspire others to seek
COLUMBUS’S FOUR VOYAGES
Columbus’s Impact• Is credited with discovering the Americas• Called the people he saw the “Indios”• Established the first permanent colony in the Americas on Hispanola and called it “Santo Domingo”• Co Columbus’s voyages led to further European exploration and colonization, forever changing the Americas.
• Following Columbus’s lead, Spain established colonies in the Caribbean and Mexico. Reports of riches drew the explorers north to Texas where they established a successful mission.
• From 1492-1519, Spain focused on establishing colonies in what they thought was the Indies.• Spanish explorers heard there were great civilizations in the interior, which included great wealth.• Explorers looking for wealth were known as conquistadors.
Important Spanish Explorers:• Hernando Cortes• Alonzo Alvarez de Pineda• Cabeza de Vaca/Estavanico (Esteban)• Friar Marcos De Niza• Francisco Vasquez de Coronado• Hernando de Soto/Luis De Moscoso• Alonso de Leon
• Cortes conquered theHernando Aztecs easily because Cortes he had cannons, guns, and Indian allies • Gained control of Mexico • Cortes brought back gold and silver=Spanish leaders more eager to explore New Spain
Alonzo Alvarez de Pineda and Hernando Cortes• Pineda’s mission was to map the coastline of the Gulf of Mexico and establish a Spanish colony. He was the first European to explore and map the Texas coastline.•Later, Cortes cut Pineda’sjourney short. He sawPineda as a threat to hisjourney, so he arrested someof Pineda’s men!
Panfilo de Narvaez• In 1526, Narvaez was granted land from Florida to Mexico• Went to meet his supply ships in Gulf – they weren’t there.• Hurricane caused all but 4 people to die• De Vaca and Estavanico survived
Alvar Nunez Cabeza de Vaca• The survivors, DeVaca and Estevanico, from the 1528 hurricane beached at Galveston Bay and were captured by the Karankawas.• At first, they were little more than slaves, but Cabeza de Vaca learned to use native herbs for healing and how to perform surgery• After 18 months, de Vaca and Estevanico(first African in Texas), were able to escape
• As a result of the capture, Cabeza de Vaca and his men became the first Europeans to see the interior of Texas.• He also told of the legends of the 7 cities of Cibola that he had heard from the Native Americans.• These tales excited the Spanish officials.
Cabeza de Vaca • He also wrote about his life with the Native Americans in a work of literature called La relacion. • This was the first written work of Texas literature.
The Search for the 7 Cities of Gold• Fray Marcos led an expedition to the north to find the 7 cities of Cibola.• Estevanico was ordered to be the guide.• Estevanico and a few others marched ahead and reported back to that they had found one of the cities.• As the rest of the group caught up, they heard that Estevanico had been killed by the Zuni Indians who lived in the city called Cibola.• In spite of the tragedy, Fray Marcos pressed on.
The Search Continues• When they arrived at the golden city, they saw the buildings shimmering in the sun.• In reality, the buildings were made of adobe which sparkled as the sun shone upon it.• Not realizing the city was adobe and not gold, Fray Marcos returned to Mexico with news of golden cities.• Excitement abounded and a larger expedition was formed.
Francisco Vasquez de Coronado • Coronado was commissioned to find these legendary Seven Cities of Cibola.Coronadoand his menbecame thefirstEuropeans tosee WestTexas andPalo DuroCanyon.
Francisco Vasquez de Coronado• Coronado was the leader of the 2nd and the largest expedition for 7 cities of Cibola.• Fray Marcos went along as the guide.• Coronado felt ashamed “not like a conqueror” when he killed the Zuni Indians and realized there was no gold.
Francisco Vasquez de Coronado• He refused to give up his quest for gold.• He met a native named El Turco (the Turk) who told stories of a place farther east called Quivira.• It supposedly had fabulous riches.• Coronado searched for Quivira and never found it.• He had El Turco killed when he found out that the Turk lied to him.• Not wanting to return with no riches, he then traveled across Texas, New Mexico and Arizona looking for the Seven Cities of Cibola.
Coronado’s Report• Coronado’s report to the Spanish officials stated that the land was harsh, but that it was similar to parts of Spain.• He was impressed by the possible wealth in the huge herds of buffalo.• He stated that no riches could be found, so the land was of little use to the Spaniards.• He also told about how the Native Americans had lied about the golden cities to get the Spaniards off of their land and leave them in peace.
and Luis de Moscoso• While Coronado searched for Cibola and Quivira, Spain sent another expedition in search of gold.• Hernando de Soto’s expedition also did not find any gold, but they explored East Texas and encountered the Caddos• They were the first exploration into the interior of North America.
•De Soto explored present-day Georgia, theCarolinas, Tennessee, Alabama, Mississippi, andArkansas.•When he and his expedition reached theMississippi River, they were discouraged andrunning out of supplies. They turned back home.•De Soto never made it back home. He died of anillness. His successor, Luis de Moscoso deAlvarado set out to find an overland route back toMexico.
Spain’s Interest in Texas Declines• It was almost 60 years before another Spanish expedition was sent into Texas.• This expedition was the sent because an English explorer named Sir Francis Drake came to explore America.• In 1610 the Spanish sent Juan de Onate to establish the colony of Santa Fe in New Mexico.• For around 75 years, few other Spanish explorers entered the land of Texas.•
Results of the Expeditions1. Spain had a strong claim to TX land as a result of the expeditions.2. Knowledge of the land – saw and mapped much of TX3. Spain still decided not to settle. • no gold, etc. • Indian problems / raids • too far from other Spanish settlements (in current day Mexico) • land was too dry and rugged • there were no large cities to conquer4. Texas was used as a barrier between New Spain and violent Indians and other advancing countries.
Spain Establishes Missions• To compete with other nations and to make a name for themselves, they established several missions in the Americas.• A mission is a settlement founded to spread Christianity to the people of the area. rootsweb.com/~txgenweb/ postcards/SanAntonio.html
Spain Establishes Missions• The first mission in Texas was near El Paso (Corpus Christi de la Ysleta).• The purpose of this mission was to spread Christianity to Native Americans in the area.• The mission was a success and more were to come. anderson.mine.nu/.../ 2000texastrip.htm
French Ambitions (France and Spain are European rivals)• The French wanted to compete with Spain’s quest for riches.• They couldn’t get them without claiming the land.
The French Explore Texas• The international competition for land in the New World was intense.• In 1682, La Salle mapped the Mississippi River and claimed it, all of the lands it watered, and its branches for France.• He called it La Louisiane (Louisiana).
• King Louis XIV funded LaSalle’s next adventure because he was impressed with LaSalle’s ability to map the river.• This adventure was to establish a colony near the Mississippi River.• LaSalle convinced the monarch that the French missionaries could teach the Catholic religion to the natives.• He also stated that crops would grow well in the region’s rich soil.• Most importantly, a French colony at the mouth of the Mississippi River could control trade in the Gulf and the interior of North America.
So, off he went.• With 4 ships, 300 colonists, 100 soldiers, and supplies.
The problem was…• One ship was captured by buccaneers (pirates).• One ship rebelled and returned to France with supplies.• One ship sank.
Also…• The maps that LaSalle used were correct concerning latitude, but entirely wrong concerning longitude. o.• The longitude was off by 7• They missed the mouth of the Mississippi River by 400 miles and ended up shipwrecked (hit sandbar) on Matagorda Island near Galveston Bay in Texas.• Which Native American tribe did they encounter here?
Fort St. Louis• La Salle established the first French colony in Texas near present-day Garcitas Creek in Victoria County.• The colony had trouble from the beginning because they lost valuable supplies at sea.• They were helped for a while by the Indians, but fighting soon broke out.
FRENCH AND SPANISHCLAIMS ON NORTH AMERICA, 1682–1688
Why did the Natives turn against LaSalle and his men?• The Native Americans found the supplies that washed up on shore after La Belle sank.• The French took the supplies back without asking for them or explaining what happened.
Fort St. Louis• La Salle tried to find a way back to the Mississippi River, but was unsuccessful.• While he was gone, many of his men died from diseases and Indian attacks.• The crops also began to fail and there was little food.• Fort St. Louis failed, but thiscolony played upon Spanish fearsthat France would claim theAmericas for itself. Out of competition, the Spaniards renewed their exploration of the Gulf Coast Region. THE RACE WAS ON TO CONTROL TEXAS!!!!!
Results of LaSalle’s Adventure• It gave France a weak claim to Texas.• It presented a challenge to Spain’s empire north of the Rio Grande.• The Spanish realized that if they did not build settlements in Texas, the French might gain control of the region and they would not become the world’s greatest nation.
Consequences for the Native Americans www.rangerdj.com/ clipart/indian/indian.jpg• Native Americans lived in Texas long before the Europeans explored there.• The arrival of the Spanish and French explorers to Texas brought Native Americans severe consequences.• Diseases such as smallpox killed thousands of Native Americans.
Europe Eyes theAmericasColumbus came to the NewWorld looking for gold and a new The French Explore Texastrade route to Asia. Although he Spain’s claims on Texas landsfound neither, his four voyages prompted France to establish ainspired others to seek theirfortunes in the Americas. colony of its own. Although La Salle’s Texas colony did not survive, France’s presence renewed Spain’s interest in settling Texas. Spanish Explorers Come to TexasFollowing Columbus’s lead, Spainestablished colonies in the Caribbean andMexico. Reports of riches drew theexplorers north to Texas where they
European ExploresColumbus?Launched the European exploration and colonization of AmericaCortes?Conquered (Aztecs) for SpainDeVaca?Explored Texas, captured/met Native Americans, and reported about in his bookRelacion.Estevanico?First African American in TexasCoronado?Explored the Southwest/ plains for Spain looking for riches = reported little valuefor Spain,named the settlement of AmarilloLaSalle?Established Fort St. Louis for French, failedPineda?Explored and mapped the Texas coast for SpainDeSoto/Moscoso?Expedition to East Texas, met Caddos
TIMELINE 1492–1700 1492 Columbus reaches the Americas 1519 Álvarez de Piñeda explores Gulf Coast of Texas 1537 Cabeza de Vaca reports on Texas 1541 Coronado leads expedition into Texas 1542 De Soto–Moscoso expedition reaches East 1610 Juan de Oñate establishes Santa Fe Texas 1682 Spaniards establish the first Texas mission, Corpus Christi de la Ysleta 1685 La Salle establishes Fort St. Louis