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Exploring InnerExploring Inner
SpaceSpace
TEKS 8.5A describe the structure of atoms including the masses, electrical charg...
Each element on the Periodic
Table is made of the same
kind of atom.
Each atom in anEach atom in an
element has theelement has the
same number ofsame number of
protons..
The number of protons presentThe number of protons present
in the atom is what determinesin the atom is what determines
th...
On your Periodic Table, fill in thisOn your Periodic Table, fill in this
information.information.
# protons = element’s id...
Atoms are made up ofAtoms are made up of
smallersmaller particles
calledcalled protons,,
neutrons andand
electrons..
Each particle in the atomEach particle in the atom
has specific properties,has specific properties,
such as location,such ...
Structure ofStructure of
the Atomthe Atom
The NucleusThe Nucleus
The center of the atom
is called the nucleus.
proton
neutron
nucleus
3
Li
6.941
Lithium
The nucleus contains
protons and neutrons.
Since each proton andSince each proton and
neutron in the nucleus has aneutron in the nucleus has a
mass ofmass of 11 atom...
Fill in this information on yourFill in this information on your
Periodic Table!Periodic Table!
# protons + # neutrons = a...
How many protons are in
the element lithium?
Lithium has 4 neutrons,
what is its atomic mass?
3
7
The Periodic Table showsThe Periodic Table shows
the mass for each elementthe mass for each element
as aas a decimal. When...
If the mass number isIf the mass number is
known, and you know theknown, and you know the
number of protons, how cannumber...
fill in this information onfill in this information on
your Periodic Tableyour Periodic Table
Atomic mass - # protons = # ...
Surrounding the nucleus is an
area called the electron cloud.
Inside the electron cloud,
electrons orbit around in
differe...
energy
levels
The electrons are so small
that they basically have no
mass, so they are not
included in finding the
atomic mass.
electron...
As a general rule, each energy levelAs a general rule, each energy level
only holds so many electrons at aonly holds so ma...
first energy level
second energy level
third energy level
8 or more!
How many electrons are
in each energy level of
the element Lithium? 1st
– 2, 2nd
– 1
electron
energy
levels
3
Li
6.941
Lit...
By numbering the periods
(rows) on the Periodic Table,
you can determine how many
energy levels are in an atom.
For exampl...
How many energy
levels does sodium
contain?
Period 3, 3 energy levels
Valence ElectronsValence Electrons
The numbers of electrons
in an atom’s outermost
energy level are called
valence electro...
Valence electrons…..
valence
electrons
are found
here!
These electrons areThese electrons are
important because theyimportant because they
determine howdetermine how reactive th...
For example, Lithium has only 1
valence electron. Since the
second energy level may hold up
to 8 electrons, Lithium would
...
Charges on particlesCharges on particles
Protons carry aProtons carry a positive electricelectric
charge.charge.
Electro...
The most stable form of an
atom is electrically
neutral. This means that
the number of protons and
electrons is equal.
For example, look at the
element oxygen. Oxygen is
atomic number 8, which
means it has 8 protons (+).
Therefore, in a stable
oxygen atom, there are 8
electrons (-). The positive
and negative charges are
balanced.
6
Look at your
Periodic Table.
Find the element
Carbon.
How many positive
(protons) charges
does carbon have?
How many negativeHow many negative
charges (electrons)charges (electrons)
does carbon have?does carbon have?
6
What is the mass of carbon?
12.0112
How can the number of neutrons
be determined?
(atomic mass - # protons = # neutrons)
C...
Write this on your Periodic
Table.
Atomic mass - # protons = # neutrons
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  1. 1. Exploring InnerExploring Inner SpaceSpace TEKS 8.5A describe the structure of atoms including the masses, electrical charges and locations, of protons and neutrons in the nucleus and electrons in the electron cloud TEKS 8.5B identify that protons determine an element’s identity and valence electrons determine its chemical properties, including reactivity
  2. 2. Each element on the Periodic Table is made of the same kind of atom.
  3. 3. Each atom in anEach atom in an element has theelement has the same number ofsame number of protons..
  4. 4. The number of protons presentThe number of protons present in the atom is what determinesin the atom is what determines thethe element’s identity and isand is shown by theshown by the atomic number.
  5. 5. On your Periodic Table, fill in thisOn your Periodic Table, fill in this information.information. # protons = element’s identity = atomic number
  6. 6. Atoms are made up ofAtoms are made up of smallersmaller particles calledcalled protons,, neutrons andand electrons..
  7. 7. Each particle in the atomEach particle in the atom has specific properties,has specific properties, such as location,such as location, electric charge andand mass.mass.
  8. 8. Structure ofStructure of the Atomthe Atom
  9. 9. The NucleusThe Nucleus The center of the atom is called the nucleus. proton neutron nucleus 3 Li 6.941 Lithium
  10. 10. The nucleus contains protons and neutrons.
  11. 11. Since each proton andSince each proton and neutron in the nucleus has aneutron in the nucleus has a mass ofmass of 11 atomic mass unitatomic mass unit (amu), we can(amu), we can add thethe number of protons andnumber of protons and neutrons together to findneutrons together to find thethe atomic mass..
  12. 12. Fill in this information on yourFill in this information on your Periodic Table!Periodic Table! # protons + # neutrons = atomic mass
  13. 13. How many protons are in the element lithium? Lithium has 4 neutrons, what is its atomic mass? 3 7
  14. 14. The Periodic Table showsThe Periodic Table shows the mass for each elementthe mass for each element as aas a decimal. When we use. When we use the atomic mass to findthe atomic mass to find the number of protons orthe number of protons or neutrons, weneutrons, we round thethe mass number.mass number.
  15. 15. If the mass number isIf the mass number is known, and you know theknown, and you know the number of protons, how cannumber of protons, how can you find the number ofyou find the number of neutrons?neutrons?Mass # -Mass # - #protons = #neutrons= #neutrons
  16. 16. fill in this information onfill in this information on your Periodic Tableyour Periodic Table Atomic mass - # protons = # neutrons
  17. 17. Surrounding the nucleus is an area called the electron cloud. Inside the electron cloud, electrons orbit around in different energy levels.
  18. 18. energy levels
  19. 19. The electrons are so small that they basically have no mass, so they are not included in finding the atomic mass. electron neutron proton
  20. 20. As a general rule, each energy levelAs a general rule, each energy level only holds so many electrons at aonly holds so many electrons at a given time.given time. TheThe first energy level, which isenergy level, which is closest to the nucleus, holds up toclosest to the nucleus, holds up to 2 electrons.electrons. TheThe second energy level holds up toenergy level holds up to 8 electrons.electrons. TheThe third energy level may holdenergy level may hold 8 oror
  21. 21. first energy level
  22. 22. second energy level
  23. 23. third energy level 8 or more!
  24. 24. How many electrons are in each energy level of the element Lithium? 1st – 2, 2nd – 1 electron energy levels 3 Li 6.941 Lithium electron cloud
  25. 25. By numbering the periods (rows) on the Periodic Table, you can determine how many energy levels are in an atom. For example, Lithium is in period 2, therefore it has 2 energy levels.Number the first three periods on your Periodic Table.
  26. 26. How many energy levels does sodium contain? Period 3, 3 energy levels
  27. 27. Valence ElectronsValence Electrons The numbers of electrons in an atom’s outermost energy level are called valence electrons.
  28. 28. Valence electrons….. valence electrons are found here!
  29. 29. These electrons areThese electrons are important because theyimportant because they determine howdetermine how reactive thethe element is with otherelement is with other elements.elements.
  30. 30. For example, Lithium has only 1 valence electron. Since the second energy level may hold up to 8 electrons, Lithium would need 7 additional electrons in order for its outermost energy level to be filled. But, it is easier for Lithium to give away 1
  31. 31. Charges on particlesCharges on particles Protons carry aProtons carry a positive electricelectric charge.charge. Electrons carry aElectrons carry a negative electric charge.electric charge. Neutrons haveNeutrons have no charge.charge.
  32. 32. The most stable form of an atom is electrically neutral. This means that the number of protons and electrons is equal.
  33. 33. For example, look at the element oxygen. Oxygen is atomic number 8, which means it has 8 protons (+).
  34. 34. Therefore, in a stable oxygen atom, there are 8 electrons (-). The positive and negative charges are balanced.
  35. 35. 6 Look at your Periodic Table. Find the element Carbon. How many positive (protons) charges does carbon have?
  36. 36. How many negativeHow many negative charges (electrons)charges (electrons) does carbon have?does carbon have? 6
  37. 37. What is the mass of carbon? 12.0112 How can the number of neutrons be determined? (atomic mass - # protons = # neutrons) Carbon has 6 neutrons.
  38. 38. Write this on your Periodic Table. Atomic mass - # protons = # neutrons
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