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Reformers

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  • 1. American Colonization Society – wanted to send freed slaves to Africa (new nation Liberia)
  • 2. Anti-Slavery Alphabet
  • 3. Slavery is a moral issue, not economic Immediate emancipation Published The Liberator, first issue 1831
  • 4. David Walker - Appeal to the Coloured Citizens of the World - Don’t wait for whites, fight for freedom Frederick Douglass - 1845  The Narrative of the Life Of Frederick Douglass 
  • 5. Sojourner Truth - 1850 –The Narrative of Sojourner Truth Harriet Tubman Helped over 300 slaves to freedom. $40,000 bounty onher head.
  • 6. The Underground Railroad
  • 7. “Separate Spheres” Concept “Cult of Domesticity”  A woman’s “sphere” was in the home (it was a refuge from the cruel world outside).  Her role was to “civilize” her husband and family.  An 1830s MA minister: The power of woman is her dependence. A woman who gives up that dependence on man to become a reformer yields the power God has given her for her protection, and her character becomes unnatural!
  • 8. Early 19th Century Women 1. Unable to vote. 2. Legal status of a minor. 3. Single  could own her own property. 4. Married  no control over her property or her children. 5. Could not initiate divorce. 6. Couldn’t make wills, sign a contract, or bring suit in court without her husband’s permission.
  • 9. What It Would Be Like If Ladies Had Their Own Way!”
  • 10. Cult of Domesticity = Slavery The 2nd Great Awakening inspired women to improve society. Angelina Grimké Sarah Grimké  Southern Abolitionists Lucy Stone  American Women’s Suffrage Assoc.  edited Woman’s Journal R2-9
  • 11. Women’s Rights 1840 --> split in the abolitionist movement over women’s role in it. London --> World Anti-Slavery Convention Lucretia Mott Elizabeth Cady Stanton 1848 --> Seneca Falls Declaration of Sentiments
  • 12. Temperance Movement Frances Willard The Beecher Family 1826 - American Temperance Society “Demon Rum”!
  • 13. Annual Consumption of Alcohol
  • 14. Penitentiary and Asylum Reform Dorothea Dix (1802-1887) 1821  first penitentiary founded in Auburn, NY R1-5/7
  • 15. http://easternstate.org/contact/press-room/photos/restored-cell
  • 16. Educational Reform Religious Training  Secular Education  MA  always on the forefront of public educational reform * 1st state to establish tax support for local public schools.  By 1860 every state offered free public education to whites. * US had one of the highest literacy rates.
  • 17. “Father of American Education” Horace Mann (1796-1859)  children were clay in the hands of teachers and school officials  children should be “molded” into a state of perfection  discouraged corporal punishment  established state teacher- training programs R3-6
  • 18. The McGuffey Eclectic Readers  Used religious parables to teach “American values.”  Teach middle class morality and respect for order.  Teach “3 Rs” + “Protestant ethic” (frugality, hard work, sobriety)