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Chp 3 Settling the North

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  • 1. Settling the North
    With slides from Ms. Susan M. Pojer
  • 2. Separatists
    vs.
    Puritans
  • 3. Puritanism
    Calvinism Predestination.
    • Good works could not save those predestined for hell.
    • 4. No one could be certain of their spiritual status.
    • 5. Gnawing doubts led to constantly seeking signs of “conversion.”
    Puritans:
    • Want to totally reform [purify] the Church of England.
    • 6. Grew impatient with the slow process of Protestant Reformation back in England.
  • Separatists
    Separatist Beliefs:
    • Puritans who believed only “visible saints” [those who could demonstrate in front of their fellow Puritans their elect status] should be admitted to church membership.
    • 7. Because the Church of England enrolled all the king’s subjects, Separatists felt they had to share churches with the “damned.”
    • 8. Therefore, they believed in a total break from the Church of England.
  • The Mayflower
    1620  a group of 102 (40 Separatists]
    • Negotiated with the Virginia Company to settle in VA
    • 9. Got lost, low on supplies
    • 10. “We could not now take time for further search or consideration, our victuals being much spent, especially our beer.”
    Plymouth Bay way outside the domain of the Virginia Company.
    • Became squatters without legal right to land & specific authority to establish a govt.
  • The Mayflower CompactNovember 11, 1620
  • 11. "In the name of God, Amen. We, whose names are underwritten, the Loyal Subjects of our dread Sovereign Lord, King James, by the Grace of God, of England, France and Ireland, King, Defender of the Faith, e&. Having undertaken for the Glory of God, and Advancement of the Christian Faith, and the Honour of our King and Country, a voyage to plant the first colony in the northern parts of Virginia; do by these presents, solemnly and mutually in the Presence of God and one of another, covenant and combine ourselves together into a civil Body Politick, for our better Ordering and Preservation, and Furtherance of the Ends aforesaid; And by Virtue hereof to enact, constitute, and frame, such just and equal Laws, Ordinances, Acts, Constitutions and Offices, from time to time, as shall be thought most meet and convenient for the General good of the Colony; unto which we promise all due submission and obedience. In Witness whereof we have hereunto subscribed our names at Cape Cod the eleventh of November, in the Reign of our Sovereign Lord, King James of England, France and Ireland, the eighteenth, and of Scotland the fifty-fourth. Anno Domini, 1620."
  • 12. The Mayflower CompactNovember 11, 1620
    Written and signed before the Pilgrims disembarked from the ship.
    Not a constitution, but an agreement to form a crude gov. and submit to majority rule.
    • Signed by 41 adult males.
    Led to adult male settlers meeting in assemblies to make laws in town meetings.
  • 13.
  • 14. That First Year….
    Winter of 1620-1621
    • Only 44 out of the original 102 survived.
    None chose to leave in 1621 when the Mayflower left
    Fall of 1621  First “Thanksgiving.”
    • Colony survived with fur, fish, and lumber.
    Plymouth stayed small and economically unimportant.
    • 1691  only 7,000 people
    • 15. Merged with Massachusetts Bay Colony.
  • The MA Bay Colony
    1629  non-Separatists got a royal charter
    • They didn’t want to leave the Church, just its “impurities.”
    1630  1,000 people set off in 11 well-stocked ships
    • Established a colony with Boston as its hub.
    “Great Migration” of the 1630s
    • Turmoil in England sent about 70,000 Puritans to America.
    • 16. Not all Puritans  20,000 came to MA.
  • Characteristics of New England Settlements
    Low mortality  average life expectancy was 70 years of age.
    Many extended families.
    Average 6 children per family.
    Average age at marriage:
    • Women – 22 years old
    • 17. Men – 27 years old.
  • Puritan “Rebels”
    Young, popular minister in Salem
    • Argued for a full break with the Anglican Church.
    • 18. Condemned MA Bay Charter
    • 19. Did not give fair compensation to Indians.
    • 20. Denied authority of civil gov. to regulate religious behavior.
    1635  found guilty of preaching “newe& dangerous opinions“ and was exiled.
    Roger Williams
  • 21. Rhode Island
    1636  Roger Williams fled there.
    • Remarkable political freedom in Providence, RI
    • 22. Universal manhood suffrage  later restricted by a property qualification.
    • 23. Opposed to special privilege of any kind  freedom of opportunity for all.
    RI becomes known as the “Sewer” because it is seen by the Puritans as a dumping ground for unbelievers and religious dissenters  More liberal than any other colony!
  • 24. Puritan “Rebels”
    Intelligent, strong-willed, well-spoken
    Threatened patriarchal control
    Holy life was no sure sign of salvation.
    Truly saved didn’t need to obey the law of either God or man.
    AnneHutchinson
  • 25. Anne Hutchinson’s Trial
    1638  she confounded the Puritan leaders for days.
    Eventually bragged that she had received her beliefs DIRECTLY from God.
    Puritan leaders banished her  she & her family traveled to RI and later to NY.
    • She and all but one member of her family were killed in an Indian attack in Westchester County.
    • 26. John Winthrop saw God’s hand in this!
  • New England Spreads Out
  • 27.
  • 28. New England Colonies, 1650
  • 29. Puritans vs. Native Americans
    Indians especially weak in New England  epidemics wiped out ¾ of the native popul.
    Wampanoags [near Plymouth] befriended the settlers.
    • Cooperation between the two helped by Squanto.
    1621  Chief Massasoit signedtreaty with the settlers.
    • Autumn, 1621  both groups celebrated the First Thanksgiving.
  • King Philip’s War (1675-1676}
    Only hope for Native Americans to resist white settlers was to UNITE.
    Metacom [King Philip to settlers]
    • Massasoit’s son united Indians and staged coordinated attacks on white settlements throughout New England.
    • 30. Frontier settlements forced to retreat to Boston.
  • The war ended in failure for the Indians
    • Metacombeheaded, drawn and quartered.
    • 31. His son and wife sold into slavery.
    • 32. Never a serious threat in NE again
  • Population Comparisons:New England v. the Chesapeake
  • 33. Salutary Neglect / Benign Neglect
    Because of political issues, civil wars, etc England paid little early attention to colonies
    Good? Bad?
    Colonies are semi-autonomous (New England Confederation)
    Charles II returns, wants more control (Dominion of New England)
    Potential problems?
  • 34. New Players: The Dutch
    Netherlands young (1588) but powerful country
    Like Portuguese, Dutch explored mainly in East (China, India)
    Early 17th century: Dutch East India Co., est. on Hudson River
    New Netherlands— farm plantations, slave trade
    http://www.common-place.org/vol-03/no-04/new-york/
  • 35. Pennsylvania
    Est. as Quaker refuge
    Paid Delaware Indians £1200 for land
    Religious freedom, liberal franchise & penal code
    French, German immigrants welcomed
    “Best Poor Man’s Country”
    Philadelphia biggest city by 18th century
    The Treaty Elm, 1683

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