“We could not now take time for further search or consideration, our victuals being much spent, especially our beer.”
Plymouth Bay way outside the domain of the Virginia Company.
Became squatters without legal right to land & specific authority to establish a govt.
The Mayflower CompactNovember 11, 1620
"In the name of God, Amen. We, whose names are underwritten, the Loyal Subjects of our dread Sovereign Lord, King James, by the Grace of God, of England, France and Ireland, King, Defender of the Faith, e&. Having undertaken for the Glory of God, and Advancement of the Christian Faith, and the Honour of our King and Country, a voyage to plant the first colony in the northern parts of Virginia; do by these presents, solemnly and mutually in the Presence of God and one of another, covenant and combine ourselves together into a civil Body Politick, for our better Ordering and Preservation, and Furtherance of the Ends aforesaid; And by Virtue hereof to enact, constitute, and frame, such just and equal Laws, Ordinances, Acts, Constitutions and Offices, from time to time, as shall be thought most meet and convenient for the General good of the Colony; unto which we promise all due submission and obedience. In Witness whereof we have hereunto subscribed our names at Cape Cod the eleventh of November, in the Reign of our Sovereign Lord, King James of England, France and Ireland, the eighteenth, and of Scotland the fifty-fourth. Anno Domini, 1620."
The Mayflower CompactNovember 11, 1620 Written and signed before the Pilgrims disembarked from the ship. Not a constitution, but an agreement to form a crude gov. and submit to majority rule.
Signed by 41 adult males.
Led to adult male settlers meeting in assemblies to make laws in town meetings.
Denied authority of civil gov. to regulate religious behavior.
1635 found guilty of preaching “newe& dangerous opinions“ and was exiled. Roger Williams
Rhode Island 1636 Roger Williams fled there.
Remarkable political freedom in Providence, RI
Universal manhood suffrage later restricted by a property qualification.
Opposed to special privilege of any kind freedom of opportunity for all.
RI becomes known as the “Sewer” because it is seen by the Puritans as a dumping ground for unbelievers and religious dissenters More liberal than any other colony!
Puritan “Rebels” Intelligent, strong-willed, well-spoken Threatened patriarchal control Holy life was no sure sign of salvation. Truly saved didn’t need to obey the law of either God or man. AnneHutchinson
Anne Hutchinson’s Trial 1638 she confounded the Puritan leaders for days. Eventually bragged that she had received her beliefs DIRECTLY from God. Puritan leaders banished her she & her family traveled to RI and later to NY.
She and all but one member of her family were killed in an Indian attack in Westchester County.
Population Comparisons:New England v. the Chesapeake
Salutary Neglect / Benign Neglect Because of political issues, civil wars, etc England paid little early attention to colonies Good? Bad? Colonies are semi-autonomous (New England Confederation) Charles II returns, wants more control (Dominion of New England) Potential problems?
New Players: The Dutch Netherlands young (1588) but powerful country Like Portuguese, Dutch explored mainly in East (China, India) Early 17th century: Dutch East India Co., est. on Hudson River New Netherlands— farm plantations, slave trade http://www.common-place.org/vol-03/no-04/new-york/
Pennsylvania Est. as Quaker refuge Paid Delaware Indians £1200 for land Religious freedom, liberal franchise & penal code French, German immigrants welcomed “Best Poor Man’s Country” Philadelphia biggest city by 18th century The Treaty Elm, 1683