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Antebellum south

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  • 1. The Antebellum South and Slavery
  • 2.
    • MAIN IDEAS
    • Mainly agrarian (little industry)
    • Power Shift from Upper South to Lower South
    • “ Cotton Is King!”
    • Slavery the “Peculiar Institution”
  • 3. “ antebellum”
  • 4. “ antebellum”
    • Latin “before the war”
  • 5. Cotton Gin
    • 1790 – Eli Whitney
    • One person could clean 50 lbs. cotton per day
    • Demand for cotton explodes
  • 6. King Cotton
    • More than half the world’s cotton produced in South
  • 7. King Cotton
    • More than half the world’s cotton produced in South
    • Cotton as % of all US exports
  • 8. Cotton Production 1820 1860
  • 9. Economics
    • Focus on single cash crop heavily depleted soil
    • Little European immig.
    • Lords of the Lash v. Lords of the Loom (benefitted from cheap cotton)
    • Several in North feared a disruption to Southern labor
  • 10. Planter Aristocracy
    • “ Slavocracy”
    • Wide gap between rich & poor
    • 1850 – Only 1,733 families own more than 100 slaves
  • 11.  
  • 12. White Majority
    • About 1/4 of white southerners owned slaves
    • 3/4 didn’t but staunchly supported slavery
  • 13. Why Support Slavery?
    • Hope to one day buy slaves – “American Dream” at time
    • Belief in racial superiority
  • 14. Slaves of the System
    • Prime field hands $1200
    • $30,000 - $40,000 today
    • Four million slaves in 1860 (4x as much as 1800)
    • After 1808 ban on trade, most were born in U.S.
  • 15. Free Blacks
    • 250,000 by 1860
    • Owned property
    • Prohibited from some jobs
    • Couldn’t testify against whites
    • Risk of being kidnapped & sold
  • 16. Free Blacks
    • Unpopular in North too
    • Why?
    • Prejudice, Competition for jobs
  • 17. The Plantation
    • Planters saw slaves as investments
    • Protected from dangerous work like roofing, blasting, swamp draining
    • Who will do this work?
    • Shift from Upper to Lower South (1 mil. slaves moved)
  • 18. Life as a Slave
    • Conditions varied by region, farm, & master
    • Dawn ‘til dusk work
    • No real civil or political rights
    • Families often separated @ auction
  • 19. http://www.encyclopediaofarkansas.net/encyclopedia/media-detail.aspx?mediaID=7354
  • 20. Life as a Slave
  • 21. Life as a Slave
    • Majority lived on plantations with twenty or more slaves
    • Some counties in deep south – over 50% slaves
    • Religion – Mix of Christianity and African religions
    • African Methodist Episcopal (AME) Church in areas with Free Blacks
  • 22.  
  • 23. Burdens of Bondage
    • Slave education illegal in many states
    • Fighting back – working slowly, stealing food/supplies, breaking tools, escape
  • 24. Slave Rebellions
    • Handful before Civil War
    • 1822 – Denmark Vesey Rebellion
    • Plot in Charleston, SC
    • Discovered before it began
    • Leaders hanged
  • 25.  
  • 26. Slave Rebellions
    • 1831 – Nat Turner Rebellion
    • Killed whites in Virginia
    • Resulted in stricter controls, fear among whites
  • 27. Early Abolitionism
    • Colonization – Returning Blacks to Africa (Liberia)
    • U.S. – Last major country with slavery
    • Inspired by Second Great Awakening
  • 28. Radical Abolitionism
    • William Lloyd Garrison – Published The Liberator – anti-slavery newspaper
    • 1833 – American Anti-Slavery Society
  • 29. Radical Abolitionism
    • Sojourner Truth
    • 1851 – “Ain’t I a Woman?”
    http://etc.usf.edu/lit2go/contents/4200/4262/4262.html
  • 30. Radical Abolitionism
    • Harriet Tubman
    • “ Black Moses”
    • Conductor on Underground RR
    http://thesavvysistah.com/inspiration/savvy-sistahs-soar-harriet-tubman/
  • 31. Radical Abolitionism
    • Frederick Douglass
    • Escaped Slavery
    • Wrote Narrative of the Life of Frederick Douglass
    • Supported political end to slavery
    http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/aia/part4/4h2962.html
  • 32.
    • Frederick Douglass
    Copyright Matt López 2008
  • 33.
    • Frederick Douglass
    Copyright Matt López 2008
  • 34.
    • Frederick Douglass
    Copyright Matt López 2008
  • 35. Dates of Abolition Worldwide 1804 - slavery ended in North 1807 - end of US slave trade 1820s – Cent. & S. America 1833: British empire 1830’s: French empire 1861: Russian serfs emancipated
  • 36. South Lashes Back
    • Worried after Nat Turner, slave codes were tightened
    • After Nullification Crisis, South feels targeted
    • Defense of slavery as a “good” using Biblical quotes
  • 37. South Lashes Back
    • Slaves are “happy,” get to work outside, need direction
    • Northern workers are “slaves to low wages,” trapped inside
    • Southern post offices required to destroy abolitionist newspapers
  • 38. Gag Resolution – 1836-1844
    • Southern reps push resolution through House
    • Slavery can not be debated
    • Former President and current Rep. John Quincy Adams fought to repeal resolution
  • 39.  
  • 40. Abolitionist Impact in North
    • Radical abolitionists attacked in north.
    • Many Northern politicos avoided radical abolition, supported ban in new territories – “Free Soilers”
    • Conflict over Popular Sovereignty
  • 41. Future Clash
    • What happens next???
  • 42.
    • MAIN IDEAS
    • Mainly agrarian (little industry)
    • Power Shift from Upper South to Lower South
    • “ Cotton Is King!”
    • Slavery the “Peculiar Institution”