Essential Question: Champion of “King” the OR Andrew? “Common Man”?
Voting Requirementsin the Early 19 th Century
Voter Turnout: 1820 – 1860 2008: ~56%
Why Increased Democratization?3 White male suffrage increased3 Party nominating committees.3 Voters chose their state’s slate of Presidential electors.3 Spoils system.3 Rise of Third Parties.3 Popular campaigning (parades, rallies, floats, etc.)3 Two-party system returned in the 1832 election: Dem-Reps Natl. Reps.(1828) Whigs (1832) Republicans (1854) Democrats (1828)
Born in a log cabin in???http://www.wistv.com/Global/story.asp?S=14219625
Scarred during Revolution for refusing to shine British officer’s bootsFirst Known Painting, 1815
General JacksonDuring the SeminoleWars
The “Common Man’s”Presidential Candidate
Jackson’s Opponents in 1824 Henry Clay John Quincy Adams John C. Calhoun [KY] [MA] [SC] William H. Crawford [GA]
A “Corrupt Bargain?” Electoral VoteCandidate Popular VoteAndrew Jackson 43% 99J.Q. Adams 31% 84William Crawford 13% 41Henry Clay 13% 37
Four presidents took office without winning the popular vote; elected, instead, by the electoral college or in the case of John Quincy Adams by the House of Representatives after a tie in the electoral votes. They were: • John Quincy Adams who lost by 44,804 votes to Andrew Jackson -1824• Rutherford B. Hayes who lost by 264,292 votes to Samuel J. Tilden -1876 • Benjamin Harrison who lost by 95,713 votes to Grover Cleveland -1888 • George W. Bush who lost by 543,816 votes to Al Gore - 2000
Fast Forward 4 years toelection of 1828…
1828 Election Results
The Center of Population:Country Moves WEST
Rachel JacksonJackson in Mourning Final Divorce Decree for His Wife
The New “Jackson Coalition”3 The Planter Elite in the South3 People on the Frontier3 State Politicians – spoils system3 Immigrants in the cities.
Jackson’s Faith in the “Common Man”3 Intense distrust of Eastern “establishment,” monopolies, & special privilege.3 His heart & soul was with the “plain folk.”3 Belief that the common man was capable of uncommon achievements.
The Reign of “King Mob”
Andrew Jackson as President
Spoils System• President Jackson spoiled his friends and supporters by offering them government jobs.• He also listened to close friends, not the cabinet,• his “kitchen cabinet”
The “Peggy Eaton Affair”
The Webster-Hayne DebateSen. Daniel Sen. Robert Webster Hayne [MA] [SC] Clash over States’ Rights over Western land sales
Abominations and Nullification
The United States was trying to help its young factory system grow.It did so by trying to encourage Americans tobuy stuff made in American factories, notEuropean factories, which are usually cheaper. Where are the factories?
How can they get Americans to buy more expensive American manufactured goods?
Protective Tariffs (tax) help American factories bymaking foreign made goods cost more.European Shirt American Shirt$8 + $3(tariff) = $11 $10Which shirt would you buy?
The southern states hated the protectivetariffs and call it the Tariffs of Abominations.Why?1. The south grew cotton, sent it to Europe, then bought the finished goods from them. The tariffs made them cost more2. Europe might get mad and make its own tariffs…. Bad for U.S. businesses.3. The south saw the tariff as an example of growing power of the Federal government.Would the Federal government also try to end slavery soon?????????
Most factories are in the north, so how didprotective tariffs help the south? They really didn’t.
Nullification CRISISNullify - to make void, cancel
Vice-President Calhoun was from South Carolina. What do you think he thought of the tariffs?
V.P. Calhoun said a state should be able tonullify a national law (like the tariff law) by declaring it unconstitutional.The South Carolina legislature liked his idea. A lot of other people didn’t, so The U.S. Congress debated the issue for weeks.
Should a state be able to ignore a national law if it wants to?What could this mean?
What will PresidentJackson do?
President Jackson went to a fancy dinner partywith all the other cool Washingtonians.Vice-President Calhoun was also there.Jackson was asked to make a toast.
Jackson stood up and said,“Our Federal Union: It mustbe preserved!”(He is basically telling SouthCarolina to stop whining.)
Vice-President Calhoun then stood up. His response toast:“The Union, next to our (the states’) liberty most dear.” (He is basically telling Jackson to …?)
In 1832, Congress lowered the tariff, hoping to make South Carolina happy. It didn’t work.South Carolina said it would only be happy with a complete repeal of the tariff.
Later that year, a convention met inSouth Carolina.The convention:- nullified the Tariff of 1828.- said no Federal Customs could be collected inS.C.- threatened to secede (leave) from the Union ifFederal government tried to collect tariffs.
Calhoun thenresigned the vice-presidency tobecome a senatorfrom S.C.
Some people called Calhoun the“First President of the SouthernConfederacy,”even though he really wasn’t.
...Jackson forces a compromise. He has Congress pass two bills.• Bill # 1 gives Jackson • Bill #2 lowers the the power to use amount of the tariff, Federal troops to even though South collect taxes and Carolina already said duties in South they wouldn’t pay Carolina. anything.
It appeared that fighting wasinevitable, but SouthCarolina eventually backeddown.
South Carolina didn’thave the support of any other southern states..
Everyone breathed a sigh ofrelief.Another crisis wasaverted...
...for a little while.WATCH THE “VIDEO” FOR TARIFF OF ABOMINATIONS
Indian Removal3 Jackson’s Goal?3 1830 Indian Removal Act3 Cherokee Nation v. GA (1831) * “domestic dependent nation”3 Worcester v. GA (1832)3 Jackson: John Marshall has made his decision, now let him enforce it!
The Cherokee Nation After 1820
Trail of Tears (1838- 1839)
Jackson’s Professed“Love” for AmericanIndians
Jackson’s Use of Federal Power VETO1830 Maysville Road project in KY [state of his political rival, Henry Clay]
The National Bank DebateNicholas President Biddle Jackson
Opposition to the 2 nd B.U.S. “Soft” “Hard” (paper) $ (specie) $3 state bankers felt 3 felt that coin was it restrained their the only safe banks from issuing currency. bank notes freely. 3 didn’t like any bank3 supported rapid that issued bank economic growth notes. & speculation. 3 suspicious of expansion & speculation.
The “Monster” Is Destroyed!3 “pet banks”?3 1832 Jackson vetoed the extension of the 2nd National Bank of the United States.3 1836 the charter expired.3 1841 the bank went bankrupt!
The Downfall of “Mother Bank”
An 1832Cartoon : “KingAndrew”
1832 Election Results Main Issue?
The Specie Circular (1836)3 “wildcat banks.”3 buy future federal land only with gold or silver.3 Jackson’s goal?
Results of the Specie$ Banknotes Circular lose their value.$ Land sales plummeted.$ Credit not available.$ Businesses began to fail.$ Unemployment rose. The Panic of 1837!
The 1836 ElectionResultsMartin Van Buren“Old Kinderhook” [O. K.]
The Panic of 1837Spreads Quickly!
Andrew Jackson in Retirement
Photo of Andrew Jackson in 1844 (one year before his death) 1767 - 1845