Causes of the
The Country becomes
divided on issues which
leads to secession and war.
What were these causes?
North, South, and West
Each had its own “personality”.
North feared South was trying to spread
North’s focus was industry.
South’s focus was agriculture.
West’s focus was new settlements.
Slavery seen as a state issue.
The South believed the federal government
along with the North and West would go
against the South by using high tariffs and
challenging the right to owning slaves.
Nullification of federal laws was thought to be
a state right by the South. This will lead to
Southern States seceding from the Union in
John Quincy Adams works in congress
against the “gag rule”. (rule to not speak
Great Britain abolishes slavery in 1833.
Harriet Beecher Stowe writes “Uncle Tom’s
Cabin”. Anti-slavery literature floods the
Underground Railroad helps many escape to
Canada. (No slavery country- part of GB)
A southern slave living in the North with his
He was taken back to the South.
He sued for his freedom because he had lived
on free soil.
Supreme court rules that he is the property of
his master. Africans were not citizens and
were not protected under the constitution.
This ruling meant that slavery could spread.
Kansas-Nebraska Act 1845
Senator Stephen Douglas proposes “popular
sovereignty “, which meant the people living
in the territory could decide for themselves on
the issue of slavery.
1854 congress passes law allowing people to
decide for themselves. This over-turns the
Proposed for southern support for a railroad in
Fighting breaks out between supporters and
opponents of slavery.
The Issue of
Slaves worked hard for their owners.
They had no say or protection from the will of their
The responsibility for their care was with the owner.
No rights as citizens.
There was growing support for their freedom.
Supporters of slavery felt it was more humane to
care for them than if they would have to care for
themselves. They used the example of poor
factory workers in the North and the hardships
Founding of the Republican
by the critics of the KansasNebraska Act.
Republicans agreed to allow slavery to
continue in the South.
They opposed any further spread of
slavery into the new territories.
“Slavery in the South OK…Slavery everywhere
else, no way!”
John Brown’s Raid in Virginia
White Abolitionist in 1859
Organizes a slave rebellion at Harper’s Ferry.
He hoped that the rebellions would spread in
Kansas and Virginia, it did not work.
Caught and hanged.
Becomes a hero to many in the North.
Violence brings the nation to the verge of a