America expands westward


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America expands westward

  1. 1. America Expands Westward Module 5
  2. 2. Key Territories and Purchases • • • • • 1803 – The Louisiana Purchase 1819 – The Florida Purchase 1846 – The Oregon Territory 1845 – The Annexation of Texas 1853 – The Gadsden Purchase
  3. 3. MANIFEST DESTINY • The “fate” of America to expand its borders from the Atlantic to the Pacific oceans. • A Christian belief that America was chosen to spread democracy. • For the safety of its borders. • To increase opportunities for economic growth.
  4. 4. Political, Economic, and Social • Expanding Democracy – Belief in God-given mission to extend democracy and to set an example to the world. • Security- will discourage threats from rival powers . • Future Prosperity – gaining land and wealth. Gold rush of California. • Pioneering Spirit- Admiration for American individualism , those brave enough and strong enough to settle in new areas. • Romanticizing the West – Paintings, literature, popular prints….as an ideal of nature. (beautiful lands and climates)
  5. 5. The Oregon Trail • Thousands caught “Oregon Fever”wanting to go to the lands farthest west. • 2,000 miles long. • Crossed deserts, rivers, the Rocky mountains. • 20,000 people died making the journey.
  6. 6. Why would there be forts along the way? Why would so many people make this journey? Trace this trail on your map beginning in Independence, MO.
  7. 7. Describe the terrain of the Oregon trail. What were some of the difficulties the pioneers would have to face if they were going to make such a long journey?
  8. 8. Sometimes they would travel by wagon. When they could not afford wagons, they would build or buy hand carts , pulling and walking the entire distance.
  9. 9. The “Mormon” Trail • A religious group of people. • Running from persecution about their beliefs. • Founder of the Church, Joseph Smith was killed by a mob. • Wanting to settle in the west to ensure their safety. • New Leader, Brigham Young leads them to the Salt Lake Valley where they settle. • A desolate, barren land is turned into productive farm land through irrigation. • By 1877, 125,000 Mormons lived in the valley.
  10. 10. Joseph Smith Jr. – founder and leader of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-DaySaints, also known as the Mormons Brigham Young leads the members of the church to the Salt Lake Valley in the Great Basin after Smith’s death.
  11. 11. The Mormon Trail: Trace it on your map beginning in Nauvoo, Illnois
  12. 12. The Annexation of TEXAS • 1820- American settlers begin settling in Texas, which was Mexican territory. • 1830 – Mexican government passes law denying anymore American settlers to settle in Texas. Mexico is afraid of losing control of the region. • 1834 – more than 30,000 Americans in Texas compared to 8,000 Mexicans.
  13. 13. Trace the area for the Annexation of Texas on your map.
  14. 14. Texas……………………………… • Americans held conventions to try and get the law repealed. • Fighting erupts when an attempt to seize a cannon from the Americans in Gonzales. • 1836-Mexican general and dictator, Santa Anna marches his troops and slaughters Texans at the Alamo and Goliad. • Texans win their independence from Mexico.
  15. 15. “Remember the Alamo” became the motto for independence.
  16. 16. James Polk • 11th president- Democratic- one term • Promised Annexation of Texas if elected and to obtain the Oregon Territory to its northern most point. • Compromised with the British to control the territory. • 1845- Congress approves annexation of Texas. • US feared that if Texas remained free it would block westward expansion.
  17. 17. Texas and the Missouri Compromise • New States north of the compromise line will be “Free States”. • New States south of the compromise line will be “Slave States”. • Texas is a “Slave State”. • Boundary disputes in Texas may lead to war with Mexico.
  18. 18. US-Mexican War (1846-1848) • President Polk declares war to expand US borders. • US troops land in Mexico and march to Mexico City. • Mexico is defeated and forced to give up California, Nevada, Utah, Arizona, parts of Colorado and New Mexico. • Treaty of Guadalupe- US will pay Mexico $15 million dollars for these territories. • Known as the “Mexican Cession”.