The Crusades


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The Crusades

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The Crusades

  1. 2. <ul><li>The renewal of faith also led to war. Warriors were called upon to re-unite the Holy Land, (Jerusalem and Palestine) with Christianity. </li></ul>
  2. 4. <ul><li>Three major religious groups all claimed Jerusalem in the land of Palestine as their holy city, Christians, Muslims and the Jews. </li></ul>
  3. 5. <ul><li>With over 3,000 years of history, Judaism is the oldest continuous monotheistic (just one god) religion in the world. </li></ul><ul><li>Basic laws and teachings come from the holy text, the Torah. </li></ul><ul><li>The Torah establishes claim to Holy Land </li></ul><ul><li>Jews believe the Holy Land was gift from Yahweh (God) to Abraham and Lot </li></ul><ul><li>King David brought ark containing original Torah here </li></ul><ul><li>Site of King Solomon's temple </li></ul>Jewish Synagogue : King Solomon’s Temple
  4. 6. <ul><li>Started as a sect of Judaism and evolved around 2,o00 years ago. </li></ul><ul><li>Based on teaching of Jesus Christ , who Christians believe to be the son of God. </li></ul><ul><li>Teachings are recorded in the Bible . </li></ul><ul><li>Palestine is the site of Jesus’ life, death and resurrection. </li></ul><ul><li>It is home to original cross and stone of Christ’s tomb </li></ul><ul><li>Site of sacred Church of the Holy Sepulcher </li></ul><ul><li>Holds a variety of Christian shrines </li></ul>Church of the Holy Sepulcher
  5. 7. <ul><li>Islam has close ties to the prophets and teachers of Judaism and Christianity. </li></ul><ul><li>The holy book, the Qur’an, establishes claim that both Jews and Arabs are people of Abraham </li></ul><ul><li>Muslims believe Allah’s (God) gift of the Holy Land to Abraham was meant for Arabs (the first Muslims) </li></ul><ul><li>Jerusalem is the site of the prophet Muhammad’s ascension into heaven </li></ul><ul><li>Much like Christianity, Islam grew at an enormous rate after it’s inception. </li></ul>Islamic Mosque : Dome of the Rock
  6. 8. <ul><li>The Byzantine Emperor Alexius I asked for help to defeat the Seljuk Turks, who were Muslims. </li></ul><ul><li>Seeing a great opportunity to provide papal leadership, Pope Urban II responded to the request by rallying warriors of Europe to liberate Jerusalem and the Holy Land (Palestine) from the infidel (nonbelievers) Muslims. </li></ul><ul><li>These series of Expeditions are known as the Crusades . </li></ul>A Turk
  7. 11. <ul><li>The word crusade, which is derived from the Latin crux (&quot;cross&quot;), is a reference to the biblical injunction that Christians carry their cross. </li></ul><ul><li>Crusaders wore a red cloth cross sewn on their tunics to indicate that they had assumed the cross and were soldiers of Christ. It made all crusaders, irrespective of rank or background, appear to be a unified army. It reminded the crusaders that they were fighting a holy cause. The red cross was added to flags and banners. </li></ul>
  8. 12. <ul><li>Nobles hoped to add to their personal fortunes and strengthen the power of monarchs. </li></ul><ul><li>For knights, this was a chance to use their fighting skills, something they enjoyed and did well. They were delighted to have such a worthy battle to fight. They also wanted to defend Jerusalem, the “fief of God”. </li></ul><ul><li>For peasants, this was a chance to escape from their dreary life in the feudal system. The pope promised that if they died while fighting a holy crusade, they would automatically be welcomed into heaven. </li></ul><ul><li>For others, it was a chance to have an adventure, and perhaps even to get rich. </li></ul>
  9. 13. <ul><li>There were 9+ crusades (depending how you count them) that are fought over a period of about 200 years. 1095-1291 AD. </li></ul><ul><li>3 Main Ones </li></ul>
  10. 14. <ul><li>Around 1095, a group of Arabs (Muslims) took control of Jerusalem. They closed the city to Christian pilgrims. </li></ul><ul><li>The Pope reacted. He called for a crusade - a volunteer army whose goal was to retake Jerusalem in the name of Christianity. Many people volunteered. </li></ul><ul><li>About 30,000 men left Western Europe to fight in Jerusalem.  </li></ul>
  11. 15. <ul><li>After about two years of harsh traveling, hunger, disease, freezing weather, and quarrels amongst themselves, the crusaders finally arrived in Jerusalem. </li></ul><ul><li>After a two-month siege of the city, Jerusalem fell. The crusaders had won back Holy Land. </li></ul><ul><li>The Europeans then created 4 feudal “Crusader States” in the Holy Land, each ruled by a European noble. </li></ul>
  12. 17. <ul><li>It was a short victory. Less than 50 years later, Muslims rallied together and once again conquered Jerusalem. </li></ul>
  13. 18. <ul><li>The Pope called for the Second Crusade to take back the city. </li></ul><ul><li>It was a complete failure and the Crusaders were sent home in defeat. </li></ul>
  14. 19. <ul><li>The Third Crusade is possibly the most important Crusade of all. </li></ul><ul><li>It was organized by Europe’s strongest monarchs and led by King Richard (the Lionhearted) of England. </li></ul><ul><li>The Third Crusade lasted from 1189-1192. </li></ul><ul><li>The Crusaders were defeated by a powerful Muslim ruler named Saladin . </li></ul><ul><li>Despite the defeat, King Richard the Lionhearted negotiated with Saladin to allow Christian pilgrims free access to Jerusalem. </li></ul>
  15. 20. <ul><li>The Fourth Crusade sent Knights back to the Holy Land, however they never made it to Jerusalem. </li></ul><ul><li>Instead attacked the city of Constantinople because they were in desperate need of supplies and funds. </li></ul>
  16. 21. <ul><li>The Children's Crusade in 1212 was a terrible tragedy. Many thousands of French and German children died trying to reach Jerusalem. </li></ul><ul><li>They believed God would protect them because they were children. </li></ul><ul><li>Two ships of children were lost at sea. Many died of hunger. Others froze to death. When the ships landed in North Africa, some children were slaughtered and others were sold in to slavery. </li></ul><ul><li>Those who survived dismally returned home.   </li></ul>
  17. 22. <ul><li>Over the next 70 years, there were several other crusade attempts, but they were motivated more by personal gain than by religious purpose. </li></ul><ul><li>None succeeded. </li></ul><ul><li>By 1291, 200 years after the first crusade, European leaders lost interest. </li></ul><ul><li>Christian Crusaders never admitted defeat. They just simply  stopped asking for new soldiers to go fight.   </li></ul>
  18. 23. <ul><li>Instead of sending more Crusaders to the Holy Land, the Christians decided to clean up Europe. </li></ul><ul><li>In Spain, the Moors (Muslims from North Africa) who had controlled much of the country were driven out during the Reconquista . A long effort to take back the country of Spain. </li></ul>
  19. 24. <ul><li>The Spanish also instituted the Inquisition , which was a court held by the Church to suppress heretics . </li></ul><ul><li>Heretics are people’s who beliefs differ from the Church’s teachings. </li></ul><ul><li>Heretics would be questioned for weeks and even put through painful torture. </li></ul><ul><li>Once the person confessed, they were often burned at the stake. </li></ul>
  20. 25. <ul><li>Possibly due to the ineffectiveness of the actual Crusades, the Christians in Europe started to persecute the Jews. </li></ul><ul><li>The Jews in Palestine had fought along side the Muslims in the Crusades to defend their home in the Holy Land. </li></ul><ul><li>Back in Europe, the people turned against Jewish populations, the new enemy and the “murderers of Christ”. </li></ul><ul><li>Many Jews were expelled from Europe or just killed altogether. </li></ul><ul><li>In Germany, many Jews were killed. The historical account says, &quot;why should we attack the unbelievers in the Holy Land, and leave the infidels in our midst undisturbed?&quot; </li></ul>
  21. 27. <ul><li>The Crusades exposed Europeans to new cultures </li></ul><ul><li>After the Crusades, there was an increased interest in acquiring new goods from Asia, Africa and the Middle East. </li></ul><ul><li>There was a new European demand for things such as silks, spices, ivory and pearls. This created a demand for trade with the Middle East. (Pisa, Genoa, Venice) </li></ul><ul><li>Increased trade = Increased income for Italian merchants </li></ul><ul><li>The death of many nobles weakened the feudal system </li></ul><ul><li>Sophisticated Muslim culture, arts and philosophy were introduced to the Europeans – to the Muslims, the Europeans were the Barbarians </li></ul>
  22. 30. <ul><li>Robin of Loxley (Robin Hood) returns from fighting the 3 rd Crusade. While King Richard is also away, his brother John, is a corrupt leader. Robin defies John and becomes an outlaw until King Richard returns. </li></ul>