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Kingdoms and trading_states_of_africa
 

Kingdoms and trading_states_of_africa

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    Kingdoms and trading_states_of_africa Kingdoms and trading_states_of_africa Presentation Transcript

    • Chapter 11
    •  Atlas Mountains  Shade in: Sahara Desert  Rain Forest Great Rift Valley  Savannah  Desert Mt. Kilamanjaro  Mediterranean Nile River  Dry woodland Niger River  Mark: Bantu Migrations Lake Victoria  Gulf of Aden Kalahari Desert  Mediterranean Sea Strait of Gibraltar  Arabian Peninsula Atlantic Ocean  Congo River Indian Ocean Red Sea
    •  Savanna: Grassy Plains Sahara: GIANT desert Rain Forest Mediterranean Dry Woodland
    •  The Sahara, in northern Africa, is the biggest desert in the world. The desert is very dry therefore, farming is almost impossible. Along the Mediterranean coast of Africa, and at the tip of southern Africa, there is fertile farmland called the Mediterranean Climate. Unlike the desert, the Mediterranean Climate is ideal for farming.
    •  Tropical rainforests cover less than 5% of the land. The rainforests have thick vegetation and a heavy amount of rain which makes it very moist. Africa’s largest and most populated climate zone is the savanna, or grassy plains. The savanna generally has good soil and enough rainfall to support farming.
    •  Look at the Bantu migrations on your map  Where did they go? West African farmers and herders who migrated south and east between about 1000 B.C.E. and 1000 C.E. Spoke Bantu language Spread their knowledge about farming, ironworking, domesticating animals Bantu influence is still around
    •  About 2700 B.C.E., civilization along the Nile was growing Traded with Egypt, incorporated a lot of Egyptian culture, modeled their society on Egyptians Eventually had to leave their region in Egypt and return south when Assyrians took over Egypt
    •  The rulers of the Nubian kingdom of Kush accepted many traditions and ideas from Egypt. The Nubians began to build pyramids, to worship Egyptian gods, to wear Egyptian clothing, and to use a form of writing that was similar to the writing used in Egypt. Despite their similarities, the Nubians were rivals and
    •  Rich in iron!  Powerful tools, lots of wood Once controlled the Nile’s trade routes as well the route from the Red Sea to North Africa  This made them rich!  Gold, ivory, animal skins, perfumes, slaves were traded with Mediterranean and Southwest Asia Eventually the Kingdom of Axum took over
    •  So close to the Mediterranean—who is nearby? Carthage was a major trading city, until the Punic Wars After Punic Wars, Rome took over North Africa. Built roads, aqueducts, dams, cities  Also spread Christianity, used Africans for Roman soldiers Islam spreads into North Africa
    •  In the 690s, C.E. Muslims conquered and occupied North Africa. By the 700s, they had completely conquered the Berbers, a nomadic people. Gradually replaced Christianity with Islam, and Arabic replaced Latin as the language Cairo, Fez, Marrakesh became famous for their beautiful mosques and huge universities. Muslim traders brought Islam from the North to West Africa
    •  Shade and date:  Niger River  Egypt  Gao  Nubia  Timbuktu  Axum  Benin City  Ghana  Mali  Great Zimbabwe  Ethiopia  Mogadishu  Songhai  Cairo Draw: 5 major trade  Mecca routes (pick 5 from  Venice map)  Fez Mediterranean Sea  Marrakesh
    •  Salt was very rare in most of Africa, but was highly valued  Need salt to retain water, preserve food  Sahara had lots of salt Western Africa (Ghana, Nigeria, Senegal) had almost no salt, but lots of gold
    •  Had lots of gold, would trade a pound of gold for a pound of salt (until 1350, 60% of the gold in the world came from Ghana) Theocracy Traded with Muslim merchants from North Africa Muslims introduced written language, coins, business methods Some (not all) adopted Islam In 1050, Almoravids (North African Muslims) invaded and weakened Ghana Eventually were taken over by Mali Kingdom
    •  Mansa Musa was the strongest ruler of Mali, came to power in 1312 C.E. He spread control of gold and salt regions, and became very wealthy Where trade routes intersected, big cities like Timbuktu arose
    •  He conquered a lot of regions, and converted eventually to Islam, based much of his law on the Quran Did not force Islam on his people, but promoted religious freedom and tolerance In 1324, made the hajj to Mecca, and started good relationships with other Muslim states
    •  Devout Muslim Built mosques in Timbuktu Education from all over:  Judges  Doctors  Religious leaders  ScholarsProverb: Salt comes from the north, gold from the south, and silver from the country of the white men, but the word of God and the treasures of wisdom are only to be found in Timbuktu.
    •  By 1400, Mali had grown weak In 1460, the Songhai started to gain power, with a new capital in Gao Developed along the Niger River Did not initially adopt Islam, but later became an Islamic state in 1492 Had very organized government Like Mansa Musa, leaders went to Mecca, formed good relationships and built mosques and schools to study the Quran
    •  Songhai was invaded by Moroccans who wanted to control the salt and gold trade Songhai had no guns or new technology, and were quickly wiped out by the Moroccans How did Moroccan Muslims get guns? When Songhai fell, it was the end of 1,000 years of powerful kingdoms in West Africa
    • A fri ca! o E ast vin g tMo
    •  Conquered Nubia around 350 C.E. Extended from modern-day Ethiopia to the Red Sea Axum were descendents of African farmers and Jewish traders  very unique culture Extremely good location for trade: Red Sea and city of Axum By 400 C.E., the kingdom controlled trade connecting Africa, India, the Mediterranean world
    •  Enslaved people Ivory, animal hides, gold, for iron, spices, precious stones, cotton Ideas also spread:  The king of Axum made Christianity the official religion in the 300s. Eventually Axum became isolated from the rest of the kingdoms around it. Why? Axum eventually declined due to this isolation
    •  People in the region of Axum kept Christianity, and were united Geographic isolation (mountains) helped them stay protected and helped develop a very unique culture  Underground churches still in Ethiopia today built into solid rock Did keep ties with Holy Land: pilgrimages to Jerusalem, Christians in Egypt, still a Christian region today
    •  Many smaller kingdoms grew on the East Coast of Africa, trading with the rest of the Eastern Hemisphere (Arabia, Persia, China, India…) Swahili developed as a need for communication arose between Africans and people from Arabia “Swahili”  “of the coast”
    •  Muslim traders brought Islam to the East African coast, and many wealthier and more powerful people were Muslim. The majority of the people kept traditional religious beliefs Slavery: Muslim traders exported enslaved people who had been kidnapped to Arabia, Persia and Iraq. Wealthy people bought slaves for domestic work This was NOT like the slave trade into the Americas in the 1700s: only about 1,000 people were sold each year during this time
    •  Gold and Ivory trade helped people in southeast Africa grow wealthy and establish a big city around 1000 C.E. : Great Zimbabwe. It depended on the gold trade Powerful city: economic, political and religious center of its time 1450 C.E., it was abandoned
    •  Mutapa:  A man named Mutota left Great Zimbabwe to find more salt, and founded a new city: Mutapa  Controlled most of Zimbabwe  Rich in gold, forced conquered people to mine for it  In the 1500s, Portugal tried to take the empire over, but failed.  Then Portugal tried to interfere with the politics to gain control  signals increasing European interference in Africa