East Asia • China • Japan • Mongolia• North Korea• South Korea • Taiwan
A Survey of the Region• East Asia stretches from western China to the east coast of Japan - also includes Mongolia, Taiwan, North Korea, South Korea• Landscape has high mountains, deserts, cold climate, Pacific waters• Rugged terrain created by tectonic plates colliding - natural barriers limit human movement, increase isolation
Landforms: Mountains and Plateaus• Mountain Ranges of the Region• High mountains limited China’s contact with rest of Asia - world’s highest mountains located on western edge of region, the Himalayas
Did you know?• The Himalaya Mountains are home to the tallest mountains in the world!• All of the 8,000ers (mountains over 8,000 meters tall, about 26,000 feet or 5 miles) can be found exclusively in the Himalayas!• Such mountains include Mount Everest and K2
Landforms: Mountains and Plateaus• Other mountain ranges include theKunlun Mountains in western China andthe Qinling Shandi Mountains dividenorthern China from the south• Mountainous area includes somesparsely populated basins, deserts - includes Plateau of Tibet (Xizang Plateau)
Landforms: Deserts• Gobi Desert stretches from northwest China into Mongolia - covers 500,000 square miles
Did you know?• The Gobi Desert is a prime area for dinosaur fossils!
Landforms: Rivers• The Chang Jiang - Chang Jiang (Yangtze River)— longest river in Asia and 3rd longest in the world! - flows 3,900 miles from Xizang (Tibet) to East China Sea - major trade route; floods often causing great damage• The Huang He - Huang He (Yellow River)— northern China river - 3,000 miles long, 2nd longest in Asia and 6th in the world - empties into Yellow Sea, named for yellow silt the river carries
Yellow River Yangtze River
Landforms: Peninsulas • Eastern coast of China has Korean several peninsulas – Shandong, Leizhou, and Macao Peninsulas • China’s long coastline has Shandong several major port cities like Shanghai • Korean Peninsula is onLeizhou eastern border of China – contains independent nations of North Korea and South
Landforms: Islands• Japan is a small island nation with large economic power.• Ryukyu Islands are considered part of Japan.• Chinese islands include Hainan and part of Hong Mr. Miyagi was from Kong. Okinawa in the Ryukyu Islands! The• Taiwan once belonged to Karate Kid II takes mainland China, which still place in Okinawa. claims it today.
Japan Ryukyu IslandsHainan Taiwan
Did you know?• During WWII some small, isolated, primitive East Asian islanders would often see airplanes flying by.• Amazed by these “flying beasts” they actually thought they were Gods or sent by the Gods.• They would even build airplanes and runways out of straw to worship them and possibly attract more to their islands.• They are known as “Cargo Cults” and actually still exist today!!!
History ofEast Asia
Shared Cultural Traditions• China acts as a cultural hearth for East Asia. Most of the region’s nations have, at one time, been controlled by China or influenced greatly by its culture.
China• China is the world’s most populous country.• China has been the dominant culture of East Asia since ancient times.• It is the oldest continuous civilization; a settled society for over 4,000 years
Banpo Village• Banpo Village is around 6,000 years old!
China• Older Chinese civilizations are ruled by dynasties – series of family rulers• Some significant dynasties were the Shang (first ever dynasty) followed by the Zhou, Qin and Han.• These dynasties ruled for thousands of years. The last of them ended rule in 1911.
Fall of Ancient China• Following the Zhou Dynasty, China collapsed and was constantly at war with one another.• China became a land of troubles.• Long-held Chinese values —social order, harmony among people, and respect for leaders—were forgotten.
Confucius• Some thinkers, however, tried to find ways to restore these values.• One of the most important of these thinkers was Confucius. He became a well- educated man who thought deeply about the troubles of China.
Confucius• He believed that a time of peace could return if the people would work at five basic relationships: – ruler and subject – father and son – husband and wife – older and younger brothers – friend and friend• The family relationships, he thought, were the most important.• Respect for parents and ancestors.
Confucius say… famous Confucius quotes• Everything has its beauty but not everyone sees it.• It does not matter how slowly you go so long as you do not stop.• Our greatest glory is not in never falling, but in getting up every time we do.• When anger rises, think of the consequences.• Have no friends not equal to yourself.
Not so famous Confucius quotes• If you drive like hell, you are bound to get there quickly.• If you run behind a car you will get exhausted.• Man who stands on toilet is high on pot.• Man who throw cat out car window, makes kitty litter.
A new Ruler• A new ruler arose to put an end to the troubles of the warring states period in China.• At 13, he became king of a part of China called Qin (Chin),and he brought the different parts of China together.• He took a new name— Shi Huangdi, which means “First Emperor.”
Shi Huangdi• Shi Huangdi took steps to bring all parts of his empire together.• He ordered the peasants to build a network of roads that linked one corner to another. The network stretched for over 4,000 miles and trade grew.• He also set standards for writing, law, money, and weights and measures that were to be followed throughout the empire.
The Great Wall• Perhaps Shi Haungdi’s most famous achievement was the building of the Great Wall of China.• He ordered the wall to be built to keep out foreign invaders such as the Mongolians.• When completed, the wall stretched for over 1,400 miles across China.
Did you know?• The Great Wall of China is the only manmade object you can see from space!• It has been expanded many times over the years and is currently over 5,500 miles long.• Over 1 million people are buried within the wall.
Shi Haungdi’s Tomb• Shi Haungdi had a giant mausoleum created while he was still alive.• The mausoleum consists of Shi Haungdi’s tomb surrounded by rivers of mercury and a terracotta army “standing guard”.• In the Terracotta Army there were over 8,000 soldiers, 130 chariots with 520 horses and 150 cavalry horses.
Did you know?• For many years China was isolated from Europe until Italian explorer Marco Polo arrived in the 1200s.• In his travels, Marco Polo visited the court of Kublai Khan.• He saw many great things like the Great Wall of China and brought home Chinese discoveries including spices, fireworks, eye glasses, ice cream, noodles, glass and silk.
Marco Polo• Marco Polo wrote about his adventures and travels. Many people were intrigued by his tales. He inspired later explorers such as Christopher Columbus who sought to find a sea route to Asia. However, many people also did not believe him.• On his deathbed, a priest was summoned and asked Marco Polo if he would like confess and take back any of the stories or tales and admit them as a lie.• Marco Polo’s response was “I did not tell you half of what I saw.”
Ancient China• Chinese Inventions• Paper, printing, gunpowder, compass, porcelain, silk cloth
European Power and Influence• Now interested in China, European powers seek to access profitable Chinese markets.• In the 1800’s, treaties force a weak China to give Europeans privileges - spheres of influence — territory awarded to European nations & Japan• The Chinese, angered over outside control leads to the 1900 Boxer Rebellion - Chinese militants kill Europeans, Chinese Christians and take back China
China Establishes Identity• The 1900’s will see revolution and change in China.• The Nationalists Party takes control in 1912.• However, in 1949, the Chinese Communist Party fights and defeats the Nationalists.• Mao Zedong rules the newly established People’s Republic of China while the Nationalist flee to Taiwan.
Genghis Khan’s Empire• Mongols are nomadic herders until Genghis Khan unites the tribes of Mongolia and conquers Central Asia• Genghis Khan is a great warrior and military leader.• He greatly expands the Mongolian Empire to include China and large portions of Russia• Genghis Khan dies in 1227; his successors continue to expand empire to reach all the way to Eastern Europe and the Middle East!
The Height of the Mongolian Empire
What if Genghis Khan lived today?
History of Mongolia• The Mongolian Empire breaks up in 1300s after being defeated by Russian and Chinese• China gains control of Mongolia in 1600s – Mongolians achieve independence in 1911• Therefore, Mongolia has ruled, and has been ruled by China• Mongolia becomes Communist in 1924 – remains Communist until 1989 fall of USSR• Mongolia now moving toward democracy
History of Taiwan• Ancient peoples of China immigrate to the island of Taiwan.• Even today, the population of Taiwan is almost exclusively Chinese.• Taiwan sees many different rulers including China, Malaysia, Polynesians and Japan.• In 1949, when the Communist take over China, the Nationalists flee to Taiwan and establish the Republic of China (official name).• China does not recognize this and still claims Taiwan as part of the People’s Republic of China.
Ancient Korea• Manchurians, Chinese migrate to area• China conquers northern peninsula around 100 B.C. – Korea is often invaded by China, Japan• Koreans regain control but• Japan conquers Korea in 1910, rules until WWII defeat in 1945
The Koreas• Following WWII, the Korean peninsula is divided into two separate countries.• They make their border along the 38th Parallel line.• North Korea is a Communist and controlled by the USSR• South Korea is a democracy and influenced by the U.S.
The Korean War• In 1950, North Korean troops invade South Korea, begin Korean War• North Korea us supported by the USSR and the People’s Republic of China• South Korea is backed by the U.S. and the United Nations.• In 1953, a treaty is signed and ends the war.• The war does not have a clear cut winner as not much territory is gained or lost.• The border at the 38th Parallel is restored.
The Forgotten War
A Divided Peninsula• Although a treaty was signed, tensions remain high even to this day.• The Koreas create a 2.5 mile wide buffer zone along the 38th Parallel between the two countries. (De- Militarized Zone)• The border is heavily guarded and danger of war always looms as there are 2 million troops are stationed on each side.• Some talks of reunification have begun, but the future is uncertain.
38th Parallel – De-militarized Zone (DMZ)
Japan• Japan has an ancient culture and traditions.• Japan is the economic giant of East Asia.
Ancient Japan• First people came from South Pacific, or from Siberia, Korea• 1,500 years ago agriculture, metalworking widely practiced• Japan is ruled by many clans, dominant leaders called themselves emperors• Samurai—“one who guards”; hired soldiers serve landowners, chiefs
Did You Know?• Seppuku (stomach cutting) was a right designated for samurai.• Part of the samurai bushido honor code, seppuku is a ritual suicide.• It was either used voluntarily by samurai to die with honor rather than fall into the hands of their enemies (and likely suffer torture), or as a form of capital punishment for samurai who had committed serious offenses, or performed for other reasons that had brought shame to them.
Ancient Japan• Near 1200, the emperor creates shogun position• Shogun—general of emperor’s army with military dictator powers – controls officials, judges, armies; picks governors• During Shogun rule, the Japanese fight off Mongol invasions• Shoguns rule for 700 years until Japan is modernized
An Emerging World Power• By the early 20th century, Japan is a major power• Expanding empire puts Japan’s interests in conflict with the U.S.• - Japan attacks Pearl Harbor, Hawaii, naval base December 7, 1941• - attack brings U.S. into WWII; Japan defeated, surrenders in 1945
Did you know?• Today we associate the term “Kamikaze” the Japanese suicide pilots during WWII.• Kamikaze is actually an ancient term used to describe typhoons.• It literally means “divine wind”• In 1274 and again in 1281, the Mongols assembled a massive navy to attack and invade Japan.• Both attempts were unsuccessful due to the Mongol navy being destroyed by a typhoon.• The Japanese called this “kamikaze” because they believed god sent the typhoon to protect Japan.• In WWII, Japanese suicide pilots again took on this name for they felt they were the “divine wind” that would again protect Japan
The Economy of Japan• Post-war economic boom makes Japan’s economy second in size to U.S.• Because the island country of Japan has limited natural resources, they import resources to manufacture products for export• - exports autos, electronics, computers
Cultural Geographyof East Asia
Cultural Geography of East Asia• INTERESTING FACTS – More people speak Mandarin Chinese than any other language worldwide (native speakers) – One in every FIVE people in the world today is Chinese – The Japanese have a larger GNP per capita than the US
Cultural Geography of East Asia• Population – 1.5 billion – concentrations on coasts & rivers – one child policy in China lowers growth rate - but numbers remain large – Japan is at zero population growth
Population in China• One-fifth of world’s people live in China – population is about 1.3 billion• Over 30 Chinese cities have more than a million people• Many of China’s 22 provinces are bigger than most countries – Henan province has 93 million, more than Great Britain• 70% of people live in 12 eastern provinces – The west remains largely rural, 6% of nation’s people live on 55% of its land
Economy in China• China is largely a rural society.• Most population is concentrated along rivers and the coasts.• Despite their large population, China is agriculturally self-sufficient.• 60% of their workers work on farms. – river valleys have rich soil; produce rice, corn, wheat and sweet potatoes
Economy in China• China also has a large industrial economy.• This industry includes coal mining, iron, oil and transportation.• Manufacturing is also extremely big. – Machinery and consumer products such as textiles
Religion in China• Confucianism based on teachings by Confucius• Believed orderly, educated society could be achieved if people have respect for past, ancestors – children obey parents; parents obey government, emperor• Taoism—from Tao-te Ching book of Lao-tzu teachings – preserve, restore harmony in individual, universe
Buddhism• Indian Buddhism grows in China, influenced by Confucianism, Taoism• Siddhartha Gautama (Buddha) = Founder• Promotes living the correct way in order to reach nirvana, an enlightened spiritual state.• Missionaries spread teachings to SE Asia, China, Japan, and Korea.
Shaolin Monks• Shaolin monks are Buddhist monks who practice Shaolin Kung Fu along with their religious beliefs.• The practice goes back all the way to 450 AD.• Many martial arts such as karate and kempo have Shaolin Kung Fu roots.
Population of Japan• 126 million people live in Japan• 75% of the people live in cities; 60% live on about 3% of land• Urbanization and overcrowding has become an issue
Culture and Influences of Japan• Chinese influence early language, religion, art, music, government.• Since arrival of Americans mid 1800’s and post WWII, Japan has become increasingly influenced by western culture.• Popular sports are baseball, golf, sumo wrestling, soccer, tennis• Most clothes are Western influenced; traditional clothes for special occasions only
The Last Samurai• The movie, The Last Samurai, takes place in the 1800’s during Japanese restoration period in which Japan went through enormous political and social restructuring.• Tom Cruise plays Nathan Algren, an American hired to train the new Japanese army and put down the samurai rebellion.• It is only until he is captured by the samurai, that he realizes that he loves what he has been training to destroy…
Culture and Influences of Japan• Western music is popular, including rock, pop, classical, jazz – younger Japanese form rock bands, heavy metal is very popular• Japan balances its own traditional styles with Western influences
Education in Japan• Highly structured educational system• - students in school six days a week; six weeks of summer vacation• - six years of elementary, three of junior high, three of high school• Japan has more than 1,000 universities and technical schools• University of Tokyo is one of the most prestigious universities in the world and is one of the leading schools in technology research.
The Economy of Japan• Post-war economic boom makes Japan’s economy second in size to U.S.• Because the island country of Japan has limited natural resources, they must import resources to manufacture products for export• - exports autos, electronics, computers
Chinese Influences• Like most countries in East Asia, Korea adopts many philosophical, religious ideas from China – Confucian, Buddhist influences
Korean Influences• Communism molds North Korean culture• South Korea is influenced by Western culture• North Korean government only allows Communist or folk art• South Korean artists have more freedom of expression
Culture of Taiwan• Population and culture is almost exclusively Chinese – capital city of Taipei has Buddhist temples, Chinese art museums• Well-educated population: many universities, 30 daily newspapers• Most speak official language of Northern Chinese (Mandarin)• People combine a number of religious, ethical beliefs – 90% practice blend of Buddhism, Confucianism, Taoism
Economy of Taiwan• Successful economy: few resources but trained, motivated workers• Prosperity based on manufacturing industries and trade• Taiwan, Singapore, South Korea are economic tigers —nations with: – cheap labor, high technology, aggressive exports
Western Influence in Taiwan• Baseball is popular in Taiwan, other parts of Asia (especially Japan)• Little League baseball becomes popular after WWII – in 1974, U.S. bans foreign teams from Little League World Series – ban is due, in part, to Tawian’s dominance of Series in early 1970s – Taiwan restored to competition in 1976
Mongolian Culture• Mongolia has ruled, and been ruled by, China – Mongols adopt many aspects of Chinese culture – wrestling, archery, horse racing rooted in ancient way of life
Life and Economy in Mongolia• Many people herd, manage livestock (sheep, goats, camels, horses, cattle) – nomadic herding was economic base for centuries – cashmere industry uses soft wool of local goats – most live on farms and ranches with small villages in center
Famous East Asian People
Today’sIssues inEast Asia
Ring of Fire• The islands of Japan form part of a geologically active area called the Ring of Fire.• Because of its location, Japan has faced disastrous earthquakes, volcanic eruptions, and tsunamis.• Many Japanese cities are threatened by earthquakes – Japan is on the Ring of Fire— chain of volcanoes around Pacific Rim
Japan Suffers• An average of 1,000 earthquakes occur in Japan each year – most are mild, but some cause many deaths, great destruction• 1923 Great Kanto earthquake and its fires killed 140,000 people – left Tokyo in ruins, damaged or destroyed 700,000 homes• Underwater earthquakes move ocean floor; can create tsunami – huge wave of great destructive power that can reach over 100 feet
March 11 , 2011th• On March 11, 2011 an 8.9 magnitude earthquake struck Japan.• The earthquake and subsequent tsunami has caused vast amounts of damage.• Nearly 16,000 people died as a result.
Free Tibet!!!• In the early parts of the 20th century, China started to invade parts of the country of Tibet.• This put China and Tibet into conflict with one another.• In 1959, Tibet tries to fight Chinese but the Dalai Lama (spiritual and government leader) was forced to flee into India.• Since 1959, Tibet has been under Chinese control and the Dalai Lama forced to remain in exile.• Many protests have occurred since to free Tibet from Chinese rule.
Seven Years in Tibet• The book and movie, Seven Years in Tibet, is about a real life Austrian mountaineer, Heinrich Harrar and his adventures to Tibet during WWII and after (1944-1951) where he meets the young Dalai Lama.• Harrar becomes close friends and personal tutor to the Dalai Lama until the Chinese invasion in the 1950’s.• The 1997 movie stars
Overpopulation in East Asia• Overpopulation in East Asia causes many problems including: – poor health, literacy, economic statistics – widespread poverty, short life expectancy• In the 1950’s many women marry young and have several children – Fertility rate in China: women average over 6 children
Mommy, I want to go to the water park!
Family Planning• Countries initiate aggressive family planning programs• These programs help level, then lower birth rates • by 2000, region’s women marry later, average 2.5 children• China’s government implements the “one child policy”.– Chinese birth rate is lowered to 12 births per 1,000.– At a 1% growth rate in China, that still equals to 13 million people each year.
Family Planning• Drop in birth rate and increased industrialization - What do you lead to fast economic growth – life expectancy, literary rates think? are now among world’s highest• Many people in China; however, do not like family - Is this a planning – feel China’s one-child-per- violation of family policy compromises rights Human Rights?
Tensions Between North and South Korea• At a 2000 summit, leaders of North and South Korea declare intent to reduce tensions and reunite – plan to clear mines, rebuild a rail link – allow cross-border visits• At the 2000 Summer Olympics, two Koreas even march under single flag.• The plans of reunification, however, seems to be a false reality…
North Korea becomes a Nuclear Power• In 2006, North Korea’s government reported that it had successfully conducted its first nuclear test.• In 2009, another nuclear weapons test was confirmed.• North Korea now says it has become a “full fledged nuclear power”.• It is speculated that North Korea has six nuclear weapons but the increase in their nuclear program
2010 – A Year of Tension in the Koreas• In 2010, several instances involving North and South Korea made world headlines.• On March 10th, a South Korean vessel was allegedly sunk by a North Korean torpedo. – North Korea claimed the vessel crossed into their waters.• Later that year, North Korea fired artillery at an island in South Korea.• South Korea returned fire as well.• Very few people died but South Korean Director of Operations claimed that “there may be a considerable number of North Korean casualties,“ if action continues.
Response to Bombardment • As a response to the bombardment of South Korea, the United States and South Korea have increased military training and maneuvers in the region while tension remains high.
January 24 , 2013 th• North Korea said that it plans to carry out a new nuclear test and more long-range rocket launches, all of which it said are a part of a new phase of confrontation with the United States.• North Korea’s National Defense Commission said the move would feed into an "upcoming all-out action" that would target the United States, "the sworn enemy of the Korean people."
What should be done?• Should North Korea be allowed to continue their plans to form nuclear weapons?• Do they pose a threat to us or our allies?• Should force be used if North Korea does not comply?• What about China?• Will this lead to WWIII?
Red Dawn• The 2012 movie re-make of Red Dawn features a possible scenario in which the United States is attacked and invaded by an aggressive North Korea.• It is up to a group of young people to rally and defend their hometown from the invasion.• The original film from 1984 featured an invasion of the United States by the USSR.