History andGovernment of theUnited States• The United States is a “nation of immigrants,” settled by people from all over the world.• The United States is the most diverse and highly industrialized and urbanized nation in the world.
Creating a NationRoom to Move• The United States: - occupies two-fifths of North America - world’s fourth largest country in land area, third in population• Rich resources and moderate climate have always attracted immigrants - constant migration—movement—of peoples within the country
Creating a NationMany Peoples Settle the Land• Asian nomads crossed the Bering Strait (Beringia) and into the Americas• By 11,000 B.C. they had spread out, develop different cultures• Spaniards are first Europeans to arrive in the “New World”… (Vikings?) - St. Augustine (Florida) is oldest permanent European settlement (1565)• In the early 1600s French settlers arrive - settle northern Atlantic Coast along St. Lawrence River (Canada) - interested in fisheries and fur trade
Early explorations were conducted by Ponce de Leon. Famous for being the first continuously occupied settlement in the current United States. The colony was founded 42 years before Jamestown and 55 years before the Pilgrims landed at Plymouth Rock.
Fort Caroline was a colony established by French explorer Jean Ribault in Jacksonville in 1562, making it older than the colony of St. Augustine. Feeling the French had trespassed on Spanish territory and posed a threat to their fleets, the experienced Admiral Pedro Menendez de Aviles was sent by Spain to destroy the French colony. Following the destruction of Fort Caroline, Pedro Menendez founded the colony of St. Augustine and became the first governor of Florida in 1565.
Creating a NationMany Peoples Settle the Land• About the same time English settlers land - settle Atlantic Coast from present- day Maine to Georgia - first permanent English settlement Jamestown, Virginia (1607)• Displace Native Americans, bring African slaves to work plantations• Columbian Exchange between Old, New Worlds: plants, animals, disease
At the time of the Columbian Exchange the estimated population of North and South America was at least 40 million. Due to imported pathogens, in a few centuries these populations fell to just a few million. This demographic catastrophe had some obvious ramifications, such as paving the way for easy conquest of the Americas by European settlers.
The Virginia Company was given approval by King James to establish a colony in the New World. Life in Jamestown was pretty rough. There was constant threat of attack from the natives, a lack of drinkable water and very harsh winters, all of which nearly destroyed the colony. 80 % of the 214 settlers died within the first year.
Known for a being a troublemaker, John Smith was supposed to be executed upon arrival to the colony. Once arrived, sealed orders from the king were opened by the captain and to his dismay, John Smith was to be one of the appointed leaders for the colony.
While out foraging for food, Captain John Smith was captured by the native Powhatan tribe. According to Smith’s account, he was to be executed but the chief’s own daughter, Pocahontas, threw herself across his body to protect him. (1607)
John Smith was 28 years old at the time of his capture while Pocahontas was roughly 10-11 years old. A relationship developing between the two is highly doubtful. Smith would go back to England soon after the encounter and would not return to the New World for another 6 years.
Control of America French and English fight over trade and territory in North America• This conflict is commonly known as the French and Indian War fought between the French and English.• The French had smaller colonies and trading posts throughout North America while the British had larger, successful colonies.• The French allied themselves with the Native Americans whom they had good relations with.• The British settlers (Americans) fought the along side the British against the French.• English gain control of everything east of
Control of America Despite the victory over the French, Britain is in severe debt. They then seek ways of revenue to pay off the debt. Britain starts severely taxing it’s American colonies. This angers the colonists and they revolt.
Creating a Nation• 13 colonies join together and declare independence on July 4 th, 1776• The Revolutionary War lasts from 1775-1783• Following the colonists victory , the United States is formed.
The Nation Grows• 1803 Louisiana Purchase from France doubles size of U.S. - includes plains between Mississippi and Rockies
Creating a NationEstablishing and Maintaining the Union• In early 1800s Western European immigrants arrive in large numbers - settle in Northeast industrial cities, Midwest farmlands• Sectionalism—loyalty to region over nation—grows, creates tension - industrial North versus agricultural South and its slave labor - Civil War fought between North and South from 1861 to 1865
Westward Movement• Pioneers venture west over rugged terrain during mid- to late 1800s - Oregon Trail—2,000 miles, 6 months over prairie, desert, mountains• Government moved Native Americans off land by treaty, force• Transcontinental railroad completed 1869 - “golden spike” in Promontory, Utah marked completion - U.S. now linked from coast to coast
An Industrial and Urban Society• Frontier—free, open land between the Mississippi and the Pacific - fully settled with about 17 million people by 1890s
An Industrial and Urban SocietyIndustrialization and Urbanization• 14 million European immigrants enter U.S. between 1860 and 1900 - go west or to urban centers like New York, Boston, Cleveland, Detroit, Chicago• Rather than farm, many work in textile, steel, oil, food processing
World Power and Domestic ChangeLooking Beyond Its Borders• U.S. avoided involvement in foreign affairs during its growth period, isolationism - had own resources, food, factories; separated from conflicts by oceans• This changes after Great Depression and being involved in two World Wars• Following WWII, United States has a very strong economy and becomes a super power.
Korean War Vietnam War Civil Rights Movement Feminist Movement 9/11/01 War on Terrorism