Chapter 30: The Post War WorldChapter 30: The Post War Worldand Cold War, 1945-Presentand Cold War, 1945-PresentThe United States and the SovietThe United States and the SovietUnion vie for superiority, and bothUnion vie for superiority, and bothcountries extend their control overcountries extend their control overother nations.other nations.
Cold War Timeline, 1946-1980Cold War Timeline, 1946-1980
33.1 Cold War:33.1 Cold War:Superpowers Face OffSuperpowers Face OffThe opposing economic and politicalThe opposing economic and politicalphilosophies of the United States andphilosophies of the United States andthe Soviet Union lead to globalthe Soviet Union lead to globalcompetition.competition.
A Postwar PlanA Postwar PlanYalta and Potsdam Conferences:Yalta and Potsdam Conferences:A Postwar PlanA Postwar PlanIn February 1945, British,In February 1945, British,American, and Soviet leadersAmerican, and Soviet leadersmeet at Yalta, a second meetingmeet at Yalta, a second meetingwould take place months later atwould take place months later atPotsdamPotsdamEurope would be split, each zoneEurope would be split, each zonewould be occupied by the soldierswould be occupied by the soldiersof one of the main Allied powers.of one of the main Allied powers.They also agreed that GermanyThey also agreed that Germanywould have to repay the Sovietwould have to repay the SovietUnion for damage and loss of life.Union for damage and loss of life.Soviet leader Joseph Stalin, inSoviet leader Joseph Stalin, inturn, promised free elections inturn, promised free elections inEastern Europe.Eastern Europe.
Churchill, Roosevelt, and Stalin at the Yalta Conference
Churchill, Truman, and Stalin at the Potsdam Conference
Allies Become EnemiesAllies Become EnemiesCreation of the United NationsCreation of the United NationsJune 1945, 50 nations form theJune 1945, 50 nations form the UnitedUnitedNationsNations—an international organization—an international organizationAll members are represented in the GeneralAll members are represented in the GeneralAssembly; 11 nations are on the SecurityAssembly; 11 nations are on the SecurityCouncilCouncilFive permanent members have SecurityFive permanent members have SecurityCouncil veto powerCouncil veto power
Allies Become EnemiesAllies Become EnemiesDiffering U.S. and Soviet GoalsDiffering U.S. and Soviet GoalsU.S. and Soviets split sharply after WWII endsU.S. and Soviets split sharply after WWII endsU.S. is world’s richest and most powerfulU.S. is world’s richest and most powerfulcountry after WWIIcountry after WWIISoviets still recovering from high warSoviets still recovering from high warcasualties and had many destroyed citiescasualties and had many destroyed cities
Eastern Europe’s Iron CurtainEastern Europe’s Iron CurtainSoviets Build a BufferSoviets Build a BufferSoviets control Eastern European countriesSoviets control Eastern European countriesafter World War IIafter World War IIStalin installs Communist governments inStalin installs Communist governments inseveral countriesseveral countriesTruman urges free elections; Stalin refuses toTruman urges free elections; Stalin refuses toallow free electionsallow free electionsIn 1946, Stalin says capitalism andIn 1946, Stalin says capitalism andcommunism cannot co-existcommunism cannot co-exist
Eastern Europe’s Iron CurtainEastern Europe’s Iron CurtainAn Iron Curtain Divides East and WestAn Iron Curtain Divides East and WestGermany is divided; East Germany isGermany is divided; East Germany isCommunist, West Germany democraticCommunist, West Germany democraticIron CurtainIron Curtain—Winston Churchill’s name for—Winston Churchill’s name forthe division of Europethe division of Europe
The nations on theeastern side of the“Iron Curtain” wereknown as the EasternBloc
United States Tries to Contain SovietsUnited States Tries to Contain SovietsContainmentContainmentContainmentContainment—U.S. plan to stop the spread—U.S. plan to stop the spreadof communismof communismThe Truman DoctrineThe Truman DoctrineTruman DoctrineTruman Doctrine—U.S. supports countries—U.S. supports countriesthat reject communismthat reject communismCongress approves Truman’s request for aidCongress approves Truman’s request for aidto Greece and Turkeyto Greece and Turkey
United States Tries to Contain SovietsUnited States Tries to Contain SovietsThe Marshall PlanThe Marshall PlanMuch of Western Europe lay in ruins afterMuch of Western Europe lay in ruins afterWorld War IIWorld War IIMarshall PlanMarshall Plan—U.S. program of assisting—U.S. program of assistingWestern European countriesWestern European countriesCongress approves plan after CommunistCongress approves plan after Communisttakeover of Czechoslovakiatakeover of Czechoslovakia
Germany is SplitGermany is SplitFollowing WWII, GermanyFollowing WWII, Germanyis split into two differentis split into two differentcountries.countries.East Germany is influencedEast Germany is influencedby the USSR and theby the USSR and thegovernment is communist.government is communist.West Germany isWest Germany isinfluenced by the US,influenced by the US,France and the UK andFrance and the UK andtheir government is atheir government is ademocracy.democracy.
The Berlin WallThe Berlin WallNot only is theNot only is thecountry split, thecountry split, thecapital of Berlin iscapital of Berlin issplit as well.split as well.East GermanyEast Germanybuilds a wall tobuilds a wall tomaintain themaintain theseparationseparationbetween the twobetween the twoand keeps itsand keeps itscitizens confinedcitizens confinedwithin.within.Crossing over isCrossing over isstrictly forbidden.strictly forbidden.
The Berlin WallThe Berlin Wall
Fence along the East/West Border in Germany
Preserved section of the border betweenEast Germany and West Germany calledthe "Little Berlin Wall" at Mödlareuth
Divisions of GermanyDivisions of Germany
Divisions of BerlinDivisions of Berlin
United States Tries to Contain SovietsUnited States Tries to Contain SovietsBlockade of Berlin and The Berlin AirliftBlockade of Berlin and The Berlin AirliftIn 1948, U.S., Britain, and France withdraw forcesIn 1948, U.S., Britain, and France withdraw forcesfrom West Germanyfrom West GermanyTheir former occupation zones form one countryTheir former occupation zones form one countrySoviets oppose this, stop land and water traffic intoSoviets oppose this, stop land and water traffic intoWest BerlinWest BerlinWest Berlin, located in Soviet occupation zone, facesWest Berlin, located in Soviet occupation zone, facesstarvationstarvationU.S. and Britain fly in supplies for 11 months until theU.S. and Britain fly in supplies for 11 months until theblockade endsblockade ends
Routes of Berlin AirliftRoutes of Berlin Airlift
The Cold War Divides the WorldThe Cold War Divides the WorldThe Cold WarThe Cold WarCold-WarCold-War—struggle of U.S. and Soviet Union using—struggle of U.S. and Soviet Union usingmeans short of warmeans short of warSuperpowers Form Rival AlliancesSuperpowers Form Rival AlliancesIn 1949, U.S., Canada, and West European countriesIn 1949, U.S., Canada, and West European countriesform NATOform NATONATONATO—North Atlantic Treaty Organization—is a—North Atlantic Treaty Organization—is adefensive military alliancedefensive military allianceIn 1955, Soviets and Eastern nations sign theIn 1955, Soviets and Eastern nations sign theWarsaw PactWarsaw Pact allianceallianceIn 1961, Soviets build the Berlin Wall to separate EastIn 1961, Soviets build the Berlin Wall to separate Eastand West Berlinand West Berlin
NATOWarsaw PactandNon-aligned nations
Warsaw PactWarsaw PactNationsNationsNote: FederalNote: FederalPeople’sPeople’sRepublic ofRepublic ofYugoslavia isYugoslavia isforced out of theforced out of theWarsaw Pact inWarsaw Pact in19481948
The Cold War Divides the WorldThe Cold War Divides the WorldThe Threat of Nuclear WarThe Threat of Nuclear WarSoviet Union explodes its first atomic bomb inSoviet Union explodes its first atomic bomb in19491949U.S. and Soviet Union both develop the moreU.S. and Soviet Union both develop the morepowerful hydrogen bombpowerful hydrogen bombBrinkmanshipBrinkmanship—policy of willingness to go to—policy of willingness to go tothe edge of warthe edge of warIncreasing tensions lead to military buildup byIncreasing tensions lead to military buildup byU.S. and the SovietsU.S. and the Soviets
Nuclear Arms RaceNuclear Arms RaceDuring the Cold War, both countriesDuring the Cold War, both countriesvie for nuclear superiority andvie for nuclear superiority andincrease their arsenals.increase their arsenals.The idea was that by building moreThe idea was that by building moreand more bombs; eventually, oneand more bombs; eventually, oneside would stand down.side would stand down.This, actually, will never happen.This, actually, will never happen.While it is a little unclear about whoWhile it is a little unclear about whowas bigger or stronger, it iswas bigger or stronger, it isspeculated that the U.S. had manyspeculated that the U.S. had manymore bombs, while the Soviets hadmore bombs, while the Soviets hadmore destructive ones such as themore destructive ones such as theTsar (Czar) Bomba.Tsar (Czar) Bomba.
Military parades in Red SquareMilitary parades in Red Square
H Bomb TestsH Bomb Tests
Tsar Bomba (King Bomb)Tsar Bomba (King Bomb)
The Space RaceThe Space RaceNot only was the ColdNot only was the ColdWar a race to increaseWar a race to increasemilitary prowess, it wasmilitary prowess, it wasalso a race foralso a race fortechnological prowess.technological prowess.This included the raceThis included the raceto be the first countryto be the first countryinto space.into space.The Soviets were firstThe Soviets were firstto send the satelliteto send the satelliteknown as Sputnik intoknown as Sputnik intospace (1957).space (1957).
A replica of Sputnik 1
The Space RaceThe Space RaceThe Soviets bested theThe Soviets bested theUnited States once againUnited States once againwhen they sent Sovietwhen they sent Sovietcosmonaut Yuri Gagarin ascosmonaut Yuri Gagarin asfirst human in space on Aprilfirst human in space on April12, 1961.12, 1961.The U.S. would have beenThe U.S. would have beenthe first, but instead we sent athe first, but instead we sent amonkey on January 31, 1961.monkey on January 31, 1961.
The Cold War Divides the WorldThe Cold War Divides the WorldThe Cold War in the SkiesThe Cold War in the SkiesIn 1960, Soviets shoot down American spyIn 1960, Soviets shoot down American spyplane (a U-2), increasing tensionsplane (a U-2), increasing tensionsU-2 spy plane similar to the one shot downover the U.S.S.R.
Francis Gary Powers with a model of a U-2 spy plane.
Wreckage of Gary Powers’ U-2
33.2 Communists Take Power in China33.2 Communists Take Power in ChinaAfter World War II, ChineseAfter World War II, ChineseCommunists defeat Nationalist forcesCommunists defeat Nationalist forcesand two separate Chinas emerge.and two separate Chinas emerge.
Communists vs. NationalistsCommunists vs. NationalistsWorld War II in ChinaWorld War II in ChinaMao ZedongMao Zedong—leads Chinese Communists—leads Chinese Communistsagainst Japanese invadersagainst Japanese invadersJiang JieshiJiang Jieshi (a.k.a.(a.k.a. Chiang Kai-shekChiang Kai-shek)—)—leads of Chinese Nationalists in World War IIleads of Chinese Nationalists in World War IINationalist and Communist Chinese resumeNationalist and Communist Chinese resumecivil war after WWII endscivil war after WWII ends
Communists vs. NationalistsCommunists vs. NationalistsMao Zedong Jiang Jieshi (a.k.a. ChiangKai-shek)
Communists vs. NationalistsCommunists vs. NationalistsCivil War ResumesCivil War ResumesEconomic problems cause Nationalist soldiersEconomic problems cause Nationalist soldiersto desert to Communiststo desert to CommunistsMao’s troops take control of China’s majorMao’s troops take control of China’s majorcitiescitiesIn 1949, People’s Republic of China isIn 1949, People’s Republic of China iscreatedcreatedNationalists flee to TaiwanNationalists flee to Taiwan
The Two Chinas Affect the Cold WarThe Two Chinas Affect the Cold WarThe Superpowers ReactThe Superpowers ReactU.S. supports Nationalist state in Taiwan,U.S. supports Nationalist state in Taiwan,called Republic of Chinacalled Republic of ChinaSoviets and China agree to help each other inSoviets and China agree to help each other inevent of attackevent of attackU.S. tries to stop Soviet expansion andU.S. tries to stop Soviet expansion andspread of communism in Chinaspread of communism in China
The Two Chinas Affect the Cold WarThe Two Chinas Affect the Cold WarChina Expands under the CommunistsChina Expands under the CommunistsChina takes control of Tibet and southernChina takes control of Tibet and southernMongoliaMongoliaIndia welcomes Tibetan refugees fleeingIndia welcomes Tibetan refugees fleeingrevolt against Chineserevolt against ChineseChina and India clash over border; fightingChina and India clash over border; fightingstops but tensions remainstops but tensions remain
The Communists Transform ChinaThe Communists Transform ChinaCommunists Claim a New “Mandate ofCommunists Claim a New “Mandate ofHeaven”Heaven”Chinese Communists organize nationalChinese Communists organize nationalgovernment and Communist Partygovernment and Communist PartyMao’s Brand of Marxist SocialismMao’s Brand of Marxist SocialismMao takes property from landowners andMao takes property from landowners anddivides it among peasantsdivides it among peasantsGovernment seizes private companies andGovernment seizes private companies andplans production increaseplans production increase
The Communists Transform ChinaThe Communists Transform ChinaThe Great Leap ForwardThe Great Leap ForwardCommunesCommunes—large collective farms often—large collective farms oftensupporting over 25,000 peoplesupporting over 25,000 peopleProgram is ended after inefficiency leads toProgram is ended after inefficiency leads tocrop failures and faminescrop failures and famines
The Communists Transform ChinaThe Communists Transform ChinaNew Policies and Mao’s ResponseNew Policies and Mao’s ResponseChina and Soviet Union clash over leadershipChina and Soviet Union clash over leadershipof communist movementof communist movementStrict socialist ideas are moderated, MaoStrict socialist ideas are moderated, Maoreduces his role in governmentreduces his role in governmentRed GuardsRed Guards— groups of violent and radical— groups of violent and radicalyouth militia — close schools and execute oryouth militia — close schools and execute orimprison many intellectuals and enforce strictimprison many intellectuals and enforce strictcommunism in Chinacommunism in China
The RedGuards:China’sTeenagePolice ForceBetween 1966and 1976,students inChina’s RedGuard waged aCulturalRevolution onteachers andprofessionalsthat left a millionpeople deadand the countryin chaos.
The Communists Transform ChinaThe Communists Transform ChinaThe Cultural RevolutionThe Cultural RevolutionCultural RevolutionCultural Revolution—movement to build—movement to buildsociety of peasants and workerssociety of peasants and workersIn 1968, Chinese army imprisons, executes,In 1968, Chinese army imprisons, executes,or exiles most Red Guards who have beenor exiles most Red Guards who have beenlabeled by the government “Counterlabeled by the government “CounterRevolutionary.”Revolutionary.”However, the Cultural Revolution continuesHowever, the Cultural Revolution continuesuntil Mao’s death in 1976until Mao’s death in 1976..
Red Guardsholding Mao’s“Little Red Book”of his sayingsduring the culturalrevolution.
33.3 Wars in Korea and Vietnam33.3 Wars in Korea and VietnamIn Asia, the Cold War flares intoIn Asia, the Cold War flares intoactual wars supported mainly byactual wars supported mainly bythe superpowers.the superpowers.
The KoreasThe KoreasFollowing WWII, theFollowing WWII, theKorean peninsula isKorean peninsula isdivided into twodivided into twoseparate countries.separate countries.They make theirThey make theirborder along the 38border along the 38ththParallel line.Parallel line.North Korea is aNorth Korea is aCommunist andCommunist andcontrolled by thecontrolled by theUSSRUSSRSouth Korea is aSouth Korea is ademocracy anddemocracy andinfluenced by the U.S.influenced by the U.S.
War in KoreaWar in KoreaA Divided LandA Divided Land3838ththparallelparallel—line dividing Korea into North Korea—line dividing Korea into North Koreaand South Koreaand South Korea
The Korean WarThe Korean WarIn 1950, North KoreanIn 1950, North Koreantroops invade Southtroops invade SouthKorea, supported by theKorea, supported by theUSSR and the People’sUSSR and the People’sRepublic of ChinaRepublic of ChinaSouth Korea calls for helpSouth Korea calls for helpand is backed by the U.S.and is backed by the U.S.and the United Nationsand the United Nations(15 countries).(15 countries).Douglas MacArthurDouglas MacArthur——leads UN forces againstleads UN forces againstNorth KoreansNorth Koreans
The Korean WarThe Korean War
War in KoreaWar in KoreaNorth Koreans controlsNorth Koreans controlsmost of the peninsulamost of the peninsulawhen MacArthur attackswhen MacArthur attacksHalf of North Korea’sHalf of North Korea’sarmy surrenders, thearmy surrenders, therest retreatrest retreatUN troops push NorthUN troops push NorthKoreans almost toKoreans almost toChinese borderChinese border
The UN AdvancesThe UN Advances
The Chinese Join the WarThe Chinese Join the WarChinese send 300,000 troops against UN forcesChinese send 300,000 troops against UN forcesand capture Seoul.and capture Seoul.
The Chinese AdvanceThe Chinese Advance
A Cease FireA Cease FireIn 1953, a cease fireIn 1953, a cease fireis declared and endsis declared and endsthe war.the war.The war does notThe war does nothave a clear cuthave a clear cutwinner as not muchwinner as not muchterritory is gained orterritory is gained orlost.lost.The border at the 38The border at the 38ththParallel is restored.Parallel is restored.
Did You Know?Did You Know?Even though they signedEven though they signeda cease fire in 1953, thea cease fire in 1953, theKorean War is technicallyKorean War is technicallystill going on today!still going on today!Even though there is notEven though there is notfull outbreak of war,full outbreak of war,tensions remain high andtensions remain high and2 million soldiers are2 million soldiers arereadily available on eachreadily available on eachside of the border, readyside of the border, readyto go to war.to go to war.
The Forgotten WarThe Forgotten WarMany times theMany times theKorean War isKorean War isreferred to in thereferred to in theUnited States as theUnited States as the“Forgotten War” or“Forgotten War” or“Unknown War”“Unknown War”because the issuesbecause the issueswere not as clear cutwere not as clear cutas WWII and theas WWII and theVietnam War.Vietnam War.
The Forgotten WarThe Forgotten War
War in KoreaWar in KoreaAftermath of the WarAftermath of the WarNorth Korea builds collective farms, heavyNorth Korea builds collective farms, heavyindustry, nuclear weaponsindustry, nuclear weaponsSouth Korea establishes democracy, growingSouth Korea establishes democracy, growingeconomy with U.S. aideconomy with U.S. aidTension is still high today between the twoTension is still high today between the twocountries.countries.
A Divided PeninsulaA Divided PeninsulaAlthough a treaty was signed,Although a treaty was signed,tensions remain high even to thistensions remain high even to thisday.day.The Koreas create a 2.5 mileThe Koreas create a 2.5 milewide buffer zone along the 38wide buffer zone along the 38ththParallel between the twoParallel between the twocountries. (De-Militarized Zone)countries. (De-Militarized Zone)The border is heavily guardedThe border is heavily guardedand danger of war always loomsand danger of war always loomsas there are 2 million troops areas there are 2 million troops arestationed on each side.stationed on each side.Some talks of reunification haveSome talks of reunification havebegun, but the future isbegun, but the future isuncertain.uncertain.
3838ththParallel – De-militarized Zone (DMZ)Parallel – De-militarized Zone (DMZ)
War Breaks Out in VietnamWar Breaks Out in VietnamThe Road to WarThe Road to WarHo Chi MinhHo Chi Minh——Vietnamese nationalist,Vietnamese nationalist,later Communist leaderlater Communist leaderThe Fighting BeginsThe Fighting BeginsIn 1954, FrenchIn 1954, Frenchsurrender to Vietnamesesurrender to Vietnameseafter major defeatafter major defeatDomino theoryDomino theory—U.S.—U.S.theory of Communisttheory of Communistexpansion in Southeastexpansion in SoutheastAsiaAsia Ho Chi Minh
The War inVietnam, 1957-1973Note the HoChi Minh Trailthrough Laosand Cambodia
War Breaks Out in VietnamWar Breaks Out in VietnamVietnam—A DividedVietnam—A DividedCountryCountryInternational peaceInternational peaceconference agrees on aconference agrees on adivided Vietnamdivided VietnamNgo Dinh DiemNgo Dinh Diem—leads—leadsanti-Communistanti-Communistgovernment in Southgovernment in SouthVietnamVietnamVietcongVietcong—South—SouthVietnamese CommunistVietnamese Communistguerillas fighting againstguerillas fighting againstDiemDiemNgo Dinh Diem
Ngo Dinh Diem (1901-1963), President of South Vietnam 1955-1963, with U.S.Ngo Dinh Diem (1901-1963), President of South Vietnam 1955-1963, with U.S.President Dwight Eisenhower at National Airport, Washington, 1957. DirectPresident Dwight Eisenhower at National Airport, Washington, 1957. DirectU.S. involvement in the Vietnam war began in the mid-1950s, when the U.S.U.S. involvement in the Vietnam war began in the mid-1950s, when the U.S.took over the struggle from the French. The Eisenhower administration begantook over the struggle from the French. The Eisenhower administration beganby supporting the Diem regime, and then providing military advisors andby supporting the Diem regime, and then providing military advisors andincreased support. However, by the end of the Eisenhower term, the U.S. hadincreased support. However, by the end of the Eisenhower term, the U.S. hadfewer than 2000 troops in Vietnam. Diem was murdered in a military coup infewer than 2000 troops in Vietnam. Diem was murdered in a military coup in1963.1963.
Lyndon B. Johnson, the Presidentof the United States from 1963 to1970, makes a public statement onthe Tonkin Gulf incident, August 4,1964. When North Vietnam was saidto have attacked two U.S.destroyers, Congress hastilypassed the Tonkin Gulf Resolution,giving the president blanketauthority to take necessary actionsto protect U.S. forces.Subsequently, there have beenserious questions as to whatactually occurred in the TonkinGulf, but with vastly increased U.S.expenditures, the war quicklyescalated; by 1969 the U.S. forcestotaled almost 550,000 individuals.There was much opposition to thewar in the Congress and among theU.S. people, and Johnsons veryconsiderable domestic policyachievements were overshadowedby the criticism of his war policy.
General William C. WestmorelandWilliam C. Westmoreland, McGeorge BundyMcGeorge Bundyand General KanhGeneral Kanh of South Vietnam, photographed atCamp Holloway, South Vietnam, in February 1965. Gen.Westmoreland commanded the U.S. troops in Vietnam1964-68; Bundy was special assistant for national securityto President Johnson from 1961 to 1966, and a keysupporter of the Vietnam war.
The United States Gets InvolvedThe United States Gets InvolvedU.S. Troops Enter the FightU.S. Troops Enter the FightIn 1964, U.S. sends troops to fight Viet CongIn 1964, U.S. sends troops to fight Viet Congand North Vietnameseand North VietnameseU.S. fights guerilla war defending increasinglyU.S. fights guerilla war defending increasinglyunpopular governmentunpopular governmentVietcong gains support from Ho Chi Minh,Vietcong gains support from Ho Chi Minh,China, and Soviet UnionChina, and Soviet Union
The United States Gets InvolvedThe United States Gets InvolvedThe United States WithdrawsThe United States WithdrawsWar grows unpopular in the U.S.; in 1969,War grows unpopular in the U.S.; in 1969,Nixon starts withdrawing troopsNixon starts withdrawing troopsVietnamizationVietnamization—Nixon’s plan to withdraw—Nixon’s plan to withdrawU.S. from war graduallyU.S. from war graduallyLast U.S. troops leave in 1973; SouthLast U.S. troops leave in 1973; SouthVietnam overrun in 1975Vietnam overrun in 1975
Nixon appeared on television January 23, 1973, to announceNixon appeared on television January 23, 1973, to announcethe ceasefire. The agreement ended nearly 12 years ofthe ceasefire. The agreement ended nearly 12 years ofwarfare in which 58,000 Americans had lost their lives. It didwarfare in which 58,000 Americans had lost their lives. It didnot contain an enforceable plan for the peaceable settlementnot contain an enforceable plan for the peaceable settlementof Vietnams internal problems; within a year, fighting thereof Vietnams internal problems; within a year, fighting therehad resumed. Eventually, the South Vietnamese governmenthad resumed. Eventually, the South Vietnamese governmentof Thieu was defeated by the Provisional Revolutionaryof Thieu was defeated by the Provisional RevolutionaryGovernment (PRG) of South Vietnamese communist rebelsGovernment (PRG) of South Vietnamese communist rebelsand North Vietnamese troops. Even had Nixon wished toand North Vietnamese troops. Even had Nixon wished tointervene, Congress passed, over his veto, a War Powersintervene, Congress passed, over his veto, a War PowersAct that gave Congress the power to prevent him from actingAct that gave Congress the power to prevent him from actingwithout its consent - a consent that Congress would havewithout its consent - a consent that Congress would havebeen unwilling to extend in 1974 or 1975.been unwilling to extend in 1974 or 1975.
Postwar Southeast AsiaPostwar Southeast AsiaCambodia in TurmoilCambodia in TurmoilKhmer RougeKhmer Rouge——Communist rebels whoCommunist rebels whotake control of Cambodia intake control of Cambodia in19751975They slaughter 2 millionThey slaughter 2 millionpeople; overthrown bypeople; overthrown byVietnamese invadersVietnamese invadersIn 1993, Cambodia adoptsIn 1993, Cambodia adoptsdemocracy, holds electionsdemocracy, holds electionswith UN helpwith UN helpPol Pot, leader of the KhmerRouge (Cambodian CommunistParty, literally “Red Khmers”) in1977 at the height of his power
Postwar Southeast AsiaPostwar Southeast AsiaThe Killing FieldsThe Killing Fields werewerea number of sites ina number of sites inCambodia where largeCambodia where largenumbers of people werenumbers of people werekilled and buried by thekilled and buried by theKhmer Rouge regime,Khmer Rouge regime,during its rule of theduring its rule of thecountry from 1975 tocountry from 1975 to1979, immediately after1979, immediately afterthe end of the Vietnamthe end of the VietnamWar.War.
Postwar Southeast AsiaPostwar Southeast AsiaAt least 200,000 peopleAt least 200,000 peoplewere executed by thewere executed by theKhmer Rouge (whileKhmer Rouge (whileestimates of the totalestimates of the totalnumber of deathsnumber of deathsresulting from Khmerresulting from KhmerRouge policies, includingRouge policies, includingdisease and starvation,disease and starvation,range from 1.4 to 2.2range from 1.4 to 2.2million out of a populationmillion out of a populationof around 7 million).of around 7 million).A commemorative stupa filledwith the skulls of the victims.
History in Film:History in Film: The Killing FieldsThe Killing Fields (1984)(1984)The Killing FieldsThe Killing Fields is a 1984is a 1984British drama film about theBritish drama film about theKhmer Rouge regime inKhmer Rouge regime inCambodia, which is based onCambodia, which is based onthe experiences of threethe experiences of threejournalists:journalists:CambodianCambodian Dith PranDith PranAmericanAmerican Sydney SchanbergSydney SchanbergBritishBritish Jon SwainJon Swain..The film won three AcademyThe film won three AcademyAwards, includingAwards, includingBest Supporting Actor for HaingBest Supporting Actor for HaingS. Ngor as Dith Pran.S. Ngor as Dith Pran.Sam Waterston from Law andSam Waterston from Law andOrder stars in the film as SydneyOrder stars in the film as SydneySchanbergSchanberg
Postwar Southeast AsiaPostwar Southeast AsiaVietnam after the WarVietnam after the WarSaigon renamed Ho Chi Minh City; VietnamSaigon renamed Ho Chi Minh City; Vietnamunited as Communist nationunited as Communist nationAbout 1.5 million people flee Vietnam, someAbout 1.5 million people flee Vietnam, somesettling in the U.S. and Canadasettling in the U.S. and CanadaIn 1995, United States normalizes relationsIn 1995, United States normalizes relationswith Vietnamwith Vietnam
33.4 The Cold War33.4 The Cold WarDivides the WorldDivides the WorldThe superpowers supportThe superpowers supportopposing sides in Latin Americanopposing sides in Latin Americanand Middle Eastern conflictsand Middle Eastern conflicts
Fighting for the Third WorldFighting for the Third WorldMore Than One “World”More Than One “World”Third WorldThird World—developing nations; often—developing nations; oftennewly independent, nonalignednewly independent, nonalignedCold War StrategiesCold War StrategiesU.S., Soviet Union, and China compete forU.S., Soviet Union, and China compete forinfluence over the Third Worldinfluence over the Third WorldThey back revolutions and give economic ,They back revolutions and give economic ,military and technical aidmilitary and technical aid
Fighting for the Third WorldFighting for the Third WorldAssociation of Nonaligned NationsAssociation of Nonaligned NationsMany countries, like India, want to avoidMany countries, like India, want to avoidinvolvement in the Cold Warinvolvement in the Cold WarIn 1955, Indonesia hosts Asian and AfricanIn 1955, Indonesia hosts Asian and Africanleaders who want neutralityleaders who want neutralityNonaligned nationsNonaligned nations—independent countries—independent countriesnot involved in the Cold Warnot involved in the Cold War
Confrontations in Latin AmericaConfrontations in Latin AmericaFidel Castro and the Cuban RevolutionFidel Castro and the Cuban RevolutionFidel CastroFidel Castro—leads revolt in Cuba against—leads revolt in Cuba againstdictator supported by the U.S.dictator supported by the U.S.By 1959, Castro in power, nationalizesBy 1959, Castro in power, nationalizeseconomy, takes U.S. propertyeconomy, takes U.S. propertyIn 1961, Castro defeats U.S. trained CubanIn 1961, Castro defeats U.S. trained Cubanexiles at the Bay of Pigsexiles at the Bay of Pigs
Confrontations in Latin AmericaConfrontations in Latin AmericaNuclear Face-off: the Cuban Missile CrisisNuclear Face-off: the Cuban Missile CrisisIn 1962, U.S. demands removal of SovietIn 1962, U.S. demands removal of Sovietmissiles in Cubamissiles in CubaSoviets withdraw missiles; U.S. promises notSoviets withdraw missiles; U.S. promises notto invade Cubato invade CubaCuban economy is left dependent on SovietCuban economy is left dependent on Sovietsupportsupport
The Cuban Missile CrisisThe Cuban Missile CrisisAfter the CubanAfter the CubanRevolution in the earlyRevolution in the early1960’s, the new Cuban1960’s, the new Cubangovernment adoptedgovernment adoptedcommunism.communism.Shortly thereafter, theShortly thereafter, theSoviets started buildingSoviets started buildingnuclear missile silos onnuclear missile silos onthe island.the island.Through secret, spyThrough secret, spyphotographs, the U.S.photographs, the U.S.found out about thefound out about themissiles.missiles.
The Cuban Missile CrisisThe Cuban Missile CrisisAngered by these actions, the U.S. demanded the SovietsAngered by these actions, the U.S. demanded the Sovietswithdraw from Cuba.withdraw from Cuba.The Soviets refused and it seemed a conflict wasThe Soviets refused and it seemed a conflict wasimminent.imminent.Both sides believed that only armed combat could resolveBoth sides believed that only armed combat could resolvethe issue.the issue.President Kennedy was even set to invade Cuba andPresident Kennedy was even set to invade Cuba andremove the missiles by force.remove the missiles by force.Just when it looked as if nuclear war was going to occur,Just when it looked as if nuclear war was going to occur,the two sides came to an agreement. The Soviets wouldthe two sides came to an agreement. The Soviets wouldremove their missiles from Cuba as long as the Americansremove their missiles from Cuba as long as the Americansremoved their own from Turkey.removed their own from Turkey.
Confrontations in Latin AmericaConfrontations in Latin AmericaCivil War in NicaraguaCivil War in NicaraguaAnastasio Somoza DebayleAnastasio Somoza Debayle—Nicaraguan dictator—Nicaraguan dictatorsupported by the U.S.supported by the U.S.Daniel OrtegaDaniel Ortega—leads—leads SandinistaSandinista rebels who takerebels who takepower in Nicaraguapower in NicaraguaU.S. and Soviet Union both initially supportU.S. and Soviet Union both initially supportSandinistasSandinistasSandinistas aid Communist rebels in El SalvadorSandinistas aid Communist rebels in El SalvadorU.S. helps anti-CommunistU.S. helps anti-Communist ContrasContras in Nicaragua toin Nicaragua toassist El Salvadorassist El SalvadorIn 1990, Nicaragua holds first free elections,In 1990, Nicaragua holds first free elections,Sandinistas loseSandinistas lose
Daniel Ortega on Time magazine,March 31, 1986Anastasio Somoza Debayle(U.S. supported president ofNicaragua from 1967-1980)
Confrontations in the Middle EastConfrontations in the Middle EastReligious and SecularReligious and SecularValues Clash in IranValues Clash in IranShah Reza Pahlavi embracesShah Reza Pahlavi embracesWestern governments and oilWestern governments and oilcompaniescompaniesThe U.S. and U.K. supportedThe U.S. and U.K. supportedthe Shah which was verythe Shah which was veryunpopular with people of theunpopular with people of theMiddle EastMiddle EastIn addition to this, the ShahIn addition to this, the Shahtried to “modernize” histried to “modernize” hiscountry which clashed withcountry which clashed withthe ideals of traditionalthe ideals of traditionalIslamistsIslamistsShah Reza PahlaviShah Reza Pahlavi
Confrontations in the Middle EastConfrontations in the Middle EastThe United States SupportsThe United States SupportsSecular RuleSecular RuleShah Reza PahlaviShah Reza Pahlaviwesternizes Iran with U.S.westernizes Iran with U.S.supportsupportAyatollah Ruholla KhomeiniAyatollah Ruholla Khomeini—Iranian Muslim leader; lives—Iranian Muslim leader; livesin exilein exileIn 1978, Khomeini sparks riotsIn 1978, Khomeini sparks riotsin Iran, Shah flees to the U.S.in Iran, Shah flees to the U.S.Khomeini claims a jihad (holyKhomeini claims a jihad (holywar) on Western influences.war) on Western influences.
Confrontations in the Middle EastConfrontations in the Middle EastKhomeini’s Anti-U.S.Khomeini’s Anti-U.S.PoliciesPoliciesMuslim radicals takeMuslim radicals takecontrol in Irancontrol in IranIslamic revolutionariesIslamic revolutionariesattack the U.S. Embassyattack the U.S. Embassyin Iran and holdin Iran and holdAmerican hostages inAmerican hostages inTehran (1979-1981) forTehran (1979-1981) for444 days444 daysThey demand that theThey demand that theU.S. hands over theU.S. hands over theShah in exchange for theShah in exchange for thehostages.hostages.
Blindfolded American hostages in Iran in 1979.
Iraq-Iran War (First Persian Gulf War)Iraq-Iran War (First Persian Gulf War)The Iranian Revolution put muchThe Iranian Revolution put muchstrain on relations between Iraqstrain on relations between Iraq(Sunnis) and Iran (Shiites).(Sunnis) and Iran (Shiites).With the oustering of the Shah inWith the oustering of the Shah inIran, the U.S. supported SaddamIran, the U.S. supported SaddamHussein and forces in Iraq byHussein and forces in Iraq bysupplying them with weapons,supplying them with weapons,money and intelligence.money and intelligence.Iran, on the other hand, wasIran, on the other hand, wassupported by the USSR who soldsupported by the USSR who soldweapons to the Iranians.weapons to the Iranians.Despite heavy losses on eachDespite heavy losses on eachside, neither seemed to beside, neither seemed to be
Confrontations in the Middle EastConfrontations in the Middle EastThe Superpowers Face Off in AfghanistanThe Superpowers Face Off in AfghanistanSoviets invade Afghanistan to helpSoviets invade Afghanistan to helpCommunist government against rebelsCommunist government against rebelsMuslim rebels fight guerilla war againstMuslim rebels fight guerilla war againstSoviets with U.S. weaponsSoviets with U.S. weaponsU.S. stops grain shipments to Soviet UnionU.S. stops grain shipments to Soviet UnionSoviets eventually withdraw in 1989Soviets eventually withdraw in 1989
33.5 The Cold War33.5 The Cold WarThawsThawsThe Cold War begins to thaw asThe Cold War begins to thaw asthe superpowers enter an era ofthe superpowers enter an era ofuneasy diplomacyuneasy diplomacy
Soviet Policy in Eastern Europe and ChinaSoviet Policy in Eastern Europe and ChinaDestalinization and Rumblings ofDestalinization and Rumblings ofProtestProtestNikita KhrushchevNikita Khrushchev—leader of—leader ofSoviet Union after Stalin diesSoviet Union after Stalin dies(1953)(1953)Khrushchev condemns Stalin;Khrushchev condemns Stalin;Soviets and West can peacefullySoviets and West can peacefullycompetecompeteCitizens of Soviet-controlledCitizens of Soviet-controlledgovernments begin protestinggovernments begin protestingcommunismcommunismKhrushchev sends Soviet militaryKhrushchev sends Soviet militaryto put down Hungarian protesters.to put down Hungarian protesters.
Soviet Policy in Eastern Europe and ChinaSoviet Policy in Eastern Europe and ChinaThe Revolt inThe Revolt inCzechoslovakiaCzechoslovakiaLeonid BrezhnevLeonid Brezhnev—Soviet leader—Soviet leaderafter Khrushchev—after Khrushchev—represses dissentrepresses dissentIn 1968, WarsawIn 1968, WarsawPact troops blockPact troops blockreforms inreforms inCzechoslovakiaCzechoslovakia
Soviet Policy in Eastern Europe and ChinaSoviet Policy in Eastern Europe and ChinaThe Soviet-Chinese SplitThe Soviet-Chinese SplitIn 1950, Mao and Stalin sign friendship treaty,In 1950, Mao and Stalin sign friendship treaty,but tensions growbut tensions growChinese and Soviets each want to lead worldChinese and Soviets each want to lead worldcommunismcommunismKhrushchev ends economic aid and refusesKhrushchev ends economic aid and refusesto share nuclear secretsto share nuclear secretsSoviets and Chinese fight small skirmishesSoviets and Chinese fight small skirmishesacross borderacross border
From Brinkmanship to DFrom Brinkmanship to DétenteétenteBrinkmanship BreaksBrinkmanship BreaksDownDownBrinkmanship causeBrinkmanship causerepeated crises; nuclear warrepeated crises; nuclear wara constant threata constant threatJohn F. KennedyJohn F. Kennedy—U.S.—U.S.president during the Cubanpresident during the CubanMissile CrisisMissile CrisisLyndon JohnsonLyndon Johnson——president who increasespresident who increasesU.S. involvement in VietnamU.S. involvement in Vietnam
From Brinkmanship to DFrom Brinkmanship to DétenteétenteThe United States Turns toThe United States Turns toDDétenteétenteVietnam-era turmoil fuelsVietnam-era turmoil fuelsdesire for lessdesire for lessconfrontational policyconfrontational policyDétenteDétente—policy of reducing—policy of reducingCold War tensions to avoidCold War tensions to avoidconflictconflictRichard M. NixonRichard M. Nixon—U.S.—U.S.president who launchespresident who launchesdétentedétenteDétente grows out ofDétente grows out ofphilosophy known asphilosophy known asrealpolitik—”realisticrealpolitik—”realisticpolitics”—recognizes need topolitics”—recognizes need tobe practical and flexiblebe practical and flexible
From Brinkmanship to DFrom Brinkmanship to DétenteétenteNixon Visits Communist PowersNixon Visits Communist PowersNixon visits Communist China and SovietNixon visits Communist China and SovietUnion, signs SALT I TreatyUnion, signs SALT I TreatySALTSALT—Strategic Arms Limitation Talks——Strategic Arms Limitation Talks—limits nuclear weaponslimits nuclear weapons
Nixon visiting China
The Collapse of DThe Collapse of DétenteétentePolicy ChangesPolicy ChangesNixon and Gerald Ford improve relations withNixon and Gerald Ford improve relations withSoviets and ChinaSoviets and ChinaJimmy Carter has concerns about SovietJimmy Carter has concerns about Sovietpolicies but signs SALT IIpolicies but signs SALT IICongress will not ratify SALT II due to SovietCongress will not ratify SALT II due to Sovietinvasion of Afghanistaninvasion of Afghanistan
The Collapse of DThe Collapse of DétenteétenteReagan Takes an Anti-Reagan Takes an Anti-Communist StanceCommunist StanceRonald ReaganRonald Reagan—anti-—anti-Communist U.S. presidentCommunist U.S. presidenttakes office in 1981takes office in 1981Reagan increases militaryReagan increases militaryspending and proposes aspending and proposes amissile defense programmissile defense programcalled “Star Wars”called “Star Wars”
President Ronald Reagan at desk. George H.W. Bushbehind him along with several advisors.
The Collapse of the USSRThe Collapse of the USSRIn the 1980s, new SovietIn the 1980s, new Sovietleadership allows easingleadership allows easingof Cold War tensions.of Cold War tensions.In 1986, Soviet leaderIn 1986, Soviet leaderMikhail GorbachevMikhail Gorbachevintroduces his policyintroduces his policyknown asknown as PerestroikaPerestroika(restructuring),(restructuring), to allowto allowmore economic, politicalmore economic, politicalfreedom.freedom.
The Collapse of the USSRThe Collapse of the USSRThis causes a domino effectThis causes a domino effectand the people (especiallyand the people (especiallythose in the smaller republics)those in the smaller republics)demand independence.demand independence.This leads to collapse ofThis leads to collapse ofSoviet Union, end of ColdSoviet Union, end of ColdWar in 1991War in 1991Region divides into 15Region divides into 15independent republics.independent republics.Russia becomes aRussia becomes ademocracy and remains thatdemocracy and remains thattoday.today.