Cold War

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Cold War

  1. 1. Chapter 30: The Post War WorldChapter 30: The Post War Worldand Cold War, 1945-Presentand Cold War, 1945-PresentThe United States and the SovietThe United States and the SovietUnion vie for superiority, and bothUnion vie for superiority, and bothcountries extend their control overcountries extend their control overother nations.other nations.
  2. 2. Cold War Timeline, 1946-1980Cold War Timeline, 1946-1980
  3. 3. 33.1 Cold War:33.1 Cold War:Superpowers Face OffSuperpowers Face OffThe opposing economic and politicalThe opposing economic and politicalphilosophies of the United States andphilosophies of the United States andthe Soviet Union lead to globalthe Soviet Union lead to globalcompetition.competition.
  4. 4. A Postwar PlanA Postwar PlanYalta and Potsdam Conferences:Yalta and Potsdam Conferences:A Postwar PlanA Postwar PlanIn February 1945, British,In February 1945, British,American, and Soviet leadersAmerican, and Soviet leadersmeet at Yalta, a second meetingmeet at Yalta, a second meetingwould take place months later atwould take place months later atPotsdamPotsdamEurope would be split, each zoneEurope would be split, each zonewould be occupied by the soldierswould be occupied by the soldiersof one of the main Allied powers.of one of the main Allied powers.They also agreed that GermanyThey also agreed that Germanywould have to repay the Sovietwould have to repay the SovietUnion for damage and loss of life.Union for damage and loss of life.Soviet leader Joseph Stalin, inSoviet leader Joseph Stalin, inturn, promised free elections inturn, promised free elections inEastern Europe.Eastern Europe.
  5. 5. Churchill, Roosevelt, and Stalin at the Yalta Conference
  6. 6. Churchill, Truman, and Stalin at the Potsdam Conference
  7. 7. Allies Become EnemiesAllies Become EnemiesCreation of the United NationsCreation of the United NationsJune 1945, 50 nations form theJune 1945, 50 nations form the UnitedUnitedNationsNations—an international organization—an international organizationAll members are represented in the GeneralAll members are represented in the GeneralAssembly; 11 nations are on the SecurityAssembly; 11 nations are on the SecurityCouncilCouncilFive permanent members have SecurityFive permanent members have SecurityCouncil veto powerCouncil veto power
  8. 8. Allies Become EnemiesAllies Become EnemiesDiffering U.S. and Soviet GoalsDiffering U.S. and Soviet GoalsU.S. and Soviets split sharply after WWII endsU.S. and Soviets split sharply after WWII endsU.S. is world’s richest and most powerfulU.S. is world’s richest and most powerfulcountry after WWIIcountry after WWIISoviets still recovering from high warSoviets still recovering from high warcasualties and had many destroyed citiescasualties and had many destroyed cities
  9. 9. Eastern Europe’s Iron CurtainEastern Europe’s Iron CurtainSoviets Build a BufferSoviets Build a BufferSoviets control Eastern European countriesSoviets control Eastern European countriesafter World War IIafter World War IIStalin installs Communist governments inStalin installs Communist governments inseveral countriesseveral countriesTruman urges free elections; Stalin refuses toTruman urges free elections; Stalin refuses toallow free electionsallow free electionsIn 1946, Stalin says capitalism andIn 1946, Stalin says capitalism andcommunism cannot co-existcommunism cannot co-exist
  10. 10. Eastern Europe’s Iron CurtainEastern Europe’s Iron CurtainAn Iron Curtain Divides East and WestAn Iron Curtain Divides East and WestGermany is divided; East Germany isGermany is divided; East Germany isCommunist, West Germany democraticCommunist, West Germany democraticIron CurtainIron Curtain—Winston Churchill’s name for—Winston Churchill’s name forthe division of Europethe division of Europe
  11. 11. The nations on theeastern side of the“Iron Curtain” wereknown as the EasternBloc
  12. 12. United States Tries to Contain SovietsUnited States Tries to Contain SovietsContainmentContainmentContainmentContainment—U.S. plan to stop the spread—U.S. plan to stop the spreadof communismof communismThe Truman DoctrineThe Truman DoctrineTruman DoctrineTruman Doctrine—U.S. supports countries—U.S. supports countriesthat reject communismthat reject communismCongress approves Truman’s request for aidCongress approves Truman’s request for aidto Greece and Turkeyto Greece and Turkey
  13. 13. United States Tries to Contain SovietsUnited States Tries to Contain SovietsThe Marshall PlanThe Marshall PlanMuch of Western Europe lay in ruins afterMuch of Western Europe lay in ruins afterWorld War IIWorld War IIMarshall PlanMarshall Plan—U.S. program of assisting—U.S. program of assistingWestern European countriesWestern European countriesCongress approves plan after CommunistCongress approves plan after Communisttakeover of Czechoslovakiatakeover of Czechoslovakia
  14. 14. Germany is SplitGermany is SplitFollowing WWII, GermanyFollowing WWII, Germanyis split into two differentis split into two differentcountries.countries.East Germany is influencedEast Germany is influencedby the USSR and theby the USSR and thegovernment is communist.government is communist.West Germany isWest Germany isinfluenced by the US,influenced by the US,France and the UK andFrance and the UK andtheir government is atheir government is ademocracy.democracy.
  15. 15. The Berlin WallThe Berlin WallNot only is theNot only is thecountry split, thecountry split, thecapital of Berlin iscapital of Berlin issplit as well.split as well.East GermanyEast Germanybuilds a wall tobuilds a wall tomaintain themaintain theseparationseparationbetween the twobetween the twoand keeps itsand keeps itscitizens confinedcitizens confinedwithin.within.Crossing over isCrossing over isstrictly forbidden.strictly forbidden.
  16. 16. The Berlin WallThe Berlin Wall
  17. 17. Fence along the East/West Border in Germany
  18. 18. Preserved section of the border betweenEast Germany and West Germany calledthe "Little Berlin Wall" at Mödlareuth
  19. 19. Divisions of GermanyDivisions of Germany
  20. 20. Divisions of BerlinDivisions of Berlin
  21. 21. United States Tries to Contain SovietsUnited States Tries to Contain SovietsBlockade of Berlin and The Berlin AirliftBlockade of Berlin and The Berlin AirliftIn 1948, U.S., Britain, and France withdraw forcesIn 1948, U.S., Britain, and France withdraw forcesfrom West Germanyfrom West GermanyTheir former occupation zones form one countryTheir former occupation zones form one countrySoviets oppose this, stop land and water traffic intoSoviets oppose this, stop land and water traffic intoWest BerlinWest BerlinWest Berlin, located in Soviet occupation zone, facesWest Berlin, located in Soviet occupation zone, facesstarvationstarvationU.S. and Britain fly in supplies for 11 months until theU.S. and Britain fly in supplies for 11 months until theblockade endsblockade ends
  22. 22. Routes of Berlin AirliftRoutes of Berlin Airlift
  23. 23. The Cold War Divides the WorldThe Cold War Divides the WorldThe Cold WarThe Cold WarCold-WarCold-War—struggle of U.S. and Soviet Union using—struggle of U.S. and Soviet Union usingmeans short of warmeans short of warSuperpowers Form Rival AlliancesSuperpowers Form Rival AlliancesIn 1949, U.S., Canada, and West European countriesIn 1949, U.S., Canada, and West European countriesform NATOform NATONATONATO—North Atlantic Treaty Organization—is a—North Atlantic Treaty Organization—is adefensive military alliancedefensive military allianceIn 1955, Soviets and Eastern nations sign theIn 1955, Soviets and Eastern nations sign theWarsaw PactWarsaw Pact allianceallianceIn 1961, Soviets build the Berlin Wall to separate EastIn 1961, Soviets build the Berlin Wall to separate Eastand West Berlinand West Berlin
  24. 24. NATOWarsaw PactandNon-aligned nations
  25. 25. Warsaw PactWarsaw PactNationsNationsNote: FederalNote: FederalPeople’sPeople’sRepublic ofRepublic ofYugoslavia isYugoslavia isforced out of theforced out of theWarsaw Pact inWarsaw Pact in19481948
  26. 26. The Cold War Divides the WorldThe Cold War Divides the WorldThe Threat of Nuclear WarThe Threat of Nuclear WarSoviet Union explodes its first atomic bomb inSoviet Union explodes its first atomic bomb in19491949U.S. and Soviet Union both develop the moreU.S. and Soviet Union both develop the morepowerful hydrogen bombpowerful hydrogen bombBrinkmanshipBrinkmanship—policy of willingness to go to—policy of willingness to go tothe edge of warthe edge of warIncreasing tensions lead to military buildup byIncreasing tensions lead to military buildup byU.S. and the SovietsU.S. and the Soviets
  27. 27. Nuclear Arms RaceNuclear Arms RaceDuring the Cold War, both countriesDuring the Cold War, both countriesvie for nuclear superiority andvie for nuclear superiority andincrease their arsenals.increase their arsenals.The idea was that by building moreThe idea was that by building moreand more bombs; eventually, oneand more bombs; eventually, oneside would stand down.side would stand down.This, actually, will never happen.This, actually, will never happen.While it is a little unclear about whoWhile it is a little unclear about whowas bigger or stronger, it iswas bigger or stronger, it isspeculated that the U.S. had manyspeculated that the U.S. had manymore bombs, while the Soviets hadmore bombs, while the Soviets hadmore destructive ones such as themore destructive ones such as theTsar (Czar) Bomba.Tsar (Czar) Bomba.
  28. 28. Military parades in Red SquareMilitary parades in Red Square
  29. 29. H Bomb TestsH Bomb Tests
  30. 30. Tsar Bomba (King Bomb)Tsar Bomba (King Bomb)
  31. 31. The Space RaceThe Space RaceNot only was the ColdNot only was the ColdWar a race to increaseWar a race to increasemilitary prowess, it wasmilitary prowess, it wasalso a race foralso a race fortechnological prowess.technological prowess.This included the raceThis included the raceto be the first countryto be the first countryinto space.into space.The Soviets were firstThe Soviets were firstto send the satelliteto send the satelliteknown as Sputnik intoknown as Sputnik intospace (1957).space (1957).
  32. 32. A replica of Sputnik 1
  33. 33. The Space RaceThe Space RaceThe Soviets bested theThe Soviets bested theUnited States once againUnited States once againwhen they sent Sovietwhen they sent Sovietcosmonaut Yuri Gagarin ascosmonaut Yuri Gagarin asfirst human in space on Aprilfirst human in space on April12, 1961.12, 1961.The U.S. would have beenThe U.S. would have beenthe first, but instead we sent athe first, but instead we sent amonkey on January 31, 1961.monkey on January 31, 1961.
  34. 34. HamHam
  35. 35. The Cold War Divides the WorldThe Cold War Divides the WorldThe Cold War in the SkiesThe Cold War in the SkiesIn 1960, Soviets shoot down American spyIn 1960, Soviets shoot down American spyplane (a U-2), increasing tensionsplane (a U-2), increasing tensionsU-2 spy plane similar to the one shot downover the U.S.S.R.
  36. 36. Francis Gary Powers with a model of a U-2 spy plane.
  37. 37. Wreckage of Gary Powers’ U-2
  38. 38. 33.2 Communists Take Power in China33.2 Communists Take Power in ChinaAfter World War II, ChineseAfter World War II, ChineseCommunists defeat Nationalist forcesCommunists defeat Nationalist forcesand two separate Chinas emerge.and two separate Chinas emerge.
  39. 39. Communists vs. NationalistsCommunists vs. NationalistsWorld War II in ChinaWorld War II in ChinaMao ZedongMao Zedong—leads Chinese Communists—leads Chinese Communistsagainst Japanese invadersagainst Japanese invadersJiang JieshiJiang Jieshi (a.k.a.(a.k.a. Chiang Kai-shekChiang Kai-shek)—)—leads of Chinese Nationalists in World War IIleads of Chinese Nationalists in World War IINationalist and Communist Chinese resumeNationalist and Communist Chinese resumecivil war after WWII endscivil war after WWII ends
  40. 40. Communists vs. NationalistsCommunists vs. NationalistsMao Zedong Jiang Jieshi (a.k.a. ChiangKai-shek)
  41. 41. Communists vs. NationalistsCommunists vs. NationalistsCivil War ResumesCivil War ResumesEconomic problems cause Nationalist soldiersEconomic problems cause Nationalist soldiersto desert to Communiststo desert to CommunistsMao’s troops take control of China’s majorMao’s troops take control of China’s majorcitiescitiesIn 1949, People’s Republic of China isIn 1949, People’s Republic of China iscreatedcreatedNationalists flee to TaiwanNationalists flee to Taiwan
  42. 42. The Two Chinas Affect the Cold WarThe Two Chinas Affect the Cold WarThe Superpowers ReactThe Superpowers ReactU.S. supports Nationalist state in Taiwan,U.S. supports Nationalist state in Taiwan,called Republic of Chinacalled Republic of ChinaSoviets and China agree to help each other inSoviets and China agree to help each other inevent of attackevent of attackU.S. tries to stop Soviet expansion andU.S. tries to stop Soviet expansion andspread of communism in Chinaspread of communism in China
  43. 43. The Two Chinas Affect the Cold WarThe Two Chinas Affect the Cold WarChina Expands under the CommunistsChina Expands under the CommunistsChina takes control of Tibet and southernChina takes control of Tibet and southernMongoliaMongoliaIndia welcomes Tibetan refugees fleeingIndia welcomes Tibetan refugees fleeingrevolt against Chineserevolt against ChineseChina and India clash over border; fightingChina and India clash over border; fightingstops but tensions remainstops but tensions remain
  44. 44. The Communists Transform ChinaThe Communists Transform ChinaCommunists Claim a New “Mandate ofCommunists Claim a New “Mandate ofHeaven”Heaven”Chinese Communists organize nationalChinese Communists organize nationalgovernment and Communist Partygovernment and Communist PartyMao’s Brand of Marxist SocialismMao’s Brand of Marxist SocialismMao takes property from landowners andMao takes property from landowners anddivides it among peasantsdivides it among peasantsGovernment seizes private companies andGovernment seizes private companies andplans production increaseplans production increase
  45. 45. The Communists Transform ChinaThe Communists Transform ChinaThe Great Leap ForwardThe Great Leap ForwardCommunesCommunes—large collective farms often—large collective farms oftensupporting over 25,000 peoplesupporting over 25,000 peopleProgram is ended after inefficiency leads toProgram is ended after inefficiency leads tocrop failures and faminescrop failures and famines
  46. 46. The Communists Transform ChinaThe Communists Transform ChinaNew Policies and Mao’s ResponseNew Policies and Mao’s ResponseChina and Soviet Union clash over leadershipChina and Soviet Union clash over leadershipof communist movementof communist movementStrict socialist ideas are moderated, MaoStrict socialist ideas are moderated, Maoreduces his role in governmentreduces his role in governmentRed GuardsRed Guards— groups of violent and radical— groups of violent and radicalyouth militia — close schools and execute oryouth militia — close schools and execute orimprison many intellectuals and enforce strictimprison many intellectuals and enforce strictcommunism in Chinacommunism in China
  47. 47. The RedGuards:China’sTeenagePolice ForceBetween 1966and 1976,students inChina’s RedGuard waged aCulturalRevolution onteachers andprofessionalsthat left a millionpeople deadand the countryin chaos.
  48. 48. The Communists Transform ChinaThe Communists Transform ChinaThe Cultural RevolutionThe Cultural RevolutionCultural RevolutionCultural Revolution—movement to build—movement to buildsociety of peasants and workerssociety of peasants and workersIn 1968, Chinese army imprisons, executes,In 1968, Chinese army imprisons, executes,or exiles most Red Guards who have beenor exiles most Red Guards who have beenlabeled by the government “Counterlabeled by the government “CounterRevolutionary.”Revolutionary.”However, the Cultural Revolution continuesHowever, the Cultural Revolution continuesuntil Mao’s death in 1976until Mao’s death in 1976..
  49. 49. Red Guardsholding Mao’s“Little Red Book”of his sayingsduring the culturalrevolution.
  50. 50. 33.3 Wars in Korea and Vietnam33.3 Wars in Korea and VietnamIn Asia, the Cold War flares intoIn Asia, the Cold War flares intoactual wars supported mainly byactual wars supported mainly bythe superpowers.the superpowers.
  51. 51. The KoreasThe KoreasFollowing WWII, theFollowing WWII, theKorean peninsula isKorean peninsula isdivided into twodivided into twoseparate countries.separate countries.They make theirThey make theirborder along the 38border along the 38ththParallel line.Parallel line.North Korea is aNorth Korea is aCommunist andCommunist andcontrolled by thecontrolled by theUSSRUSSRSouth Korea is aSouth Korea is ademocracy anddemocracy andinfluenced by the U.S.influenced by the U.S.
  52. 52. War in KoreaWar in KoreaA Divided LandA Divided Land3838ththparallelparallel—line dividing Korea into North Korea—line dividing Korea into North Koreaand South Koreaand South Korea
  53. 53. The Korean WarThe Korean WarIn 1950, North KoreanIn 1950, North Koreantroops invade Southtroops invade SouthKorea, supported by theKorea, supported by theUSSR and the People’sUSSR and the People’sRepublic of ChinaRepublic of ChinaSouth Korea calls for helpSouth Korea calls for helpand is backed by the U.S.and is backed by the U.S.and the United Nationsand the United Nations(15 countries).(15 countries).Douglas MacArthurDouglas MacArthur——leads UN forces againstleads UN forces againstNorth KoreansNorth Koreans
  54. 54. The Korean WarThe Korean War
  55. 55. War in KoreaWar in KoreaNorth Koreans controlsNorth Koreans controlsmost of the peninsulamost of the peninsulawhen MacArthur attackswhen MacArthur attacksHalf of North Korea’sHalf of North Korea’sarmy surrenders, thearmy surrenders, therest retreatrest retreatUN troops push NorthUN troops push NorthKoreans almost toKoreans almost toChinese borderChinese border
  56. 56. The UN AdvancesThe UN Advances
  57. 57. The Chinese Join the WarThe Chinese Join the WarChinese send 300,000 troops against UN forcesChinese send 300,000 troops against UN forcesand capture Seoul.and capture Seoul.
  58. 58. The Chinese AdvanceThe Chinese Advance
  59. 59. A Cease FireA Cease FireIn 1953, a cease fireIn 1953, a cease fireis declared and endsis declared and endsthe war.the war.The war does notThe war does nothave a clear cuthave a clear cutwinner as not muchwinner as not muchterritory is gained orterritory is gained orlost.lost.The border at the 38The border at the 38ththParallel is restored.Parallel is restored.
  60. 60. Did You Know?Did You Know?Even though they signedEven though they signeda cease fire in 1953, thea cease fire in 1953, theKorean War is technicallyKorean War is technicallystill going on today!still going on today!Even though there is notEven though there is notfull outbreak of war,full outbreak of war,tensions remain high andtensions remain high and2 million soldiers are2 million soldiers arereadily available on eachreadily available on eachside of the border, readyside of the border, readyto go to war.to go to war.
  61. 61. The Forgotten WarThe Forgotten WarMany times theMany times theKorean War isKorean War isreferred to in thereferred to in theUnited States as theUnited States as the“Forgotten War” or“Forgotten War” or“Unknown War”“Unknown War”because the issuesbecause the issueswere not as clear cutwere not as clear cutas WWII and theas WWII and theVietnam War.Vietnam War.
  62. 62. The Forgotten WarThe Forgotten War
  63. 63. War in KoreaWar in KoreaAftermath of the WarAftermath of the WarNorth Korea builds collective farms, heavyNorth Korea builds collective farms, heavyindustry, nuclear weaponsindustry, nuclear weaponsSouth Korea establishes democracy, growingSouth Korea establishes democracy, growingeconomy with U.S. aideconomy with U.S. aidTension is still high today between the twoTension is still high today between the twocountries.countries.
  64. 64. A Divided PeninsulaA Divided PeninsulaAlthough a treaty was signed,Although a treaty was signed,tensions remain high even to thistensions remain high even to thisday.day.The Koreas create a 2.5 mileThe Koreas create a 2.5 milewide buffer zone along the 38wide buffer zone along the 38ththParallel between the twoParallel between the twocountries. (De-Militarized Zone)countries. (De-Militarized Zone)The border is heavily guardedThe border is heavily guardedand danger of war always loomsand danger of war always loomsas there are 2 million troops areas there are 2 million troops arestationed on each side.stationed on each side.Some talks of reunification haveSome talks of reunification havebegun, but the future isbegun, but the future isuncertain.uncertain.
  65. 65. 3838ththParallel – De-militarized Zone (DMZ)Parallel – De-militarized Zone (DMZ)
  66. 66. War Breaks Out in VietnamWar Breaks Out in VietnamThe Road to WarThe Road to WarHo Chi MinhHo Chi Minh——Vietnamese nationalist,Vietnamese nationalist,later Communist leaderlater Communist leaderThe Fighting BeginsThe Fighting BeginsIn 1954, FrenchIn 1954, Frenchsurrender to Vietnamesesurrender to Vietnameseafter major defeatafter major defeatDomino theoryDomino theory—U.S.—U.S.theory of Communisttheory of Communistexpansion in Southeastexpansion in SoutheastAsiaAsia Ho Chi Minh
  67. 67. The War inVietnam, 1957-1973Note the HoChi Minh Trailthrough Laosand Cambodia
  68. 68. War Breaks Out in VietnamWar Breaks Out in VietnamVietnam—A DividedVietnam—A DividedCountryCountryInternational peaceInternational peaceconference agrees on aconference agrees on adivided Vietnamdivided VietnamNgo Dinh DiemNgo Dinh Diem—leads—leadsanti-Communistanti-Communistgovernment in Southgovernment in SouthVietnamVietnamVietcongVietcong—South—SouthVietnamese CommunistVietnamese Communistguerillas fighting againstguerillas fighting againstDiemDiemNgo Dinh Diem
  69. 69. Ngo Dinh Diem (1901-1963), President of South Vietnam 1955-1963, with U.S.Ngo Dinh Diem (1901-1963), President of South Vietnam 1955-1963, with U.S.President Dwight Eisenhower at National Airport, Washington, 1957. DirectPresident Dwight Eisenhower at National Airport, Washington, 1957. DirectU.S. involvement in the Vietnam war began in the mid-1950s, when the U.S.U.S. involvement in the Vietnam war began in the mid-1950s, when the U.S.took over the struggle from the French. The Eisenhower administration begantook over the struggle from the French. The Eisenhower administration beganby supporting the Diem regime, and then providing military advisors andby supporting the Diem regime, and then providing military advisors andincreased support. However, by the end of the Eisenhower term, the U.S. hadincreased support. However, by the end of the Eisenhower term, the U.S. hadfewer than 2000 troops in Vietnam. Diem was murdered in a military coup infewer than 2000 troops in Vietnam. Diem was murdered in a military coup in1963.1963.
  70. 70. Lyndon B. Johnson, the Presidentof the United States from 1963 to1970, makes a public statement onthe Tonkin Gulf incident, August 4,1964. When North Vietnam was saidto have attacked two U.S.destroyers, Congress hastilypassed the Tonkin Gulf Resolution,giving the president blanketauthority to take necessary actionsto protect U.S. forces.Subsequently, there have beenserious questions as to whatactually occurred in the TonkinGulf, but with vastly increased U.S.expenditures, the war quicklyescalated; by 1969 the U.S. forcestotaled almost 550,000 individuals.There was much opposition to thewar in the Congress and among theU.S. people, and Johnsons veryconsiderable domestic policyachievements were overshadowedby the criticism of his war policy.
  71. 71. General William C. WestmorelandWilliam C. Westmoreland, McGeorge BundyMcGeorge Bundyand General KanhGeneral Kanh of South Vietnam, photographed atCamp Holloway, South Vietnam, in February 1965. Gen.Westmoreland commanded the U.S. troops in Vietnam1964-68; Bundy was special assistant for national securityto President Johnson from 1961 to 1966, and a keysupporter of the Vietnam war.
  72. 72. The United States Gets InvolvedThe United States Gets InvolvedU.S. Troops Enter the FightU.S. Troops Enter the FightIn 1964, U.S. sends troops to fight Viet CongIn 1964, U.S. sends troops to fight Viet Congand North Vietnameseand North VietnameseU.S. fights guerilla war defending increasinglyU.S. fights guerilla war defending increasinglyunpopular governmentunpopular governmentVietcong gains support from Ho Chi Minh,Vietcong gains support from Ho Chi Minh,China, and Soviet UnionChina, and Soviet Union
  73. 73. The United States Gets InvolvedThe United States Gets InvolvedThe United States WithdrawsThe United States WithdrawsWar grows unpopular in the U.S.; in 1969,War grows unpopular in the U.S.; in 1969,Nixon starts withdrawing troopsNixon starts withdrawing troopsVietnamizationVietnamization—Nixon’s plan to withdraw—Nixon’s plan to withdrawU.S. from war graduallyU.S. from war graduallyLast U.S. troops leave in 1973; SouthLast U.S. troops leave in 1973; SouthVietnam overrun in 1975Vietnam overrun in 1975
  74. 74. Nixon appeared on television January 23, 1973, to announceNixon appeared on television January 23, 1973, to announcethe ceasefire. The agreement ended nearly 12 years ofthe ceasefire. The agreement ended nearly 12 years ofwarfare in which 58,000 Americans had lost their lives. It didwarfare in which 58,000 Americans had lost their lives. It didnot contain an enforceable plan for the peaceable settlementnot contain an enforceable plan for the peaceable settlementof Vietnams internal problems; within a year, fighting thereof Vietnams internal problems; within a year, fighting therehad resumed. Eventually, the South Vietnamese governmenthad resumed. Eventually, the South Vietnamese governmentof Thieu was defeated by the Provisional Revolutionaryof Thieu was defeated by the Provisional RevolutionaryGovernment (PRG) of South Vietnamese communist rebelsGovernment (PRG) of South Vietnamese communist rebelsand North Vietnamese troops. Even had Nixon wished toand North Vietnamese troops. Even had Nixon wished tointervene, Congress passed, over his veto, a War Powersintervene, Congress passed, over his veto, a War PowersAct that gave Congress the power to prevent him from actingAct that gave Congress the power to prevent him from actingwithout its consent - a consent that Congress would havewithout its consent - a consent that Congress would havebeen unwilling to extend in 1974 or 1975.been unwilling to extend in 1974 or 1975.
  75. 75. Postwar Southeast AsiaPostwar Southeast AsiaCambodia in TurmoilCambodia in TurmoilKhmer RougeKhmer Rouge——Communist rebels whoCommunist rebels whotake control of Cambodia intake control of Cambodia in19751975They slaughter 2 millionThey slaughter 2 millionpeople; overthrown bypeople; overthrown byVietnamese invadersVietnamese invadersIn 1993, Cambodia adoptsIn 1993, Cambodia adoptsdemocracy, holds electionsdemocracy, holds electionswith UN helpwith UN helpPol Pot, leader of the KhmerRouge (Cambodian CommunistParty, literally “Red Khmers”) in1977 at the height of his power
  76. 76. Postwar Southeast AsiaPostwar Southeast AsiaThe Killing FieldsThe Killing Fields werewerea number of sites ina number of sites inCambodia where largeCambodia where largenumbers of people werenumbers of people werekilled and buried by thekilled and buried by theKhmer Rouge regime,Khmer Rouge regime,during its rule of theduring its rule of thecountry from 1975 tocountry from 1975 to1979, immediately after1979, immediately afterthe end of the Vietnamthe end of the VietnamWar.War.
  77. 77. Postwar Southeast AsiaPostwar Southeast AsiaAt least 200,000 peopleAt least 200,000 peoplewere executed by thewere executed by theKhmer Rouge (whileKhmer Rouge (whileestimates of the totalestimates of the totalnumber of deathsnumber of deathsresulting from Khmerresulting from KhmerRouge policies, includingRouge policies, includingdisease and starvation,disease and starvation,range from 1.4 to 2.2range from 1.4 to 2.2million out of a populationmillion out of a populationof around 7 million).of around 7 million).A commemorative stupa filledwith the skulls of the victims.
  78. 78. Choung EkKilling Field:The bonesof youngchildrenwho werekilled byKhmerRougesoldiers.
  79. 79. Mass grave in Choeung Ek.
  80. 80. History in Film:History in Film: The Killing FieldsThe Killing Fields (1984)(1984)The Killing FieldsThe Killing Fields is a 1984is a 1984British drama film about theBritish drama film about theKhmer Rouge regime inKhmer Rouge regime inCambodia, which is based onCambodia, which is based onthe experiences of threethe experiences of threejournalists:journalists:CambodianCambodian Dith PranDith PranAmericanAmerican Sydney SchanbergSydney SchanbergBritishBritish Jon SwainJon Swain..The film won three AcademyThe film won three AcademyAwards, includingAwards, includingBest Supporting Actor for HaingBest Supporting Actor for HaingS. Ngor as Dith Pran.S. Ngor as Dith Pran.Sam Waterston from Law andSam Waterston from Law andOrder stars in the film as SydneyOrder stars in the film as SydneySchanbergSchanberg
  81. 81. Postwar Southeast AsiaPostwar Southeast AsiaVietnam after the WarVietnam after the WarSaigon renamed Ho Chi Minh City; VietnamSaigon renamed Ho Chi Minh City; Vietnamunited as Communist nationunited as Communist nationAbout 1.5 million people flee Vietnam, someAbout 1.5 million people flee Vietnam, somesettling in the U.S. and Canadasettling in the U.S. and CanadaIn 1995, United States normalizes relationsIn 1995, United States normalizes relationswith Vietnamwith Vietnam
  82. 82. 33.4 The Cold War33.4 The Cold WarDivides the WorldDivides the WorldThe superpowers supportThe superpowers supportopposing sides in Latin Americanopposing sides in Latin Americanand Middle Eastern conflictsand Middle Eastern conflicts
  83. 83. Fighting for the Third WorldFighting for the Third WorldMore Than One “World”More Than One “World”Third WorldThird World—developing nations; often—developing nations; oftennewly independent, nonalignednewly independent, nonalignedCold War StrategiesCold War StrategiesU.S., Soviet Union, and China compete forU.S., Soviet Union, and China compete forinfluence over the Third Worldinfluence over the Third WorldThey back revolutions and give economic ,They back revolutions and give economic ,military and technical aidmilitary and technical aid
  84. 84. Fighting for the Third WorldFighting for the Third WorldAssociation of Nonaligned NationsAssociation of Nonaligned NationsMany countries, like India, want to avoidMany countries, like India, want to avoidinvolvement in the Cold Warinvolvement in the Cold WarIn 1955, Indonesia hosts Asian and AfricanIn 1955, Indonesia hosts Asian and Africanleaders who want neutralityleaders who want neutralityNonaligned nationsNonaligned nations—independent countries—independent countriesnot involved in the Cold Warnot involved in the Cold War
  85. 85. Confrontations in Latin AmericaConfrontations in Latin AmericaFidel Castro and the Cuban RevolutionFidel Castro and the Cuban RevolutionFidel CastroFidel Castro—leads revolt in Cuba against—leads revolt in Cuba againstdictator supported by the U.S.dictator supported by the U.S.By 1959, Castro in power, nationalizesBy 1959, Castro in power, nationalizeseconomy, takes U.S. propertyeconomy, takes U.S. propertyIn 1961, Castro defeats U.S. trained CubanIn 1961, Castro defeats U.S. trained Cubanexiles at the Bay of Pigsexiles at the Bay of Pigs
  86. 86. FidelCastro
  87. 87. Confrontations in Latin AmericaConfrontations in Latin AmericaNuclear Face-off: the Cuban Missile CrisisNuclear Face-off: the Cuban Missile CrisisIn 1962, U.S. demands removal of SovietIn 1962, U.S. demands removal of Sovietmissiles in Cubamissiles in CubaSoviets withdraw missiles; U.S. promises notSoviets withdraw missiles; U.S. promises notto invade Cubato invade CubaCuban economy is left dependent on SovietCuban economy is left dependent on Sovietsupportsupport
  88. 88. The Cuban Missile CrisisThe Cuban Missile CrisisAfter the CubanAfter the CubanRevolution in the earlyRevolution in the early1960’s, the new Cuban1960’s, the new Cubangovernment adoptedgovernment adoptedcommunism.communism.Shortly thereafter, theShortly thereafter, theSoviets started buildingSoviets started buildingnuclear missile silos onnuclear missile silos onthe island.the island.Through secret, spyThrough secret, spyphotographs, the U.S.photographs, the U.S.found out about thefound out about themissiles.missiles.
  89. 89. The Cuban Missile CrisisThe Cuban Missile CrisisAngered by these actions, the U.S. demanded the SovietsAngered by these actions, the U.S. demanded the Sovietswithdraw from Cuba.withdraw from Cuba.The Soviets refused and it seemed a conflict wasThe Soviets refused and it seemed a conflict wasimminent.imminent.Both sides believed that only armed combat could resolveBoth sides believed that only armed combat could resolvethe issue.the issue.President Kennedy was even set to invade Cuba andPresident Kennedy was even set to invade Cuba andremove the missiles by force.remove the missiles by force.Just when it looked as if nuclear war was going to occur,Just when it looked as if nuclear war was going to occur,the two sides came to an agreement. The Soviets wouldthe two sides came to an agreement. The Soviets wouldremove their missiles from Cuba as long as the Americansremove their missiles from Cuba as long as the Americansremoved their own from Turkey.removed their own from Turkey.
  90. 90. Confrontations in Latin AmericaConfrontations in Latin AmericaCivil War in NicaraguaCivil War in NicaraguaAnastasio Somoza DebayleAnastasio Somoza Debayle—Nicaraguan dictator—Nicaraguan dictatorsupported by the U.S.supported by the U.S.Daniel OrtegaDaniel Ortega—leads—leads SandinistaSandinista rebels who takerebels who takepower in Nicaraguapower in NicaraguaU.S. and Soviet Union both initially supportU.S. and Soviet Union both initially supportSandinistasSandinistasSandinistas aid Communist rebels in El SalvadorSandinistas aid Communist rebels in El SalvadorU.S. helps anti-CommunistU.S. helps anti-Communist ContrasContras in Nicaragua toin Nicaragua toassist El Salvadorassist El SalvadorIn 1990, Nicaragua holds first free elections,In 1990, Nicaragua holds first free elections,Sandinistas loseSandinistas lose
  91. 91. Daniel Ortega on Time magazine,March 31, 1986Anastasio Somoza Debayle(U.S. supported president ofNicaragua from 1967-1980)
  92. 92. Confrontations in the Middle EastConfrontations in the Middle EastReligious and SecularReligious and SecularValues Clash in IranValues Clash in IranShah Reza Pahlavi embracesShah Reza Pahlavi embracesWestern governments and oilWestern governments and oilcompaniescompaniesThe U.S. and U.K. supportedThe U.S. and U.K. supportedthe Shah which was verythe Shah which was veryunpopular with people of theunpopular with people of theMiddle EastMiddle EastIn addition to this, the ShahIn addition to this, the Shahtried to “modernize” histried to “modernize” hiscountry which clashed withcountry which clashed withthe ideals of traditionalthe ideals of traditionalIslamistsIslamistsShah Reza PahlaviShah Reza Pahlavi
  93. 93. Confrontations in the Middle EastConfrontations in the Middle EastThe United States SupportsThe United States SupportsSecular RuleSecular RuleShah Reza PahlaviShah Reza Pahlaviwesternizes Iran with U.S.westernizes Iran with U.S.supportsupportAyatollah Ruholla KhomeiniAyatollah Ruholla Khomeini—Iranian Muslim leader; lives—Iranian Muslim leader; livesin exilein exileIn 1978, Khomeini sparks riotsIn 1978, Khomeini sparks riotsin Iran, Shah flees to the U.S.in Iran, Shah flees to the U.S.Khomeini claims a jihad (holyKhomeini claims a jihad (holywar) on Western influences.war) on Western influences.
  94. 94. Confrontations in the Middle EastConfrontations in the Middle EastKhomeini’s Anti-U.S.Khomeini’s Anti-U.S.PoliciesPoliciesMuslim radicals takeMuslim radicals takecontrol in Irancontrol in IranIslamic revolutionariesIslamic revolutionariesattack the U.S. Embassyattack the U.S. Embassyin Iran and holdin Iran and holdAmerican hostages inAmerican hostages inTehran (1979-1981) forTehran (1979-1981) for444 days444 daysThey demand that theThey demand that theU.S. hands over theU.S. hands over theShah in exchange for theShah in exchange for thehostages.hostages.
  95. 95. Blindfolded American hostages in Iran in 1979.
  96. 96. Iraq-Iran War (First Persian Gulf War)Iraq-Iran War (First Persian Gulf War)The Iranian Revolution put muchThe Iranian Revolution put muchstrain on relations between Iraqstrain on relations between Iraq(Sunnis) and Iran (Shiites).(Sunnis) and Iran (Shiites).With the oustering of the Shah inWith the oustering of the Shah inIran, the U.S. supported SaddamIran, the U.S. supported SaddamHussein and forces in Iraq byHussein and forces in Iraq bysupplying them with weapons,supplying them with weapons,money and intelligence.money and intelligence.Iran, on the other hand, wasIran, on the other hand, wassupported by the USSR who soldsupported by the USSR who soldweapons to the Iranians.weapons to the Iranians.Despite heavy losses on eachDespite heavy losses on eachside, neither seemed to beside, neither seemed to be
  97. 97. Confrontations in the Middle EastConfrontations in the Middle EastThe Superpowers Face Off in AfghanistanThe Superpowers Face Off in AfghanistanSoviets invade Afghanistan to helpSoviets invade Afghanistan to helpCommunist government against rebelsCommunist government against rebelsMuslim rebels fight guerilla war againstMuslim rebels fight guerilla war againstSoviets with U.S. weaponsSoviets with U.S. weaponsU.S. stops grain shipments to Soviet UnionU.S. stops grain shipments to Soviet UnionSoviets eventually withdraw in 1989Soviets eventually withdraw in 1989
  98. 98. 33.5 The Cold War33.5 The Cold WarThawsThawsThe Cold War begins to thaw asThe Cold War begins to thaw asthe superpowers enter an era ofthe superpowers enter an era ofuneasy diplomacyuneasy diplomacy
  99. 99. Soviet Policy in Eastern Europe and ChinaSoviet Policy in Eastern Europe and ChinaDestalinization and Rumblings ofDestalinization and Rumblings ofProtestProtestNikita KhrushchevNikita Khrushchev—leader of—leader ofSoviet Union after Stalin diesSoviet Union after Stalin dies(1953)(1953)Khrushchev condemns Stalin;Khrushchev condemns Stalin;Soviets and West can peacefullySoviets and West can peacefullycompetecompeteCitizens of Soviet-controlledCitizens of Soviet-controlledgovernments begin protestinggovernments begin protestingcommunismcommunismKhrushchev sends Soviet militaryKhrushchev sends Soviet militaryto put down Hungarian protesters.to put down Hungarian protesters.
  100. 100. Soviet Policy in Eastern Europe and ChinaSoviet Policy in Eastern Europe and ChinaThe Revolt inThe Revolt inCzechoslovakiaCzechoslovakiaLeonid BrezhnevLeonid Brezhnev—Soviet leader—Soviet leaderafter Khrushchev—after Khrushchev—represses dissentrepresses dissentIn 1968, WarsawIn 1968, WarsawPact troops blockPact troops blockreforms inreforms inCzechoslovakiaCzechoslovakia
  101. 101. Soviet Policy in Eastern Europe and ChinaSoviet Policy in Eastern Europe and ChinaThe Soviet-Chinese SplitThe Soviet-Chinese SplitIn 1950, Mao and Stalin sign friendship treaty,In 1950, Mao and Stalin sign friendship treaty,but tensions growbut tensions growChinese and Soviets each want to lead worldChinese and Soviets each want to lead worldcommunismcommunismKhrushchev ends economic aid and refusesKhrushchev ends economic aid and refusesto share nuclear secretsto share nuclear secretsSoviets and Chinese fight small skirmishesSoviets and Chinese fight small skirmishesacross borderacross border
  102. 102. From Brinkmanship to DFrom Brinkmanship to DétenteétenteBrinkmanship BreaksBrinkmanship BreaksDownDownBrinkmanship causeBrinkmanship causerepeated crises; nuclear warrepeated crises; nuclear wara constant threata constant threatJohn F. KennedyJohn F. Kennedy—U.S.—U.S.president during the Cubanpresident during the CubanMissile CrisisMissile CrisisLyndon JohnsonLyndon Johnson——president who increasespresident who increasesU.S. involvement in VietnamU.S. involvement in Vietnam
  103. 103. From Brinkmanship to DFrom Brinkmanship to DétenteétenteThe United States Turns toThe United States Turns toDDétenteétenteVietnam-era turmoil fuelsVietnam-era turmoil fuelsdesire for lessdesire for lessconfrontational policyconfrontational policyDétenteDétente—policy of reducing—policy of reducingCold War tensions to avoidCold War tensions to avoidconflictconflictRichard M. NixonRichard M. Nixon—U.S.—U.S.president who launchespresident who launchesdétentedétenteDétente grows out ofDétente grows out ofphilosophy known asphilosophy known asrealpolitik—”realisticrealpolitik—”realisticpolitics”—recognizes need topolitics”—recognizes need tobe practical and flexiblebe practical and flexible
  104. 104. From Brinkmanship to DFrom Brinkmanship to DétenteétenteNixon Visits Communist PowersNixon Visits Communist PowersNixon visits Communist China and SovietNixon visits Communist China and SovietUnion, signs SALT I TreatyUnion, signs SALT I TreatySALTSALT—Strategic Arms Limitation Talks——Strategic Arms Limitation Talks—limits nuclear weaponslimits nuclear weapons
  105. 105. Nixon visiting China
  106. 106. The Collapse of DThe Collapse of DétenteétentePolicy ChangesPolicy ChangesNixon and Gerald Ford improve relations withNixon and Gerald Ford improve relations withSoviets and ChinaSoviets and ChinaJimmy Carter has concerns about SovietJimmy Carter has concerns about Sovietpolicies but signs SALT IIpolicies but signs SALT IICongress will not ratify SALT II due to SovietCongress will not ratify SALT II due to Sovietinvasion of Afghanistaninvasion of Afghanistan
  107. 107. The Collapse of DThe Collapse of DétenteétenteReagan Takes an Anti-Reagan Takes an Anti-Communist StanceCommunist StanceRonald ReaganRonald Reagan—anti-—anti-Communist U.S. presidentCommunist U.S. presidenttakes office in 1981takes office in 1981Reagan increases militaryReagan increases militaryspending and proposes aspending and proposes amissile defense programmissile defense programcalled “Star Wars”called “Star Wars”
  108. 108. President Ronald Reagan at desk. George H.W. Bushbehind him along with several advisors.
  109. 109. The Collapse of the USSRThe Collapse of the USSRIn the 1980s, new SovietIn the 1980s, new Sovietleadership allows easingleadership allows easingof Cold War tensions.of Cold War tensions.In 1986, Soviet leaderIn 1986, Soviet leaderMikhail GorbachevMikhail Gorbachevintroduces his policyintroduces his policyknown asknown as PerestroikaPerestroika(restructuring),(restructuring), to allowto allowmore economic, politicalmore economic, politicalfreedom.freedom.
  110. 110. The Collapse of the USSRThe Collapse of the USSRThis causes a domino effectThis causes a domino effectand the people (especiallyand the people (especiallythose in the smaller republics)those in the smaller republics)demand independence.demand independence.This leads to collapse ofThis leads to collapse ofSoviet Union, end of ColdSoviet Union, end of ColdWar in 1991War in 1991Region divides into 15Region divides into 15independent republics.independent republics.Russia becomes aRussia becomes ademocracy and remains thatdemocracy and remains thattoday.today.

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