Section 1: Population Relocation• Guest Workers- usually unskilledlaborers that immigrate into a country towork.– Needed for oil related jobs– Problems?
Section 1: Population Relocation• Stateless Nation- a nation of people w/outa land to legally occupy.– Kurds are the largest group of people w/outtheir own country.– Gypsy’s & Palestinians?– Occupied Land?
Section 1: Population Relocation• Palestinians- displaced peoples fromthe land of Palestine (now called Israel)– Stateless nation– Main source of conflict in region!West BankGaza Strip
Section 2: Oil Wealth FuelsChange• Oil found in Saudi Arabia in 1936• Strategic Commodity- resource so important thatnations will go to war to ensure its steady supply.• Oil is more important todaythan ever before• Oil business makes up most ofGDP in nations on Arabian Peninsula– 64% of oil is in Middle East
OPEC• OPEC- Organization of Petroleum ExportingCountries-– Members set worldwide oil prices & productionquotas– Members include Algeria, Indonesia, Iran, Iraq,Kuwait, Libya, Nigeria, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, theUnited Arab Emirates, and Venezuela.
Which countries have the largestreserves of crude oil?CountryCrude oil reserves(million barrels)Saudi Arabia 262,697Iraq 112,500Iran 99,080United Arab Emirates 97,800Kuwait 96,500
Where Does U.S. get it’s Oil?• Top 10 Countries U.S.where U.S. gets it’s oil:1. Canada2. Mexico3. Saudi Arabia4. Venezuela5. Nigeria6. Angola7. Iraq8. Algeria9. United Kingdom10. Brazil
Modern Arabic Life• Dramatic changes in20thc.• Western technologyis changingtraditional life.• Ex: camels to carsor bazaars to malls.
Change to Urban Life• Dubai, U.A.E.• Riyadh, S.A.• 1960: 25% Urbanized• 1990s: 58%• 2015: 70%• 83% of people inSaudi Arabia live incities• 4 million in Riyadh• Jobs & educationchanged• More foreign workers
Section 2: Oil Wealth FuelsChange• What to do with oil profits?– 1. Modernize Infrastructure-• New roads & airports• Irrigation Networks• Desalinization Plants
Section 2: Oil Wealth FuelsChange• 2.- Develop its agricultural,mineral, & water resources– Tap underground water supplies– Reduce dependence on foreignfood imports
Section 2: Oil Wealth FuelsChange• 3.- Gain access to highereducation– Develop humanresources- the skills &talents of their people– Women’s Opportunities ineducation?
September 11thAttacks• The September 11attacks were a series offour coordinated terroristattacks launched bythe Islamicterrorist group al-Qaeda upon the UnitedStates in New YorkCity and the Washington,D.C. area on September11, 2001.•
September 11thAttacks• Four passenger airliners were hijacked by 19 al-Qaedaterrorists so they could be flown into buildings in suicideattacks.• Two of those were crashed into the World Trade Centercomplex in New York City. Within two hours, both towerscollapsed.• A third plane was crashed into the Pentagon leading to apartial collapse in its western side.• The fourth plane was targeted at the United States Capitol inWashington, D.C., but crashed into a field in Pennsylvania,after its passengers tried to overcome the hijackers.
War on Terror• In response tothe attacks of 11September, aninternational militarycampaign toeliminate al-Qaedaand other militantorganizations.
Operation Enduring Freedom• Operation EnduringFreedom sent U.S. militarypersonnel to Afghanistanstarting in October, 2001.• The operation has beensuccessful by removingleaders of the Taliban andseriously crippling al-Qaeda,but the struggle continues ontoday.
Operation Iraqi Freedom• Accused of supporting al-Qaeda and harboringweapons of massdestruction, the UnitedStates invaded Iraq in 2003the remove SaddamHussein from power.• This military action wasbetter known asOperation Iraqi Freedom.
Saddam Hussein• The Iraqi government andmilitary collapsed within threeweeks of the beginning of theU.S.-led 2003 invasion of Iraq.• Saddam went into hiding inMarch of 2003 but wascaptured later that year inDecember.• Saddam was held for trial andfound guilty of war crimes.• He was executed in 2006.
May 2nd, 2011• Perhaps the greatest victory ofthe War on Terror came whenthe CIA located Osama BinLaden, the leader of al-Qaedaand mastermind behind theSeptember 11thattacks.• U.S. Navy SEALS forces weresent into his hideout, a battleensued and Bin Laden waskilled.