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    • 1.  Like the United States, Canada is a vast land and contains nearly all types of landforms.
    • 2.  Canada is the 2nd largest country (land area) in the entire world. Together with the United States, they cover 1/8 of the Earth’s surface.
    • 3.  Canada contains all major landforms from interior plains to mountain ranges. Canada is also surrounded by 3 major oceans, the Pacific, Atlantic and Arctic.
    • 4.  The Canadian Shield is the flat, rocky region surrounding the Hudson Bay. It covers nearly 2 million square miles.
    • 5.  The Rocky Mountains are Canada’s major mountain range. The Rocky Mountains run all the way from Alaska, through Canada and the U.S., all the way down to Mexico.
    • 6.  Unlike the U.S., Canada has thousands of islands. Major islands include the Ellesmere, Baffin and Victoria Islands in the north near the Arctic circle to Nova Scotia and Newfoundland in the east and Vancouver Island in the west.
    • 7.  The U.S. and Canada are home to 8 of the top 15 largest lakes in the world. Canada shares several of the Great Lakes with the U.S. but also has many other large lakes such as Great Bear Lake, Great Slave Lake and Lake Winnipeg.
    • 8.  Along with the oceans and lakes, there are many other major waterways in Canada. St. Lawrence Seaway— deepwater ship route built by U.S. and Canada Connects Great Lakes to Atlantic by way of St. Lawrence River Large ocean vessels can get to industrial and agricultural heartland.
    • 9.  Canada’s longest river flows across Northwest Territories to Arctic Ocean
    • 10.  ½ of Canada covered by woodlands Canada is a major producer of lumber
    • 11.  Canada is very rich in natural resources.  Timber  Coal  Copper  Oil  Gold Canada exports most all of its fuel resources to the US.
    • 12.  Canada’s cold climate is related to its location in the far northern latitudes. Most of Canada’s climate is subarctic so many people live in the more habitable regions of the south. It’s really freakin’ cold!
    • 13.  Climate in Canada has a huge effect on where cities are built. In fact, 80% of Canadians only live on 10% of the land. Other factors include; water, natural resources See a pattern? and landscape.
    • 14.  Evidence shows that the Vikings first landed in the “New World” around 1000 AD. They landed in what is Modern day Newfoundland. They called it Vinland, meaning “meadowland” in Norse. They did not stay long at in the settlement.
    • 15.  Giovanni Cabato (John Cabot) was an Italian born explorer that moved to England. He looked for a northwestern passage across the Atlantic to Asia. Records show that he first landed in Newfoundland, Canada thus making him the first European to discover North America since the Vikings.
    • 16. Cabot explored most of the eastern coastline of Canada and northeastern parts of the United States.
    • 17.  In the early 1500 and 1600’s French settlers start to arrive and settle along the Atlantic Coast along St. Lawrence River French explorers claim much of Canada as “New France” They are interested in fishing and fur trade The British also settle in nearby lands along the east coast.
    • 18.  Jacque Cartiers was a famous French explorer in the 1500’s. While exploring what is now modern day Quebec, he ran into the native Huron tribe. They directed him to their village or kanata. Kanata is the Huron-Iroquois word for "village" or "settlement”. The first use of "Canada" as an official name came in 1791 when the Province of Quebec was divided into the colonies of Upper and Lower Canada.
    • 19.  France founded many colonies in much of eastern North America and were developed to export products such as fish, sugar, and furs. Major colonies include Montreal and Quebec.
    • 20.  Canada’s second-largest city; major port located on island in Quebec  - meeting of St. Lawrence and Ottawa rivers make it important trade site French settlement, established in 1642 Much of the city is underground to avoid the elements of weather. Montreal is the 2nd largest French speaking city in the world next to Paris!
    • 21.  The French and British fight over territory and trade in North America. The British defeat the French in the war and the French lose control of much of their land.
    • 22.  In 1791 Britain creates two political units called provinces - Upper Canada (later, Ontario): English-speaking, Protestant  - Lower Canada (Quebec): French- speaking, Roman Catholic
    • 23.  Rupert’s Land a northern area owned by fur-trading company Immigrants arrive, cities develop: Quebec City, Montreal, Toronto -railways, canals are built as explorers seek better fur-trading areas
    • 24.  Political, ethnic disputes lead to Britain’s 1867 North America Act - creates Dominion of Canada as a loose confederation (political union) - Ontario, Quebec, Nova Scotia, New Brunswick - self-governed part of British Empire
    • 25.  Expansion includes: - Rupert’s Land, Manitoba, British Columbia, Prince Edward Island - later: Yukon Territory, Alberta, Saskatchewan - Newfoundland is last province, founded in 1949
    • 26.  In 1885 the Canadian transcontinental railroad goes from Montreal to Vancouver European immigrants arrive and Yukon gold brings fortune hunters - copper, zinc, silver also found; grow towns, railroads
    • 27.  Farming gives way to urban industrialization, manufacturing - within 100 miles of U.S. border due to climate, land, transportation Canada becomes major economic power in 20th century
    • 28.  In 1931 Canada becomes independent and establishes a Parliamentary Government with the British monarch its sovereign (head of state)  - parliament— legislature combining legislative and executive functions  - consists of an appointed Senate, elected House of Commons  - prime minister - head of government, is majority party leader All ten provinces have own legislature and prime minister  - federal government administers the territories Capital of Canada is Ottawa, Ontario
    • 29.  Canada is highly industrialized and urbanized, with one of the world’s most developed economies. Farming, logging, mining, fishing: 10% of gross domestic product - Canada is the world’s leading exporter of forest products
    • 30.  Mining: uranium, zinc, gold, and silver are exported Fishing: domestic consumption is low, so most of catch is exported
    • 31.  Most Canadians work in service industries, which create 60% of GDP - finance, utilities, trade, transportation, communication, insurance  - land’s natural beauty makes tourism the fastest growing service
    • 32.  Heavy trade with U.S.: same language, similar culture, open and unguarded border (world’s longest) - 85% of Canadian exports go to U.S. - 75% of Canada’s imports come from U.S.
    • 33.  Canada is a land of many cultures. The two most influential countries on Canada’s culture are France and England. Most people are bilingual and speak both languages. Most English descent are Protestant and French are Catholic, often clash
    • 34.  Mixing of French and native peoples created métis culture - increasing numbers of Muslims, Jews, other groups immigrating to Canada
    • 35.  Various ethnic groups cluster in certain areas - 75% of French Canadians live in Quebec - many native peoples live on reserves—public land set aside for them - most Inuits live in the remote Arctic north - many Canadians of Asian ancestry live on West Coast
    • 36.  There are about 34 million people living in Canada today. Population is densest in port cities (Montreal, Toronto, Vancouver) and farmlands. 80% of Canadians live in cities.
    • 37.  Canada is one of the wealthiest nations with a high per capita income Canadians enjoy a high standard of living and are well-educated Today, Canada has a 97% literacy rate
    • 38.  Canadians are very active people The two most popular sports are hockey and lacrosse  -Lacrosse was developed by the native peoples  -Hockey developed by French settlers
    • 39.  Other Popular sports include: skating, fishing, skiing, golf, hunting and rodeo Annual festivals include Quebec Winter Carnival, Calgary Stampede