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Like the United States, Canada is a vast land and contains nearly all types of landforms.
Canada is the 2nd largest country (land area) in the entire world. Together with the United States, they cover 1/8 of the Earth’s surface.
Canada contains all major landforms from interior plains to mountain ranges. Canada is also surrounded by 3 major oceans, the Pacific, Atlantic and Arctic.
The Canadian Shield is the flat, rocky region surrounding the Hudson Bay. It covers nearly 2 million square miles.
The Rocky Mountains are Canada’s major mountain range. The Rocky Mountains run all the way from Alaska, through Canada and the U.S., all the way down to Mexico.
Unlike the U.S., Canada has thousands of islands. Major islands include the Ellesmere, Baffin and Victoria Islands in the north near the Arctic circle to Nova Scotia and Newfoundland in the east and Vancouver Island in the west.
The U.S. and Canada are home to 8 of the top 15 largest lakes in the world. Canada shares several of the Great Lakes with the U.S. but also has many other large lakes such as Great Bear Lake, Great Slave Lake and Lake Winnipeg.
Along with the oceans and lakes, there are many other major waterways in Canada. St. Lawrence Seaway— deepwater ship route built by U.S. and Canada Connects Great Lakes to Atlantic by way of St. Lawrence River Large ocean vessels can get to industrial and agricultural heartland.
Canada’s longest river flows across Northwest Territories to Arctic Ocean
½ of Canada covered by woodlands Canada is a major producer of lumber
Canada is very rich in natural resources. Timber Coal Copper Oil Gold Canada exports most all of its fuel resources to the US.
Canada’s cold climate is related to its location in the far northern latitudes. Most of Canada’s climate is subarctic so many people live in the more habitable regions of the south. It’s really freakin’ cold!
Climate in Canada has a huge effect on where cities are built. In fact, 80% of Canadians only live on 10% of the land. Other factors include; water, natural resources See a pattern? and landscape.
Evidence shows that the Vikings first landed in the “New World” around 1000 AD. They landed in what is Modern day Newfoundland. They called it Vinland, meaning “meadowland” in Norse. They did not stay long at in the settlement.
Giovanni Cabato (John Cabot) was an Italian born explorer that moved to England. He looked for a northwestern passage across the Atlantic to Asia. Records show that he first landed in Newfoundland, Canada thus making him the first European to discover North America since the Vikings.
Cabot explored most of the eastern coastline of Canada and northeastern parts of the United States.
In the early 1500 and 1600’s French settlers start to arrive and settle along the Atlantic Coast along St. Lawrence River French explorers claim much of Canada as “New France” They are interested in fishing and fur trade The British also settle in nearby lands along the east coast.
Jacque Cartiers was a famous French explorer in the 1500’s. While exploring what is now modern day Quebec, he ran into the native Huron tribe. They directed him to their village or kanata. Kanata is the Huron-Iroquois word for "village" or "settlement”. The first use of "Canada" as an official name came in 1791 when the Province of Quebec was divided into the colonies of Upper and Lower Canada.
France founded many colonies in much of eastern North America and were developed to export products such as fish, sugar, and furs. Major colonies include Montreal and Quebec.
Canada’s second-largest city; major port located on island in Quebec - meeting of St. Lawrence and Ottawa rivers make it important trade site French settlement, established in 1642 Much of the city is underground to avoid the elements of weather. Montreal is the 2nd largest French speaking city in the world next to Paris!
The French and British fight over territory and trade in North America. The British defeat the French in the war and the French lose control of much of their land.
In 1791 Britain creates two political units called provinces - Upper Canada (later, Ontario): English-speaking, Protestant - Lower Canada (Quebec): French- speaking, Roman Catholic
Rupert’s Land a northern area owned by fur-trading company Immigrants arrive, cities develop: Quebec City, Montreal, Toronto -railways, canals are built as explorers seek better fur-trading areas
Political, ethnic disputes lead to Britain’s 1867 North America Act - creates Dominion of Canada as a loose confederation (political union) - Ontario, Quebec, Nova Scotia, New Brunswick - self-governed part of British Empire
Expansion includes: - Rupert’s Land, Manitoba, British Columbia, Prince Edward Island - later: Yukon Territory, Alberta, Saskatchewan - Newfoundland is last province, founded in 1949
In 1885 the Canadian transcontinental railroad goes from Montreal to Vancouver European immigrants arrive and Yukon gold brings fortune hunters - copper, zinc, silver also found; grow towns, railroads
Farming gives way to urban industrialization, manufacturing - within 100 miles of U.S. border due to climate, land, transportation Canada becomes major economic power in 20th century
In 1931 Canada becomes independent and establishes a Parliamentary Government with the British monarch its sovereign (head of state) - parliament— legislature combining legislative and executive functions - consists of an appointed Senate, elected House of Commons - prime minister - head of government, is majority party leader All ten provinces have own legislature and prime minister - federal government administers the territories Capital of Canada is Ottawa, Ontario
Canada is highly industrialized and urbanized, with one of the world’s most developed economies. Farming, logging, mining, fishing: 10% of gross domestic product - Canada is the world’s leading exporter of forest products
Mining: uranium, zinc, gold, and silver are exported Fishing: domestic consumption is low, so most of catch is exported
Most Canadians work in service industries, which create 60% of GDP - finance, utilities, trade, transportation, communication, insurance - land’s natural beauty makes tourism the fastest growing service
Heavy trade with U.S.: same language, similar culture, open and unguarded border (world’s longest) - 85% of Canadian exports go to U.S. - 75% of Canada’s imports come from U.S.
Canada is a land of many cultures. The two most influential countries on Canada’s culture are France and England. Most people are bilingual and speak both languages. Most English descent are Protestant and French are Catholic, often clash
Mixing of French and native peoples created métis culture - increasing numbers of Muslims, Jews, other groups immigrating to Canada
Various ethnic groups cluster in certain areas - 75% of French Canadians live in Quebec - many native peoples live on reserves—public land set aside for them - most Inuits live in the remote Arctic north - many Canadians of Asian ancestry live on West Coast
There are about 34 million people living in Canada today. Population is densest in port cities (Montreal, Toronto, Vancouver) and farmlands. 80% of Canadians live in cities.
Canada is one of the wealthiest nations with a high per capita income Canadians enjoy a high standard of living and are well-educated Today, Canada has a 97% literacy rate
Canadians are very active people The two most popular sports are hockey and lacrosse -Lacrosse was developed by the native peoples -Hockey developed by French settlers
Other Popular sports include: skating, fishing, skiing, golf, hunting and rodeo Annual festivals include Quebec Winter Carnival, Calgary Stampede