Air Drilling Tight Gas Reservoirs Diederik Zwager & Frank Seidel
Air Drilling Gas Reservoirs How we get away with it <ul><li>#1: keep the pressures low </li></ul><ul><ul><li>No restrictio...
Air Drilling Equipment <ul><li>Primary air compressors </li></ul><ul><li>Booster </li></ul><ul><li>Mist Pump </li></ul><ul...
Blooie Line & Flare <ul><li>Flow line jet (venturi) </li></ul><ul><li>Igniter </li></ul>
Percussion Air Hammers (Cubex, Drill-Quip, Ingersoll-Rand, Numa, ...) <ul><li>With air/mist, sometimes foam </li></ul><ul>...
San Juan Basin, New Mexico <ul><li>San Juan Basin, New Mexico, USA </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Cretaceous, Sandstone Reservoirs ...
San Juan Basin Drilling <ul><li>Mud drill intermediate hole </li></ul><ul><li>Casing set through  producing water interval...
Mereenie & Palm Valley  Amadeus Basin, NT <ul><ul><li>Pacoota sandstone </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Extremely hard (50k...
Mereenie & Palm Valley Amadeus Basin, NT <ul><li>Air Drilling </li></ul><ul><ul><li>No water influxes </li></ul></ul><ul><...
Bit Trips & Completions <ul><li>Bit trips & completion </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Strip live well through rotating head </li></...
Air Drilling Tight Gas Reservoirs <ul><li>Keeps swelling shales dry </li></ul><ul><li>No lost circulation, no formation da...
Contact Energy Ltd New Zealand <ul><li>Reductions in Formation Damage </li></ul><ul><ul><li>(Fewer) Cuttings material in f...
Reykjavik Energy, HS Energy Iceland <ul><li>Fractured volcanic </li></ul><ul><ul><li>World record 12-1/4” tri-cone bit run...
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Air Drilling Tight Gas Reservoirs

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Shows how tight gas reservoirs can be drilled cost effectively with air as the circulating system

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  • Air Drilling Tight Gas Reservoirs

    1. 1. Air Drilling Tight Gas Reservoirs Diederik Zwager & Frank Seidel
    2. 2. Air Drilling Gas Reservoirs How we get away with it <ul><li>#1: keep the pressures low </li></ul><ul><ul><li>No restrictions at the surface </li></ul></ul><ul><li>#2: no liquid hydrocarbons </li></ul><ul><ul><li>If present, switch to membrane N2 </li></ul></ul><ul><li>#3: preferably no water influxes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Can be handled by misting, foam </li></ul></ul>
    3. 3. Air Drilling Equipment <ul><li>Primary air compressors </li></ul><ul><li>Booster </li></ul><ul><li>Mist Pump </li></ul><ul><li>Rotating head </li></ul><ul><li>(Grant, Washington, Williams) </li></ul><ul><li>Float valves </li></ul><ul><li>Fire float/stop </li></ul>
    4. 4. Blooie Line & Flare <ul><li>Flow line jet (venturi) </li></ul><ul><li>Igniter </li></ul>
    5. 5. Percussion Air Hammers (Cubex, Drill-Quip, Ingersoll-Rand, Numa, ...) <ul><li>With air/mist, sometimes foam </li></ul><ul><li>Typical max dP only 250 psi </li></ul><ul><li>Require low weight on bit, controls deviation </li></ul><ul><li>Special carbide insert bits </li></ul><ul><li>Wide variety of sizes </li></ul>WATER CHECK VALVE WEAR SLEEVE INTERNAL CYLINDER PISTON PIN DRIVE SPLINE SYSTEM BIT
    6. 6. San Juan Basin, New Mexico <ul><li>San Juan Basin, New Mexico, USA </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Cretaceous, Sandstone Reservoirs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>75 years of commercial gas production </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>7% of US gas production </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>30,000+ wells drilled </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>1,700 – 2,200 m measured depth </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>250 – 3,000 psi BHP </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>0.01-0.1 md rock quality </li></ul></ul>
    7. 7. San Juan Basin Drilling <ul><li>Mud drill intermediate hole </li></ul><ul><li>Casing set through producing water intervals </li></ul><ul><li>Air/Nitrogen drill production hole </li></ul><ul><li>Tight pay zones flow little gas </li></ul><ul><li>Drilled with Air Hammers and Bits : up to 50 m/hr </li></ul>
    8. 8. Mereenie & Palm Valley Amadeus Basin, NT <ul><ul><li>Pacoota sandstone </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Extremely hard (50kpsi compressive strength) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Mud rop: 1 m/hr </li></ul></ul></ul>
    9. 9. Mereenie & Palm Valley Amadeus Basin, NT <ul><li>Air Drilling </li></ul><ul><ul><li>No water influxes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Used air hammers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>15 – 20 m/hr </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Palm Valley </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Usual 10-15 mmscfd </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Extremes of 69 & 136 mmscfd encountered </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Mereenie </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Up to 30 mmscfd/well </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Very abrasive </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Significant wear on rotating head </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ceramic liners considered </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Drill oversize holes, allow bit to wear </li></ul></ul>
    10. 10. Bit Trips & Completions <ul><li>Bit trips & completion </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Strip live well through rotating head </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Run retrievable packer, use snubbing unit to run completion </li></ul></ul>
    11. 11. Air Drilling Tight Gas Reservoirs <ul><li>Keeps swelling shales dry </li></ul><ul><li>No lost circulation, no formation damage, in sub-normal pressured zones </li></ul><ul><li>Provides increased penetration rate, no chip hold down </li></ul><ul><li>Provides less hole deviation, less weight on bit required </li></ul>
    12. 12. Contact Energy Ltd New Zealand <ul><li>Reductions in Formation Damage </li></ul><ul><ul><li>(Fewer) Cuttings material in fractures </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Enhanced Well productivity </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Olkaria 3 – 5 MWe/well drilled conventially </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>8 – 12 MWe/well drilled with air </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mokai 5 – 10 MWe/well drilled conventially </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>8 – 20 MWe/well drilled with air </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Rotokawa 5 – 10 MWe/well drilled conventially </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>10 – 30 MWe/well drilled with air </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Putauaki 5 – 8 MWe/well drilled conventially </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>12 – 20 MWe/well drilled with air </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ohaaki 2 – 6 MWe/well drilled conventially 8 – 15 MWe/well drilled with air </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Reduced thermal recovery period </li></ul>
    13. 13. Reykjavik Energy, HS Energy Iceland <ul><li>Fractured volcanic </li></ul><ul><ul><li>World record 12-1/4” tri-cone bit runs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>1,472 m @ up to 30 m/hr (May 21-26, 2006) </li></ul></ul>

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