D R C O U R T E N A Y F R A Z I E R N O R B U R Y
R O Y A L H O L L O W A Y , U N I V E R S I T Y O F L O N D O N
THE RELA...
LITERACY IS PARASITIC ON LANGUAGE
SKILLS
• at-risk studies:
precursors to dyslexia
• poor comprehenders
have language
impa...
THE NATURE OF READING
Both skills are necessary. Neither skill is sufficient
COMPREHENSIONDECODING
READING
SIMPLE VIEW OF READING
comprehension:
oral language skills
(vocabulary, grammar,
discourse)
decoding:
phonological process...
Plaut et al., (1996)
semantics
phonology orthography
spoken
words
printed
words
word
meanings
Phonological
skills
Verbal STM
Phonological
awareness
Nonword
repetition
Phonological
Learning
Name
retrieval
Based on Sno...
A T R I S K S T U D I E S
PRE-CURSORS OF
DYSLEXIA
DIRECTION OF CAUSATION?
• phonological skills
• reading skills
• need to demonstrate that phonological deficits are
eviden...
AT-RISK STUDIES
• considerable evidence that dyslexia is
influenced by genetic factors
• thus, children of adult dyslexics...
AT-RISK STUDIES
• Scarborough (1990)
• Snowling, Gallagher, & Frith (2003)
• Nash, Hulme, Gooch & Snowling (2013)
test chi...
HIGHLY CONSISTENT FINDINGS…
• high-risk children who go on to develop dyslexia
have significant and persisting deficits in...
BUT
• those that go on to develop dyslexia also
have pervasive impairments in oral
language development:
• vocabulary know...
SUMMARY: AT-RISK STUDIES
• children at-risk of dyslexia have phonological
deficits prior to the onset of reading instructi...
POOR COMPREHENDERS
EXAMPLE FROM NARA-II
Kim stopped on her way to school. In
the middle of the traffic lay two
children. Their bicycles had c...
POOR COMPREHENDERS
• 10% of normal
population
• unnoticed in the
classroom
• Nation & Snowling,
1997
• 17 poor comprehende...
Plaut et al., (1996)
semantics
phonology orthography
spoken
words
printed
words
word
meanings
Synonym judgement (mean the same?)
boat ship
sob boat
Rhyme judgement (sound the same?)
rope hope
joke soap
SEMANTICS VS PHONOLOGY
200
300
400
500
600
700
800
900
1000
1100
Synonym Task Rhyme Task
RT(msec)
Poor Comprehenders Contr...
eye
hymn
ocean
chaos
neighbour
gnat
choir
suede
eulogy lieutenant
Leicester
league
grotesque
enough
muscle
daughter
words ...
ORAL LANGUAGE SKILLS
• ‘lower-level’ deficits
• semantic skills
• broader language abilities
• working memory
• ‘higher-le...
25 poor comprehenders, 23 controls, matched for
decoding, nonverbal ability and age (8-9 years)
Phonology:
Nonword repetit...
25 poor comprehenders, 23 controls, matched for
decoding, nonverbal ability and age (8-9 years)
Phonology:
Nonword repetit...
HIGHER-LEVEL CONTEXTUAL
PROCESSES: INFERENCING
John had got up early to learn his spellings. He was very tired
and decided...
OAKHILL (1984)
• skilled readers
(controls) better at
answering both
question types
Higher-level contextual processes:
inf...
• when text made
available, groups
didn’t differ on literal
questions but did on
inference questions
• not due to memory
l...
• Adlof et al. (2010)
• prediction of comprehension skill in general
• predictors change over developmental time
• combina...
LITERACY IN ATYPICAL
POPULATIONS
autism
spectrum
disorder
(ASD)
social-emotional
reciprocity
nonverbal
communicative
behaviours
developing and
maintaining
...
SIMPLE VIEW OF READING
comprehension:
word knowledge
sentence processing
context processing
decoding:
phonological
process...
Phonology
• seen as a strength
• articulation
• deficits in non-sense
word repetition
common
• assessment of
phonological
...
PROFILES OF READING IN ASD
comprehension:
oral language skills
(vocabulary, grammar,
discourse)
decoding:
phonological pro...
NORBURY & NATION (2011). SCIENTIFIC STUDIES OF READING
• individuals with ASD seen at two time points:
• Time 1: mean age ...
50
60
70
80
90
100
110
words non-words words non-words
ALI
ALN
TD
Time 1 Time 2
The Beaver Story
•Integration of words
appropriate to story
context
•Comprehension of literal
and inferential questions
Th...
•Integration of words
appropriate to story context
•ALI poor
•Comprehension of literal
and inferential questions
•ALI and ...
WORD READING PROFILESReadingstandardscores
0
20
40
60
80
100
120
140
TD ALN ALI LI
Regular
Irregular
Non-words
Lucas & Nor...
WORD READING PROFILESReadingstandardscores
0
20
40
60
80
100
120
140
TD ALN ALI LI
Regular
Irregular
Non-words
these child...
INTERVENTION
semantics
phonology orthography
http://readingformeaning.co.uk/
COMPONENTS OF A GOOD
INTERVENTION STUDY
• treatment group and a comparison group
• development, practice effects, regressi...
COMPONENTS OF A GOOD
INTERVENTION STUDY
• see Duff & Clarke (2010) Journal of Child Psychology
& Psychiatry or:
• http://d...
oral language
programme
text
comprehensio
n programme
combined
programme
total of 160 children: randomly allocated to four...
oral language programme
text comprehension
programme
•spoken
narrative
•listening
comprehension
•figurative
language
•voca...
all groups improve relative to no treatment controls
all groups maintain improvement ~11 months after treatment ends
Oral ...
language is the
foundation on which
literacy is built
children with
language deficits in
pre-school years are
at hugely in...
THANK YOU!
C O U R T E N A Y . N O R B U R Y @ R H U L . A C . U K
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Dyslexia Guild Conference 2013 - Keynote Speaker Dr Courtenay Frazier

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Dr Courtenay Frazier Norbury, Royal Holloway University of London, "The relationship between language and literacy"

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Dyslexia Guild Conference 2013 - Keynote Speaker Dr Courtenay Frazier

  1. 1. D R C O U R T E N A Y F R A Z I E R N O R B U R Y R O Y A L H O L L O W A Y , U N I V E R S I T Y O F L O N D O N THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN LANGUAGE AND LITERACY
  2. 2. LITERACY IS PARASITIC ON LANGUAGE SKILLS • at-risk studies: precursors to dyslexia • poor comprehenders have language impairments • literacy in atypical populations • intervention focusing on language supports later literacy
  3. 3. THE NATURE OF READING Both skills are necessary. Neither skill is sufficient COMPREHENSIONDECODING READING
  4. 4. SIMPLE VIEW OF READING comprehension: oral language skills (vocabulary, grammar, discourse) decoding: phonological processing - + - + skilledpoor comprehender dyslexia generally poor reader (language disorder) Bishop & Snowling (2004). Psychological Bulletin
  5. 5. Plaut et al., (1996) semantics phonology orthography spoken words printed words word meanings
  6. 6. Phonological skills Verbal STM Phonological awareness Nonword repetition Phonological Learning Name retrieval Based on Snowling & Hulme (1994)
  7. 7. A T R I S K S T U D I E S PRE-CURSORS OF DYSLEXIA
  8. 8. DIRECTION OF CAUSATION? • phonological skills • reading skills • need to demonstrate that phonological deficits are evident prior to reading instruction reading skills phonological skills
  9. 9. AT-RISK STUDIES • considerable evidence that dyslexia is influenced by genetic factors • thus, children of adult dyslexics are at greatly increased risk of becoming dyslexic • can assess phonological skills in early childhood, before reading instruction occurs
  10. 10. AT-RISK STUDIES • Scarborough (1990) • Snowling, Gallagher, & Frith (2003) • Nash, Hulme, Gooch & Snowling (2013) test children at high-risk and low-risk on phonology, language and related measures prior to school entry follow these children up at ~8yrs: high-risk: dyslexic high-risk: not dyslexic low-risk: not dyslexic
  11. 11. HIGHLY CONSISTENT FINDINGS… • high-risk children who go on to develop dyslexia have significant and persisting deficits in all phonological tasks • speech perception • verbal short-term memory • RAN • phonological awareness • non-word repetition • object naming • letter knowledge • high-risk children who do not develop dyslexia also have difficulties with phonologically based tasks and non-word decoding • these tend to be milder
  12. 12. BUT • those that go on to develop dyslexia also have pervasive impairments in oral language development: • vocabulary knowledge, grammar • those with unimpaired literacy do not differ from controls on broader measures of language ability
  13. 13. SUMMARY: AT-RISK STUDIES • children at-risk of dyslexia have phonological deficits prior to the onset of reading instruction • children who go on to have dyslexia also have broader range language deficits in pre-school years • children with oral language and phonological weaknesses at school entry need support to develop these skills
  14. 14. POOR COMPREHENDERS
  15. 15. EXAMPLE FROM NARA-II Kim stopped on her way to school. In the middle of the traffic lay two children. Their bicycles had crashed into each other. Kim ran quickly to help. She saw that no-one was hurt. The children pointed to a television camera. ‘We are taking part in a road safety lesson’ they said. 1. Where was Kim going? 2. Why did Kim stop? 3. What had happened to the bikes? 4. How do you think Kim felt? 5. What did Kim do? 6. Were the children hurt? 7. What were the children really doing? 8. How did Kim find out what was happening?
  16. 16. POOR COMPREHENDERS • 10% of normal population • unnoticed in the classroom • Nation & Snowling, 1997 • 17 poor comprehenders and 17 controls • Matched on age, nonword single word reading and nonverbal ability 60 70 80 90 100 110 120 Comprehension Accuracy Normal Readers Poor Comprehenders Nation & Snowling, 1997
  17. 17. Plaut et al., (1996) semantics phonology orthography spoken words printed words word meanings
  18. 18. Synonym judgement (mean the same?) boat ship sob boat Rhyme judgement (sound the same?) rope hope joke soap
  19. 19. SEMANTICS VS PHONOLOGY 200 300 400 500 600 700 800 900 1000 1100 Synonym Task Rhyme Task RT(msec) Poor Comprehenders Controls < 1% 2.7% 9.4% 21.3% Nation & Snowling, 1998
  20. 20. eye hymn ocean chaos neighbour gnat choir suede eulogy lieutenant Leicester league grotesque enough muscle daughter words that rely on semantic support
  21. 21. ORAL LANGUAGE SKILLS • ‘lower-level’ deficits • semantic skills • broader language abilities • working memory • ‘higher-level’ discourse processing • inference making • comprehension monitoring • integrating text (across passages and with existing knowledge)
  22. 22. 25 poor comprehenders, 23 controls, matched for decoding, nonverbal ability and age (8-9 years) Phonology: Nonword repetition, phoneme deletion and rhyme oddity Semantics: Vocabulary, Similarities Morphosyntax: Recalling Sentences, past tense generation, Test for the Reception of Grammar High-level language skills: WISC Comprehension, Test of Language Competence Nation, Clarke, Marshall & Durand, 2004
  23. 23. 25 poor comprehenders, 23 controls, matched for decoding, nonverbal ability and age (8-9 years) Phonology: Nonword repetition, phoneme deletion and rhyme oddity Semantics: Vocabulary, Similarities Morphosyntax: Recalling Sentences, past tense generation, Test for the Reception of Grammar High level language skills: WISC Comprehension, Test of Language Competence * * * * * * * Nation, Clarke, Marshall & Durand, 2004
  24. 24. HIGHER-LEVEL CONTEXTUAL PROCESSES: INFERENCING John had got up early to learn his spellings. He was very tired and decided to take a break. When he opened his eyes again the first thing he noticed was the clock on the chair. It was an hour later and nearly time for school. He picked up his two books and put them in a bag. He started pedalling as fast as he could. However, John ran over some broken bottles and had to walk the rest of the way. By the time he had crossed the bridge and arrived at class, the test was over. How did John travel to school? What did John do when he decided to take a break? Why did John have to walk some of the way to school? How do you know that John was late for school? What was John trying to learn? Where was the clock? How many books did John pick up? What did John have to cross on his way to school? (Oakhill 1984)
  25. 25. OAKHILL (1984) • skilled readers (controls) better at answering both question types Higher-level contextual processes: inferencing
  26. 26. • when text made available, groups didn’t differ on literal questions but did on inference questions • not due to memory limitations • see also Nation et al. 1999 Oakhill (1984)
  27. 27. • Adlof et al. (2010) • prediction of comprehension skill in general • predictors change over developmental time • combination of test scores better at anticipating comprehension deficit rather than any one measure • 2nd grade: recalling sentences, letter identification, maternal education, rapid naming • 8th grade: recalling sentences, phoneme deletion, maternal education, grammar completion, non-verbal IQ • Nation et al. (2010) • prospective longitudinal study between ages 5-8 • comparison of poor versus skilled comprehenders at 8 • word reading and decoding accuracy ok at all time points • subtle but persistent deficits in all aspects of oral language ability at each measurement point language deficits occur before onset of reading reading environment also important
  28. 28. LITERACY IN ATYPICAL POPULATIONS
  29. 29. autism spectrum disorder (ASD) social-emotional reciprocity nonverbal communicative behaviours developing and maintaining relationships Stereotyped behaviour Routines, rituals & rigidity Highly restricted, fixated interests unusual sensory interests social communication and social interaction restricted repertoire of interests and behaviours
  30. 30. SIMPLE VIEW OF READING comprehension: word knowledge sentence processing context processing decoding: phonological processing - + - +
  31. 31. Phonology • seen as a strength • articulation • deficits in non-sense word repetition common • assessment of phonological awareness skills almost non-existent Comprehension • generally poor • good vocabulary, but ‘lexical quality’ poor • weaker sentence processing abilities • problems with: • narrative • inferencing • figurative expressions • ambiguity BUT... most studies of small groups with huge VIQ ranges Higher level deficits associated with lower level language problems
  32. 32. PROFILES OF READING IN ASD comprehension: oral language skills (vocabulary, grammar, discourse) decoding: phonological processing - + - + ??? Bishop & Snowling (2004). Psychological Bulletin small number are ‘good’ readers at least 1/3 are ‘poor comprehenders’ large proportion may be ‘generally poor’ readers
  33. 33. NORBURY & NATION (2011). SCIENTIFIC STUDIES OF READING • individuals with ASD seen at two time points: • Time 1: mean age 11 years • Time 2: mean age 15 years • all still in full-time special educational provision • all have broadly normal NVIQ • compared to typically developing boys at Time 2 only
  34. 34. 50 60 70 80 90 100 110 words non-words words non-words ALI ALN TD Time 1 Time 2
  35. 35. The Beaver Story •Integration of words appropriate to story context •Comprehension of literal and inferential questions The Hedgehog Story •Comprehension monitoring •phonological errors •grammatical errors •context errors after Snowling and Frith (1986)
  36. 36. •Integration of words appropriate to story context •ALI poor •Comprehension of literal and inferential questions •ALI and ALN struggle •Comprehension monitoring •ALI least likely to spot errors •grammatical errors most difficult after Snowling and Frith (1986)
  37. 37. WORD READING PROFILESReadingstandardscores 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 TD ALN ALI LI Regular Irregular Non-words Lucas & Norbury (in preparation)
  38. 38. WORD READING PROFILESReadingstandardscores 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 TD ALN ALI LI Regular Irregular Non-words these children struggle to read connected text… Lucas & Norbury (in preparation)
  39. 39. INTERVENTION
  40. 40. semantics phonology orthography http://readingformeaning.co.uk/
  41. 41. COMPONENTS OF A GOOD INTERVENTION STUDY • treatment group and a comparison group • development, practice effects, regression to the mean • random allocation of children to each group • reduce bias • appropriate assessments for ‘diagnosis’ and ‘outcome’ • standardised and bespoke: related to treatment • ‘blind’ assessment pre/post therapy • adequate sample size to show treatment effects • theoretically motivated/evidence based treatment
  42. 42. COMPONENTS OF A GOOD INTERVENTION STUDY • see Duff & Clarke (2010) Journal of Child Psychology & Psychiatry or: • http://deevybee.blogspot.com/2010_08_01_archive .html
  43. 43. oral language programme text comprehensio n programme combined programme total of 160 children: randomly allocated to four groups aged 8-10 years, no cognitive impairment, discrepant reading - comprehension 2x 10 week therapy blocks: 3x 30 minute sessions per week delivered by learning support assistants fully trained by research team
  44. 44. oral language programme text comprehension programme •spoken narrative •listening comprehension •figurative language •vocabulary • written narrative • reading comprehension • inferencing • metacognitive strategies
  45. 45. all groups improve relative to no treatment controls all groups maintain improvement ~11 months after treatment ends Oral Language group show greatest overall and longest-lasting gains
  46. 46. language is the foundation on which literacy is built children with language deficits in pre-school years are at hugely increased risk for reading failure targeted intervention improves language and literacy outcome complex view of reading semantics phonology orthography grammar discourse context
  47. 47. THANK YOU! C O U R T E N A Y . N O R B U R Y @ R H U L . A C . U K
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