Intro to DNS 101: Dyn Chief Scientist Tom Daly
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Intro to DNS 101: Dyn Chief Scientist Tom Daly

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In this slide deck, Dyn Chief Scientist Tom Daly explains how DNS works, the technology involved and some of the advantages of going with a managed/outsourced provider like Dyn.

In this slide deck, Dyn Chief Scientist Tom Daly explains how DNS works, the technology involved and some of the advantages of going with a managed/outsourced provider like Dyn.

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    Intro to DNS 101: Dyn Chief Scientist Tom Daly Intro to DNS 101: Dyn Chief Scientist Tom Daly Presentation Transcript

    • DNS  101:  The  Domain    Name  System  (DNS)  Tom  Daly  Chief  Scien5st,  Dyn  Labs  tom@dyn.com  |  @tomdyninc   Dyn.com    |    @dyninc  
    • Agenda   •  Welcome  and  Introduc5on   •  DNS  Components  and  Terminology   •  DNS  is  Cri5cal  Internet  Infrastructure   •  Challenges  of  Opera5ng  DNS   •  Introduc5on  to  DynECT  Managed  DNS   •  Q&A  DNS  101:  The  Domain  Name  System  (DNS)  Tom  Daly          @tomdyninc     Dyn.com    |    @dyninc  
    • Let’s  dive  into  DNS   hMp://www.flickr.com/photos/maM_gibson/2559703930/sizes/o/in/photostream/  
    • An  Analogy  to  Start…   •  Servers  on  the  Internet  have  IP  Addresses,  like  a   telephone  number.   •  A  Domain  Name  (like  dyn.com,  twiMer.com,  and   amazon.com)  is  a  name  badge  on  the  Internet.   •  DNS  (domain  name  system)  service  is  the  Internet’s   Telephone  Book.   •  If  you  have  someone’s  name,  you  can  look  up  their   phone  number.   •  DNS  maps  domain  names  to  IP  addresses  and  other   pieces  of  network  data  to  get  you  to  the  right  place.  DNS  101:  The  Domain  Name  System  (DNS)  Tom  Daly          @tomdyninc     Dyn.com    |    @dyninc  
    • Domain  Names   •  Domain  Names  are  registered  through  ICANN   accredited  registrars  –  companies  who  work  with   domain  name  registries.   •  Example  Registrars:   –  Dyn.com   –  GoDaddy   –  Network  Solu5ons   •  Example  Registries:   –  .com,  .net,  .org,  .info,  .biz,  .mobi,  .co.uk,  .com.cn,  .de,  .dk  DNS  101:  The  Domain  Name  System  (DNS)  Tom  Daly          @tomdyninc     Dyn.com    |    @dyninc  
    • The  Domain  Name  System  (DNS)   •  Fundamentally,  the  DNS  is  a  mul5-­‐level  database   distributed  throughout  the  world.   •  DNS  maps  domain  names  to    network  resources,  such  as  the    IP  address  of  a  web  server,  FTP    server,  or  e-­‐mail  server.   •  This  is  accomplished  through  a  variety   of  DNS  record  types.  Record  types  give  you  the  hint   about  the  type  of  remote  server  you’re  contac5ng.  DNS  101:  The  Domain  Name  System  (DNS)  Tom  Daly          @tomdyninc     Dyn.com    |    @dyninc  
    • The  Goal:  Your  Customers  Connect  DNS  101:  The  Domain  Name  System  (DNS)  Tom  Daly          @tomdyninc     Dyn.com    |    @dyninc  
    • The  Goal:  Your  Customers  Connect  DNS  101:  The  Domain  Name  System  (DNS)  Tom  Daly          @tomdyninc     Dyn.com    |    @dyninc  
    • Components  and  Terminology   hMp://www.flickr.com/photos/kryptos5/3281740790/sizes/z/in/photostream/  
    • Naming  in  DNS   •  Fully  Qualified  Domain  Name  (FQDN):  A  complete   name  for  something  in  the  DNS.   –  ex:  server1.www.dyn.com.   –  Alterna5vely  known  as  a  “Hostname”   •  Domain  Name:  A  registered  name  with  a  registry.   –  ex:  dyn.com   •  Subdomain  Name:  A  registered  name  within  a   Domain,  but  not  an  FQDN.   –  ex:  www.dyn.com  DNS  101:  The  Domain  Name  System  (DNS)  Tom  Daly          @tomdyninc     Dyn.com    |    @dyninc  
    • The  DNS  Hierarchy   •  There  are  over  141,922,316    domain  names   registered  in  the  main  TLDs  today.   •  That’s  a  lot  of  data  for  a  single  sever  to  have   mapping  informa5on  about.   •  The  DNS  is  broken  up  into  various  levels  to  help   spread  out  the  database.   •  Let’s  look  at  how  server1.www.dyn.com  is  setup  in   DNS  –  shall  we?  DNS  101:  The  Domain  Name  System  (DNS)  Tom  Daly          @tomdyninc     Dyn.com    |    @dyninc  
    • It  all  starts  at  <root>   <root>  server1.www.dyn.com.  ?  A  
    • With  databases  for  each  Top  Level  Domain   <root>   .com   .net   .org   server1.www.dyn.com.  ?  A  
    • With  databases  for  each  Domain  in  the  TLD   <root>   .com   dyn.com   cnn.com   cnbc.com   server1.www.dyn.com.  ?  A  
    • Combining  data  helps  to  find  the  answer…   <root>   .com   dyn.com   server1.www.dyn.com.  ?  A   204.13.248.106  
    • AuthoritaZve  DNS  servers  have  a  copy  of  the   data  at  every  level.   <root>   Root  DNS   Servers   .com   .com   Servers   dyn.com   dyn.com   Servers  
    • And  delegaZons  help  us  find  relaZonships…   <root>   Root  DNS   Servers   .com   .com   Servers   dyn.com   dyn.com   Servers  
    • What  are  we  searching  for?   •  FQDNs  and  DNS  Records  –  Ul5mate  answers  about   where  you  want  to  go.   •  DelegaZons  –  Points  to  help  you  find  the  right  path  if   the  current  authorita5ve  server  doesn’t  know  the   answer.   •  DNS  Security  (DNSSEC)  InformaZon  –  Secret   passphrases  and  keys  to  secure  DNS  informa5on  (an   advanced  topic!)  DNS  101:  The  Domain  Name  System  (DNS)  Tom  Daly          @tomdyninc     Dyn.com    |    @dyninc  
    • Popular  Record  Types   •  (A)  –  point  names  to  IPv4  addresses   –  ex.  dyn.com  A  to  204.13.248.106   •  (AAAA)  –  points  names  to  IPv6  addresses   –  ex.  dyn.com  AAAA  to  2600:2001:0:3::106   •  (CNAME)  –  points  one  name  to  another   –  ex.  www.dyn.com  CNAME  is  an  alias  for  dyn.com   •  (MX)  –  points  email  to  an  inbound  email  server   –  ex.  dyn.com  MX  to  zmta-­‐01-­‐mht.dyndns.com.   •  (SPF)  –  declares  authorized  email  servers  for  a  domain   –  ex.  dyn.com  TXT  to  "v=spf1  ip4:216.146.45.0/24”  DNS  101:  The  Domain  Name  System  (DNS)  Tom  Daly          @tomdyninc     Dyn.com    |    @dyninc  
    • DNS  Servers  in  Two  Parts   •  AuthoritaZve  DNS:  The  copies  of  maps  about  where  to   go.   –  We  some5mes  call  this  part  “the  Internet’s  telephone  book.”   –  Geeks  think  of  it  as  a  huge,  globally  distributed  database.   –  Generally  run  by  registrars,  hos5ng  providers,  and  managed  DNS   providers.   •  Recursive  DNS:  The  driver  looking  for  maps,  and  taking   you  to  the  informa5on.   –  More  like  “Directory  Assistance”   –  Ability  to  search  for  informa5on  across  lots  of  different   Authorita5ve  DNS  servers  and  temporarily  store  a  copy  of  the  info.   –  Generally  run  by  ISPs,  or  Dyn  Internet  Guide,  OpenDNS,  GoogleDNS  DNS  101:  The  Domain  Name  System  (DNS)  Tom  Daly          @tomdyninc     Dyn.com    |    @dyninc  
    • The  AuthoritaZve  DNS  Server   •  Clusters  of  authorita5ve  DNS  servers  work  together   to  provide  redundancy.   •  Delega5ons  indicate  all  of  a  domain’s  poten5al   servers  in  a  cluster.   ns1.dyn.com   ns2.dyn.com   dyn.com   ns3.dyn.com   ns4.dyn.com  DNS  101:  The  Domain  Name  System  (DNS)  Tom  Daly          @tomdyninc     Dyn.com    |    @dyninc  
    • The  Recursive  DNS  Server   •  One  or  two  recursive  DNS  servers  are  given  to  your   ISP  or  provider  –  you  only  use  one  at  a  5me.   •  They  help  find  you  answers  about  the  Internet,   places  to  go,  things  to  do.   •  Recursive  DNS  servers  cache   Recursive   DNS  answers  for  a  period  of  5me,   DNS   known  as  the  Time  to  Live  (TTL).   •  This  helps  DNS  be  less  noisy  on  the  Internet.  DNS  101:  The  Domain  Name  System  (DNS)  Tom  Daly          @tomdyninc     Dyn.com    |    @dyninc  
    • Working  Together:  The    Lifecycle  of  a  DNS  Request   <root>   Root  DNS   Servers   .com   .com   Recursive   Servers   DNS  dyn.com   dyn.com   Servers   server1.www.dyn.com.       204.13.248.106  
    • DNS  is  core  Internet  Infrastructure   hMp://www.poslovnipuls.com/wp-­‐content/uploads/2011/05/sta5s5ka_v.jpg  
    • Internet  ApplicaZons  Depends  on  DNS   •  Web:  U5lizes  A  (IPv4)  and  AAAA  (IPv6)  records  to   locate  web  servers  for  web  sites.   •  Email:  U5lizes  MX  records  to  locate  email  servers   and  to  implement  automated  email  server  failover.   •  An5-­‐SPAM:  SPF,  DKIM  and  DMARC  all  used  to   prevent  junk  from  gesng  to  the  inbox.   •  VPN:  IPSECKEY  records  help  secure  connec5ons.   •  Collabora5on:  SRV  records  help  locate  chat,  audio,   and  video  conferencing  bridges  and  components.  DNS  101:  The  Domain  Name  System  (DNS)  Tom  Daly          @tomdyninc     Dyn.com    |    @dyninc  
    • DNS  for  the  Web  DNS  101:  The  Domain  Name  System  (DNS)  Tom  Daly          @tomdyninc     Dyn.com    |    @dyninc  
    • DNS  for  Email  DNS  101:  The  Domain  Name  System  (DNS)  Tom  Daly          @tomdyninc     Dyn.com    |    @dyninc  
    • DNS  for  VOIP  DNS  101:  The  Domain  Name  System  (DNS)  Tom  Daly          @tomdyninc     Dyn.com    |    @dyninc  
    • DNS  for  Audio  and  Video  DNS  101:  The  Domain  Name  System  (DNS)  Tom  Daly          @tomdyninc     Dyn.com    |    @dyninc  
    • Challenges  of  OperaZng  DNS   hMp://www.poslovnipuls.com/wp-­‐content/uploads/2011/05/sta5s5ka_v.jpg  
    • DNS  MisconfiguraZon   •  Misconfigura5on  of  DNS  s5ll  accounts  for  a   significant  number  of  site  outages  worldwide.   •  State  of  the  Art  is  a  Text  Editor:   •  Some  appliances  have   a  fancy  UI  on  them.  DNS  101:  The  Domain  Name  System  (DNS)  Tom  Daly          @tomdyninc     Dyn.com    |    @dyninc  
    • Availability  and  Performance   •  DNS  must  always  be  available,  otherwise,  web,   email,  video,  VOIP,  and  online  services  are  down.   •  Need  to  build  redundancy  into  the  network,  and   maintain  specially   clustered  systems.   •  Risk  of  aMack  on  your  DNS?   •  When  things  go  wrong,   people  say:    DNS  101:  The  Domain  Name  System  (DNS)  Tom  Daly          @tomdyninc     Dyn.com    |    @dyninc  
    • Limited  Visibility  and  Monitoring   •  Except  for  custom  tools,  repor5ng  for  DNS  is  limited.   •  DNS  needs  global  monitoring  and  availability   repor5ng.   •  Can  you  really  tell  if  you  are  up  or  down  from  within   your  network?   •  Even  worse,  what     happens  when  your     customers  noZce?!!!  DNS  101:  The  Domain  Name  System  (DNS)  Tom  Daly          @tomdyninc     Dyn.com    |    @dyninc  
    • SoluZon:  DynECT  Managed  DNS   hMp://www.flickr.com/photos/nhuisman/3168683736/sizes/l/in/photostream/  
    • Web  UI  or  API?   SOAP   REST   API   API   Dynamic   WebUI   DNS   DNS  API   Core   Engine  DNS  101:  The  Domain  Name  System  (DNS)  Tom  Daly          @tomdyninc     Dyn.com    |    @dyninc  
    • Global  ResoluZon  Network  DNS  101:  The  Domain  Name  System  (DNS)  Tom  Daly          @tomdyninc     Dyn.com    |    @dyninc  
    • Extensive  ReporZng  DNS  101:  The  Domain  Name  System  (DNS)  Tom  Daly          @tomdyninc     Dyn.com    |    @dyninc  
    • A  Proven  Track  Record  
    • And  an  amazing  team!  
    • Stay  Tuned!   DNS  102:  Managing  Traffic  with  DynECT   Managed  DNS  Advanced  Services     October  31st  @  02:00pm  Eastern  Time  Thanks  for  listening!   Dyn.com    |    @dyninc  
    • Thank  You!   Email:  tom@dyn.com   TwiMer:  @tomdyninc  Thanks  for  listening!   Dyn.com    |    @dyninc