Club drugs
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Club drugs Club drugs Document Transcript

  • Club drugsGHB( Liquid ecstasy, BDO, GBH, Blue Nitro, Midnight Blue,RenewTrient, Reviarent, SomatoPro, Serenity, Enliven)In the last few years, GHB (gammahydroxybutyrate) hasbecome popular on the rave scene, with users enjoying analcohol-like high with potent positive sexual effectsGHB is a fairly low toxicity substance with medical andrecreational uses. It affects the release of dopamine in thebrain, causing effects ranging from relaxation to sleep atlow doses.The drug is usually sold in small 30ml plastic containers(approx £15) and consumed in capfuls. A small capful canmake you feel uninhibited, exhilarated, relaxed and feelinggood with the effects lasting as long as day, although it isdifficult to give a clear safe dose, as the concentration ofthe liquid will vary.Bigger doses can lead to disorientation, nausea, a numbingof the muscles or muscle spasms and vomiting.(Also see: GBL, gamma butyrolactone (geeb).)
  • The drug can take anything from 10 minutes to an hour totake effect, so wait until the first hit kicks in before takingany more. Its strength varies wildly, so always take a smallamount first. Because of its disabling effects, you areexposed to the threat of sexual assault, so be very, verywary of who youre with.Increasingly, there have been reports of the drug being usedas a date rape drug (like Rohypnol), with victims beingslipped the drug via alcohol, or in coffee, tea or hotchocolate (it is almost tasteless).A Home Office report in June 2000 questioned 123 victims ofsuch drug assisted assaults, and found that 70% of therapists were known to the victim and 12% were given thedrug in their home, 10% on a university campus. One in fivevictims could not remember the assault while around 70%felt physically unable to resist (source: Guardian 22.06.00).Health risks: unknown at present, although there have beenreports of people suffering convulsions and collapsing and arecent fatality in the UK (Oct 97). urban75 has receivedseveral reports of users being hospitalised with stomachand breathing problems, although there is almost alwaysother drugs involved.
  • The drug, which is derived from an American anaesthetic,lowers blood pressure and in some cases people findbreathing difficult. Overdosing can lead to a loss ofconsciousness and coma. It is not recommended thatasthmatics or those with any form of respiratory or lowblood pressure disorders take this drug.Ketamine Blurred vision; confusion; drowsiness; increased or decreasedblood pressure or heart rate; mental or mood changes; nausea; nightmares;vomiting.Seek medical attention right away if any of these SEVERE side effects occurwhen using Ketamine:Severe allergic reactions (rash; hives; itching; difficulty breathing; tightnessin the chest; swelling of the mouth, face, lips, or tongue); difficulty talking;irregular heart rhythms; muscle tightness; pain, redness, or swelling at theinjection site; slowed breathing. is a dissociativeanesthetic developed in 1963 to replace PCP and currently used in humananesthesia and veterinary medicine. Much of the ketamine sold on thestreet has been diverted from veterinarians offices.Although it is manufactured as an injectable liquid, in illicit use ketamineis generally evaporated to form a powder that is snorted or compressedinto pills.Ketamines chemical structure and mechanism of action are similar to thoseof PCP, and its effects are similar, but ketamine is much less potent thanPCP with effects of much shorter duration. Users report sensations rangingfrom a pleasant feeling of floating to being separated from their bodies.Some ketamine experiences involve a terrifying feeling of almost completesensory detachment that is likened to a near-death experience. Theseexperiences, similar to a "bad trip" on LSD, are called the "K-hole."Ketamine is odorless and tasteless, so it can be added to beverages without
  • being detected, and it induces amnesia. Because of these properties, thedrug is sometimes given to unsuspecting victims and used in thecommission of sexual assaults referred to as "drug rape."MDMA has become a popular drug, in part because of the positiveeffects that a person experiences within an hour or so after takinga single dose. Those effects include feelings of mentalstimulation, emotional warmth, empathy toward others, a generalsense of well being, and decreased anxiety. In addition, usersreport enhanced sensory perception as a hallmark of the MDMAexperience.Because of the drugs stimulant properties, when used in club ordance settings MDMA can also enable users to dance for extendedperiods. However, there are some users who report undesirableeffects immediately, including anxiety, agitation, andrecklessness.As noted, MDMA is not a benign drug. MDMA can produce avariety of adverse health effects, including nausea, chills,sweating, involuntary teeth clenching, muscle cramping, andblurred vision. MDMA overdose can also occur - the symptomscan include high blood pressure, faintness, panic attacks, and insevere cases, a loss of consciousness, and seizures.Because of its stimulant properties and the environment in whichit is often taken, MDMA is associated with vigorous physicalactivity for extended periods. This can lead to one of the mostsignificant, although rare, acute adverse effects -- a marked risein body temperature (hyperthermia). Treatment of hyperthermiarequires prompt medical attention, as it can rapidly lead tomuscle breakdown, which can in turn result in kidney failure.In addition, dehydration, hypertension, and heart failure mayoccur in susceptible individuals. MDMA can also reduce thepumping efficiency of the heart, of particular concern during
  • periods of increased physical activity, thereby furthercomplicating these problems.MDMA is rapidly absorbed into the human blood stream, but oncein the body MDMA interferes with the bodys ability to metabolize,or break down, the drug. As a result, additional doses of MDMAcan produce unexpectedly high blood levels, which could worsenthe cardiovascular and other toxic effects of this drug. MDMA alsointerferes with the metabolism of other drugs, including some ofthe adulterants that may be found in MDMA tablets.In the hours after taking the drug, MDMA produces significantreductions in mental abilities. These changes, particularly thoseaffecting memory, can last for up to a week, and possibly longerin regular users. The fact that MDMA markedly impairsinformation processing emphasizes the potential dangers ofperforming complex or even skilled activities, such as driving acar, while under the influence of this drug.Over the course of the week following moderate use of the drug,many MDMA users report feeling a range of emotions, includinganxiety, restlessness, irritability, and sadness that in someindividuals can be as severe as true clinical depression. Similarly,elevated anxiety, impulsiveness, and aggression, as well as sleepdisturbances, lack of appetite and reduced interest in andpleasure from sex have been observed in regular MDMA users.Some of these disturbances may not be directly attributable to MDMA, but may be related to some ofthe other drugs often used in combination with MDMA, such as cocaine or marijuana, or to potentialadulterants found in MDMA tablets.MDMA exerts its primary effects in the brain on neurons that use the chemical (or neurotransmitter)serotonin to communicate with other neurons. The serotonin system plays an important role inregulating mood, aggression, sexual activity, sleep, and sensitivity to pain. MDMA binds to the serotonintransporter, which is responsible for removing serotonin from the synapse (or space between adjacentneurons) to terminate the signal between neurons; thus MDMA increases and prolongs the serotoninsignal. MDMA also enters the serotonergic neurons via the transporter (because MDMA resemblesserotonin in chemical structure) where it causes excessive release of serotonin from the neurons.MDMA has similar effects on another neurotransmitter—norepinephrine, which can cause increases inheart rate and blood pressure. MDMA also releases dopamine, but to a much lesser extent