Angiosperms – from
the Ancient Greek
words angeíon (bottle,
vessel) and spermos,
- plants that produce
seeds within an enclosure;
they are fruiting plants,
although more commonly
referred to as flowering
Gymnosperms – comes from
the Greek word gymnospermo,
meaning "naked seeds", after
the unenclosed condition of
their seeds (called ovules in
their unfertilized state).
- their seeds that
are not protected by fruit but
are hidden in a woody cone.
1. Meristematic tissues or meristem – consists of
immature and undifferentiated cells and are
regions of active cell divisions.
- usually located at the tips of the stems and
roots; some are located at the vascular cambium
-the cells are usually small, thin
walled, approximately isodiametric. Intercellular
spaces are generally absent.
a. Terminal or Apical meristems – located at the
- occurs at the tips of the stems and roots, and
often the leaves of vascular plants.
-responsible for the increase in the height of the
plant, known as primary growth.
a. Intercalary meristems – portion of meristematic
tissue found at the internodal region of the stem.
-associated with the increase of height of the plant.
-ultimately disappear and transformed into
a. Lateral meristems – meristematic tissue found
on the side of stems and roots.
-responsible for the increase in diameter of the
plant body, which is known as secondary growth in
-examples: vascular cambium and cork cambium
2. Permanent Tissues – consist of mature and
differentiated cells performing a specialized
- form the bulk of the plant body.
a. Surface Tissues – found in
the outermost layer or
covering of the plant body.
- includes the epidermis,
cork, and stomata or guard
-primary function is for
the protection of the plant.
-stomata or guard cells
are responsible for the
exchange of gases between
the environment and the
a. Fundamental Tissues – basic tissues of
plants, which are found in any organ of the plant.
1. Parenchyma cells – cells with primary cell wall
with large centrally located vacuole and thin
peripheral cytoplasm. Parenchyma cells that
contain chloroplast are called chlorenchyma, which
serves as the site of food manufacturing and
1. Collenchyma cells – cells with irregular thickened
primary wall that is associated with strengthening
and supporting the plants.
2. Sclerenchyma cells – cells with heavily thickened
cell wall due to deposition of the substance lignin
- commonly forms the skin of fruits and
responsible for strengthening and support of the
a. Vascular Tissues – conducting tissues of plants.
-complex tissues that consist of several types of
-responsible for the transport of substances inside
the plant body.
1. Phloem – responsible for the downward
conduction of food. Composed of sieve tube,
companion cell, phloem parenchyma and phloem
2. Xylem – responsible for the upward conduction of
water and minerals. Composed of tracheids, vessels,
xylem parenchyma and xylem sclerenchyma cells.
1. Roots – usually subterranean organ used for the
anchorage to the soil; responsible for the conduction
and absorption of water and minerals from the soil.
Radicle – the first root of the plant, elongates during
germination of the seed and forms the primary root.
Secondary roots – roots that branch from the primary
2. Stems – aerial and upright part of the plant that
usually bears the leaves, flowers, and fruits; used for
the conduction of food materials inside the plant body;
also responsible for food storage and support of the
3. Leaves – flat broad structure responsible for the
production of food, transpiration, and respiration; green
color is due to chloroplastids that bear chlorophyll
capable of absorbing light energy and transform it into
chemical energy through photosynthesis.
4. Flowers – reproductive organ of the seed-bearing
plants; responsible for the formation of fruits and seed
development to carry out sexual reproduction.
5. Fruits – matured ovaries, which hold and protect the
6. Seeds – developed ovules, which hold and protect