I first became interested in photography when my dad would bring me home national geographic magazines. I was immediately absorbed in the magazines and found myself wanting to take pictures just like those. I soon began buying myself the cheap disposable cameras and taking them with me when we went camping or on family trips. But as I aged my love for taking pictures grew and I began taking pictures of anything I could. I mostly took pictures of my friends biking or skating since that’s what I spent most of my time doing and I knew how to photograph the sport well. However I did want to expand my picture taking into other genres so when I was 15 my mom bought me my first DSLR camera, which was a giant step up in the world of photography.
Pictures are important to every one. Just try to imagine our world without them. We take pictures every day to capture things we want to never forget. I know that when everyone visits there family, their grandparents pull out the old photo albums, and can spend hours talking about memories they had when they were young. Many things would be forgotten if it weren't for photography. Photo: http://www.flickr.com/photos/69644220@N00/2242603723/
The camera body is the part of the camera that captures the image. Inside a digital camera body is the image sensor which is what actually captures the image. On most newer DSLR cameras, the body also controls a lot of things like the shutter speed, the f-stop, the ISO, and other aspects of the image. Located on the body is the viewfinder, the playback screen, the function dial, the shutter release, a flash, and other various buttons. Which we will talk about later.Image: http://www.flickr.com/photos/glphoto/3674170944/Info:http://photography.about.com/od/partsofacamera/p/CameraBody.htm
In photography, many different lens’s can be used. Depending on what you are photographing, your choice of lens will vary, as each type of lens offers a different way to capture the image. When using a DSLR camera, you gain the ability to be able to swap lens, rather easily, so professionals tend to bring multiple lens with them when they go out to shoot. Most cameras come standard with a zoom lens, for instance mine came with a 18-55mm zoom lens. Zoom lens’s allow the photographer to adjust the focal length. A prime lens is a lens with a fixed focal length. An example of a prime lens is a 50mm lens that is fixed. A fish eye lens is a lens that has a focal length between 7 and 16mm. This lens gives the image a circular look to it, which causes straight lines to look bent. A wide angle is similar to a fish eye, but they don’t distort to image quite like the fish eye does. A wide angle lens has a focal lengths that is typically less then 50mm. A telephoto lens is a lens that has a much longer focal length, allowing the photographer to photograph things much further away. And lastly a macro lens is a lens used to photograph things very close up. Info:http://www.cambridgeincolour.com/tutorials/camera-lenses.htmhttp://www.picturecorrect.com/tips/photography-the-lens/http://www.all-things-photography.com/different-lenses.htmlImage: http://www.flickr.com/photos/fensterbme/250062021/
This is a tripod. It is typically a three legged device designed to hold your camera. They ensure that the camera will not move at all when taking a picture. The top part where the camera attaches is called the head. The head allows the camera to be tilted or spun in any direction. Once the position is perfect, you can lock the head so that the camera will not shake .The legs are also adjustable, usually in two places, so that a perfect height can be obtained. A tripod should be brought almost everywhere when taking pictures. But they are especially necessary when shooting in lowlight situations and or with slow shutter speeds. They are also commonly used for shooting macro photography and landscape shots.photo: http://www.phottix.net/shop/sections/8.gifInfo: http://www.basic-digital-photography.com/how-to-choose-a-tripod-for-your-camera.html
Practically all cameras have a built in flash. However, using it, often results in bad quality photos. The light is very harsh and unnatural. It creates blown out sections in the photo. Using the on camera flash can also create unwanted shadows. They also tend to create the red eye affect. So using the on camera flash is often undesirable. However if a flash must be used, you can use a remote flash, which is more commonly referred to as a “slave.” Slaves are hooked up to a camera by wires that are very long so that they can be placed anywhere they are needed. Depending on what kind of camera you have, you can hook up multiple “slaves” allowing for a perfectly lit scene to shoot. Personally I never use my flash, but that’s because I'm stuck with the on camera flash, and cant afford any remote flashes. Info: http://www.all-things-photography.com/flash-photography-remote.htmlhttp://www.all-things-photography.com/using-flash.htmlPictures: http://www.takegreatpictures.com/app/webroot/content/images/nikon_d40_flash.jpg
First we need to talk about composition.When shooting photography, you’re not just taking a picture, your composing it, or creating it to make it look how you want. In order for pictures to look some what professional, you have to follow some of the rules. Like stated before, anyone can take a picture on a camera, but not everyone can make it look good. By following the rules you can easily amaze yourself and others. However, rules were made to be broken. There are cases when breaking the rules will get you a better shot.Info: http://digital-photography-school.com/digital-photography-composition-tips
To properly expose a photo, shutter speed, aperture and ISO must be balanced. When adjusting one, almost always will another need to be adjusted. When something is over exposed, it appears to be “blown out” and white. To much light has hit the sensor. If your shot is over exposed, you have to raise the shutter speed, or the f stop. When something is underexposed the picture will appear dull and lack color. “lifeless” is another term associated when a picture is underexposed. To avoid an improper exposure, you have to become familiar with your light meter. By adjusting your shutter speed/f stop, you can balance the light meter, to attain a proper exposure.Info:http://digital-photography-school.com/learning-exposure-in-digital-photographyhttp://www.picturecorrect.com/tips/photography-exposure-basics/Picture: http://www.fredmiranda.com/DRI/DRI/Underexposed.jpghttp://www.flickr.com/photos/calliope/113902743/
“The blinkies” is a feature on most DSLR camera, that lets you see which parts of the photograph are over exposed. The parts that are overexposed will flash or blink.Scott Kelby, The digital Photography book.
Aperture is the size of the hole in the lens when the picture is taken. The larger the hole, the more light gets in and vice versa. It is measured by f-stops (f1.8, f2.2, f4, f5.6, etc…) Something very easily confused is that the larger the aperture, or size of the hole, the smaller the assigned f-stop. For instance, f1.8 is a very large opening, and f22 is a very small opening. Aperture also affects the depth of field which I will talk about on the next slide. In this picture, the top would be a high f-stop like f22, and the bottom would be a small f-stop like f1.8.Info:http://digital-photography-school.com/aperture
When talking about depth of field you can say the shot has a small or large depth of field. A Large depth of field means that the majority of the photo is in focus. Small depth of field is when only a portion of the photo is in focus, and the rest is fuzzy and out of focus. Adjusting the f stop will change whether or not you have a large or small depth of field. The lower the f stop (f1.8) the smaller the depth of field. The greater the fstop(f22) the larger the depth of field. Small depths of field picture can be very interesting, and help the viewers notice the subject. For instance small depths of fields are used commonly macro shots so you immediately notice the subject. However when shooting landscape, large depth of fields are used so that the entire shot is in focus. These pictures were both taken by me to give an example of shallow and large depths of fields. Top is f1.8. Bottom is f16.Info: http://digital-photography-school.com/apertureBoth taken by me to give an example of shallow and large depths of fields. Top is f1.8. Bottom is f16.
Shutter speed is measured in seconds, or fractions of a second. For instance 1/1000th, 1/500th, 1/100th. When shooting sports or things that are moving, typically faster shutter speeds are used. A faster shutter speed is used to eliminate any unwanted blur. When a tripod is available you can use very slow shutter speeds.Picture of humming bird: shutter speed 1/2000thhttp://www.flickr.com/photos/flaviocb/3744507098/in/photostream/picture 2: shutter speed 1/125thhttp://www.flickr.com/photos/eye1/3184261317/Info: http://digital-photography-school.com/shutter-speed
Originally ISO measured how sensitive the film was in a camera. Now in digital ISO measures the sensitivity of the image sensor. The lower the ISO the lower the number assigned to it, so a low ISO would be 200 and high ISO would be 1600. Generally higher ISO is used in low light situations when a fast shutter speed is needed. However a high ISO makes picture look grainy/pixels. This picture was taken with an ISO at 4000, and you can see how it looks pixilated. Photo: http://www.flickr.com/photos/gingerblokey/2205352717/Info: http://digital-photography-school.com/iso-settings
As a beginner it is very common to notice strange tints to your pictures. This is because there are many types of light, each producing a different temperature. The different temperatures tint pictures accordingly. When the light is “cool” you have to compensate by adjusting the camera to artificially warm things up. When the light is too warm then adjusting the camera to “cool things down”, will eliminate any tint. There are a few white balance presets on most camera’s so that you can just turn the dial to the setting you need and take pictures. Both these pictures were also taken by me of my room to show that the white balance needs to be set properly.Info: http://digital-photography-school.com/introduction-to-white-balance
One of the most important rules. Nothing is more boring then the subject being directly in the center of the picture. Imagine a grid that separates the shot into thirds, horizontally and vertically. Place the subject along one of the imaginary lines. By placing the subject in one of the thirds, it makes the shot more appealing to viewers and more interesting.Info: http://digital-photography-school.com/rule-of-thirdsPhoto: http://www.flickr.com/photos/dcdead/2312215198/
When composing a photo, it is important to make it as interesting as possible. One way to do this is to find a new angle to take the picture from, in which no one has seen before. If everyone took a picture of the same thing, from the same spot, it would get very boring. Info: The digital photography book, scot kelby.
Everyone notices patterns on a daily basis. Because they are seen everywhere, it is an easy thing to photograph. Patterns are a very basic way to make a picture look good. Viewers instantly become intrigued by the repetition. One way to shoot it is too emphasize the repetition. However, by having something break the pattern, you give the viewer something to be focused on.Info: http://digital-photography-school.com/using-repetition-and-patterns-in-photographyPictures: http://www.flickr.com/photos/79196467@N00/368423510/http://www.flickr.com/photos/kh-67/3339157498/
The golden rule is a rule most commonly used when shooting landscapes, The rule is that you should shoot right around dawn or dusk to attain the softest and warmest light. You are also able to obtain soft shadows. When I was reading from The Digital Photography book I read something that amazed me. When professionals go to submit there shots to magazines like National Geographic, many times the editor will refuse to look at the pictures if they weren't taken around dawn or dusk. That’s how important this rule is. Picture: http://www.flickr.com/photos/nov03/3236655053/sizes/l/Info: the digital photography book, scottkelby
Framing is used to surround the subject of the photograph. Basically framing is a border created with an object. Not only does it wrap the subject, but it creates a sense of depth and size. Typically when framing the subject you want to use something that is related. For instance when taking a picture of something in nature, use branches of trees to frame the subject. Other things used to frame are doorways, windows, branches, tunnels, and archways. Info: http://www.scrapjazz.com/topics/Photography/Lessons/579.phphttp://www.tutorial9.net/photography/composition-and-framing/Photo: http://www.flickr.com/photos/paullew/2650956510/sizes/l/
Personally one of the first things I look for in a picture is whether or not the horizon is straight. When its crooked, its one of the biggest flaws in my opinion. If your taking a picture where the horizon is seen, its very important that you make sure it is perfectly horizontal. This picture shows how the horizon is crooked, even if its ever so slightly, its not appealing to the viewers eyes. Info: Scott Kelby, The Digital Photography book.Photo: http://www.flickr.com/photos/jimwinstead/102699240/sizes/l/
Lines in photography create rhythm and patterns. It is an easy way to attract the viewers eyes to certain parts of the picture. Horizontal lines portray “stability and rest”. Commonly when shooting horizontal lines, photographers shoot wide angled. Vertical lines convey many things, but what most people easily associate them with is growth. When capturing vertical lines, photographers usually shoot tall. http://digital-photography-school.com/working-the-lines-in-your-photographyPhotos: http://www.flickr.com/photos/carlotardani/4529906497/http://www.flickr.com/photos/vogelium/343500844/http://www.flickr.com/photos/7455207@N05/3929591340/
By choosing which genre to photograph, you can further focus yourself on how to shoot the specific genre. Each genre is shot differently, therefore different techniques and settings are needed.http://www.buzzle.com/articles/types-of-photography.htmlPhoto: http://www.flickr.com/photos/pagedooley/2933664439/sizes/l/
When taking pictures of scenery, it is referred to as landscape photography. One of the most important rules is the golden rule for this genre. By shooting around dawn or dusk you capture the best light. A tripod is very important when shooting landscape because you will be shooting in low light situations and it ensures a well composed and non blurry picture. By having a foreground middle ground and background, the picture becomes more interesting, as if to tell a story. Never put the horizon line directly in the center. Its boring. Follow the rule of thirds. And make sure its straight, a crooked horizon is the first thing a viewer will notice. Use something familiar to people to create a scale so the viewer can really imagine how big or small something is. Be creative by taking a picture of a landscape from a new angle. For example a mountain. We all are able to take a picture of a mountain from down below. It gets boring and over used. Hike to the top and shot downwards and across the mountain. Other genres similar to landscape shots are cityscape, which is landscape shots of city horizons, and seascape, which are shots of the seacoast. Info: (Scott Kelby, The Digital Photography Book)http://www.photographytips.com/page.cfm/77Photo: http://www.flickr.com/photos/martin_heigan/336480562/sizes/o/
Diagonal lines or lines that diverge help to catch the viewers attention directly to the subject. Having the subject of the photo involved in some sort of geometric shape is also a good way to balance the composition of the shot. Framing is very useful in landscape photography. Think of framing as away to wrap the subject or give it borders.Info: http://digital-photography-school.com/working-the-lines-in-your-photographyPhoto: http://www.flickr.com/photos/nov03/3071553575/sizes/l/
Shooting portraits is rather simple. But it is very important to make them PERFECT. Using a longer focal length is a must because when you use a shorter focal length it distorts facial features. Portraits can be shot any where, at anytime, day or night. Lighting is key when it comes to portraits. A portrait taken without using a flash is referred to as natural light. When there is not enough light, photographers have two options. First, they can use a flash. Flashes are considered artificial light, and can be a hassle to set up, but they do solve the problem of not having enough light. Or you can use incandescent bulbs. They do tend to burn out easily, but they are much cheaper. They are also easier to move around and tinker with. By repositioning the flashes or incandescent bulb, photographers can create different shadow affects on the face. When shooting portraits it is usually a good idea to hold the camera at the subjects eye level. It creates a more natural looking shot. It is also very important to focus the lens on the eyes. So that they are sharp looking. The background is also important. If your taking a more formal portrait, a plain background is usually best. But if you are doing a more casual portrait, an interesting background would be best to capture the subjects personality.Info: (Scott Kelby, The Digital Photography Book)image: http://www.flickr.com/photos/rachephotos/2389631009/sizes/l/
The first mistake many beginners make when shooting sports is using too slow of a shutter speed and getting blurry images. You need to eliminate that blur. Most of the time, using a shutter speed of 1/640th or faster will get rid of any blur.If a blur affect is wanted then use slightly slower shutter speed. When shooting sports, its important to pre focus because everything is moving and can confuse the autofocus feature. Pre focus by picking a spot and auto focusing, then turn the autofocus off so that the lens is “locked” how you want it. It is important to know the sport in which you are shooting because you can anticipate when/where to shoot. Shooting at a low f-stop allows two things. Faster shutter speed, and blurred background. Creating a more interesting shot where the subject is clearly in focus.Info: (Scott Kelby, The Digital Photography Book)Picture: http://www.flickr.com/photos/yourdon/3889185385/
Still life photography is a very creative type of photography. Every aspect of the image is decided by the photographer. The setting, background, lighting, mood, and composition of the inanimate object can be altered.The photographer is completely creating how they want the viewer to see,feel, andexperience the image. Because everything can be changed, this genre of photography can really show personal style and expression. Info: http://www.redbubble.com/still-life-photographyimage: http://www.flickr.com/photos/dde/351801970/sizes/o/
Taking pictures at night is much easier then many think, and it is very easy to capture a photo with different feel to it. Shots taken at night usually emphasize the different color lights. A tripod is necessary so that the camera stays perfectly still. The camera needs to stay still so that no parts of the image are blurred, and it is likely that something may get blurred because the shutter will be opened for a longer period of time. Shooting at an f-stop of around 8 allows for a decent depth of field. Simply find something to focus on and start experimenting with shutter speeds. Depending on how many lights are in the area, will depend on how long you want the shutter open.Info: http://photodoto.com/shooting-at-night/Image: http://www.flickr.com/photos/slapayoda/537388377/sizes/o/
In some cases, a photographer may want “blurred images”. To capture light streaks, you do the same as you would for shooting at night, yet you find a subject that is moving to emphasize its path. Commonly captured as light streaks are cars and their headlights or taillights. You can also create artificial streaks with a flashlights.Info: http://www.digicamguides.com/tips/night-photography.html
When taking macro shots, you are taking a picture of something very close up. So using a lens specifically for this is important. They are lens with super long focal lengths allowing you to zoom in very close to see all the little details. A very shallow depth of field is also used to separate the subject from its background. So focus is very important since the depth of field is so small. Anything can be shot with a macro lens, but it seems that insects, and flowers, are the most common.Info: http://photography.about.com/od/takingpictures/a/macrolesson.htmImage: http://www.flickr.com/photos/emrank/4088047582/http://www.flickr.com/photos/martin_heigan/1374881200/sizes/o/
Photojournalism is photography that tells us a story by connecting us visually. Unlike written works, photography hides nothing. Writers tend to put their own personal spin on an article where as photographers simply shoot pictures of what they see. However many people have to see things, in order to believe them, so that’s what photojournalists do. Really photojournalism is pictures taken of anything. As long as a story can be told. Info: http://photo-seminars.com/PhotoJournalism/pjle1.htmPhoto: http://www.flickr.com/photos/green_spectrum/3185032450/sizes/l/
A silhouette is a picture taken where the subject is just an outline against a lit background. It is important that no light be on the subject. When the sun is low on the horizon, it creates a greater contrast between the subject and the sky. Having the sun placed directly behind the subject helps to create a glowing affect around the subject. Info: http://www.picturecorrect.com/tips/silhouette-photography/Image: http://www.flickr.com/photos/7298460@N03/3481462860/
In conclusion, photography is hard! It takes a lot of practice, time, and experimenting. Once you are able to fully understand all the functions of the camera and some basic rules, you can decide what you like to photograph and strengthen your skills in that genre. I love photography, and this project was a great way for me to experience shooting other genres. Pic: http://www.flickr.com/photos/wavecult/2908324170/sizes/l/
Senior Grad Photography
Photography<br />By: Dylan Smith<br />
Thesis<br />Equipment<br />Functions of the camera<br />Rules<br />Genres<br />Portfolio<br />Class activity<br />Conclusion<br />Overview<br />
Thesis<br /> Contrary to popular belief, photography, by definition is an art based on the creation of images. This is a feat that takes practice, skill, and motivation. Photography offers many paths, with such a variety of genres to choose from, however shooting each genre requires the photographer to know certain rules and techniques. <br />
Rule of Thirds<br />“The theory is that if you place points of interest in the intersections or along the lines that your photo becomes more balanced and will enable a viewer of the image to interact with it more naturally.” (Darren Rowse)<br />
New angles<br />Break out of your comfort zone.<br />Be different<br />
Patterns<br />“Life is filled with patterns – many of which we overlook” (Darren Rowse)<br />
Very Basic Rules<br />Don’t Shake the camera<br />Make sure the subject is in focus<br />Make sure the lens is clean<br />When shooting portraits avoid red eyes<br />Avoid your own shadow<br />Compose the picture in a way that no unwanted objects are in the shot.<br />
Work Cited<br />Babington, Norma, and Patricia Acton. “Photography.” Science Weekley 28 Sept. 2001: 1-4. SIRS Discoverer. Web. 2 Dec. 2009.<br /> <br />Busch, David D. Mastering Digital Photography. Ed. Mark Harreld. 2nd ed. N.p.: Stacy L. Hiquet, 2006. Print. <br />Gormish, Denise. “Framing: A Photography Technique.” Scrapjazz. N.p., n.d. Web. 24 May 2010. <http://www.scrapjazz.com/topics/Photography/Lessons/579.php>.<br />Gravlejs, Ivars. “78 Photography Rules.” The Gawno Magazine. N.p., n.d. Web. 24 May 2010. <http://gawno.com/2009/05/78-photography-rules/><br />Hartle, Terry. “A Snapshot of Photography’s Revolutionary Early Days.” Christian Science Monitor 23 July 1997: 1-2. SIRS Discoverer. Web. 2 Dec. 2009<br />
“How to Photograph at Night.” Digicam Guides. N.p., n.d. Web. 24 May 2010. <http://www.digicamguides.com/tips/night-photography.html>.<br />Kelby, Scott. The Digital Photography Book. N.p.: Peachpit Press, 2006. Print. <br />Lad, Kashmira. “Types of Photography.” Buzzle. N.p., n.d. Web. 24 May 2010. <http://www.buzzle.com/articles/types-of-photography.html>.<br /> <br />“Landscape Photography Tips and Techniques.” Photography Tips. N.p., n.d. Web. 24 May 2010. <http://www.photographytips.com/page.cfm/77>.<br />Hedgecoe, John. The Book of Photography. Ed. Becky Alexander. London: Dorling Kindersley, 2005. Print. <br />
Masoner, Liz. “Camera Body.” About. N.p., n.d. Web. 24 May 2010. <http://photography.about.com/od/partsofacamera/p/CameraBody.htm>.<br />Mchugh, Sean. “Understanding Camera Lens’s.” Cambridge in Colour. N.p., n.d. Web. 24 May 2010. <http://www.cambridgeincolour.com/tutorials/camera-lenses.htm>.<br />Miracle, Rob. “What is Photojournalism.” Photo Seminars . N.p., n.d. Web. 24 May 2010. <http://photo-seminars.com/PhotoJournalism/pjle1.htm>.<br />Rowse, Darren. “Introduction to Aperature in Digital Photography.” Digital Photography School. N.p., n.d. Web. 24 May 2010. <http://digital-photography-school.com/aperture>.<br />“How to Choose a Tripod for Your Digital Camera.” Basic Didgital Photography. N.p., n.d. Web. 24 May 2010. <http://www.basic-digital-photography.com/how-to-choose-a-tripod-for-your-camera.html>.<br />
Schneider, Richard. “Photography Exposure Basics.” Picture Correct. N.p., n.d. Web. 24 May 2010. <http://www.picturecorrect.com/tips/photography-exposure-basics/>.<br />Silverglimth, Fredrik. “Composition and Framing in Photography.” Tutorial9. N.p., n.d. Web. 24 May 2010. <http://www.tutorial9.net/photography/composition-and-framing/>.<br />“Still Life Photography.” Redbubble. N.p., n.d. Web. 24 May 2010. <http://www.redbubble.com/still-life-photography>.<br />“Using Different Lens’s.” All Things Photography. N.p., n.d. Web. 24 May 2010. <http://www.all-things-photography.com/different-lenses.html>.<br />West, Elizabeth. “Take Pictures at Night, Too.” Photodoto. N.p., n.d. Web. 24 May 2010. <http://photodoto.com/shooting-at-night/>.<br />
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