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Dylan damascene martin
B.Sc in hospitality and hotel
THIS BOOK CONTAINS THE BASIC
INFORMATION ABOUT ALL
I welcome all your valuable suggestions & comments regarding my notes.
What is beverage?
Any portable liquid which is alcoholic or non-alcoholic is known as beverages
Beverages are mainly consumed to quench thirst , feel fresh , to compensate the loss
of body fluid due to perspiration
Beverage are basically classified into two types
The word alcohol is derived from the Arabic al-kohl.
Alcohol is generally defined as a liquid obtained through the fermentation of a sugar
containing liquid . These are the beverage that contain ethyl alcohol or ethanol
The percentage of alcohol in a drink varies from 0.5% to 95% depending on the
method by which the alcohol is obtained
Brewed and fermented drink
Wine cider Perry
(Fermented grape juice) (Fermented apple juice) (Fermented pear juice)
Red wine White wine Rose wine
Brewed & fermented drinks
(Obtained from cereals)
Spirits liqueur Eaux-de vie
Fruit brandy apple juice
Whisky rum gin vodka tequila brandy
Aurum Tia Maria
What is fermentation?
Fermentation is a process in which sugar is converted into alcohol. It is a chemical
reaction of yeast on sugar
This process is basic of preparing all alcoholic beverages
The alcoholic level of all fermented drink is normally between 4 to 14 %
Yeast acts on sugar and converts one molecule of sugar into two molecule of ethyl
alcohol and two molecule of carbon dioxide
The alcohol level in fermented drink rises up to 14%. Once the alcohol level reaches
14% the yeast is killed later it brings the fermentation process to an halt (or) end.
These three are very necessary for fermentation to take place.
If there is absence of any one of these, fermentation will not take place
Examples of fermented beverage are
What is distillation?
The process in which alcohol is separated from the fermented juice by heating
The process of distillation is that the ethyl alcohol or ethanol is boiled at a low
All spirits are produced by the distillation of alcoholic beverages
Example of distilled are
What is stilling?
The stilling is a process of separating alcohol from water.
There are two types of still used for distilling spirits.
1. The pot still 2. Patent stilling
WHINE is an alcoholic beverage obtained from fermented juice
of freshly collected or gathered grapes . It can also be made
using fruits, flower petals etc., it is prepared by crushing the fruit
and fermenting its juices. They are classified on the basis of
colour, taste, aroma present in it.
Classification of wine’s
It is also known as Table wine or Dinner wine it is a whine which is obtained by the
natural fermentation process without adding anything else to it. Still wines do not
contain carbon dioxide . While preparing these wine the carbon dioxide
produced during fermentation are allowed to escape and then being filled in the
wine bottles. The alcoholic percentage is normally between 10 to 14%
Red wine : these wine are made using black grapes the skin is allowed to remain
in the fermenting must as the coloring pigment present in the skin gives the
colour to the wine
By following this method the red colour is obtained
Red wine are best served at room temperature that is
Rose wine : these wine are made using red grapes they are even produced
from the mixture of white and red grapes the skin is allowed to macerate in
the must until the desired colour is being obtained by following this method
the red colour is obtained
Rose wine is served chilled at
White wine: These wines are made using white grapes and even black grapes
if wine is prepared using black grapes the skin of the black grapes has to be
removed before crushing. the skin is being removed to prevent the wine from
getting colored by following this method the white colour is obtained
White wine are served chilled at
Sparkling wine contains carbon dioxide . They are being
bottled with the carbon dioxide .
Carbon dioxide is not allowed to escape.
The gas is prevented from escape the alcohol present in the
bottle is between 10 to 13 %.
The glass bottles used for sparkling wine has to be thick to
withstand the pressure of the gas present behind the cork
Best among sparkling wine is champagne
Sparkling wine are served chilled at
Fortified wine are still wine to which brandy is added
This process increases the alcohol strength. It contains 15 to 24% of alcohol.
It stops fermentation and it increases the wines shelf life
These drinks are served both as a pre meal and post meal drink
Best known fortified wines are Sherry, Masala, Port, and Madeira.
Classification of fortified wine
Sherry is an example of most demanded fortified wine.
It comes from ‘Jerez’ district in the south of Spain the word cherry is an Anglicization
Porto is an accompaniment of blue-veined cheese which is served traditionally served
it is produced from the group grown in Upper douro valley of northern Portugal
Madeira is a Portuguese fortified wind which comes from the island of Madeira in the
Marsala is a fortified wine which comes from North West Sicily.
It is made from the blend of white wine, brandy, heated must, which is then matured
Malaga is a sweet fortified wine that comes from Malaga on the Mediterranean coast
It is made from the grapes dried on the straw mats in the sun it is then mixed with
concentrated grape juice after fermentation and then fortified
It is obtained from the
fermentation of apple juice
BREWED & FERMENTED DRINKS
It is similar to fortified drinks but the difference is whine is usually
malted & crushed cereals, it is brewed in hot water to get maximum
soluble sugar from the malt, and its then cooled and allowed to ferment
with the addition of yeast
Examples of Brewed & fermented drinks are
Beer is brewed and fermented drink. Most beer are made from barley malt .ground up malt
is added to hot water to make them get easily mashed. This process is called as ‘mashing’.
The alcohol content in deer is between 4 to 10%
Classification of beers
Lager: bottom fermented beer Lagers are probably the most common type of
beer consumed. They were originated from the Central European country,
which was named after the German "Lagern" (to store) Lagers are bottom-
fermented, where the yeast culture ferments at the bottom of the fermenting
vessel (or) tank.
They were traditionally stored at a low temperature for weeks.
The alcohol content of lager beer is 3–6%
Ale beer: Top-fermented beers. Top-fermented beers tend to be more
The beer have strong hop flavor including a variety of grain flavors and
Stout: stout beer is produced by roasting the millets to give dark colour to it.
The beer has strong malt flavor.
Draft beer: These beers has to be kept refrigerated between 35°F and 40°F
Draft beer has only 2 weeks shelf life.
Diet beer: these are produced by special fermentation process.
It contains high alcohol content.
They are as same as lager beer which is low in calorie.
Sake is a Japanese drink which is obtained from their main crop rice.
grape juice )
(fermented sap of
agave tequila weber)
Gin: it is a spirit distilled from cereals and
flavored with flavouring agents like juniper
berries, orange peel, lime, coriander seeds
Gin originated from Holland
Types of gin
London dry gin
Holland gin: it is distilled twice using pot stilling methods
London dry gin: it is first distilled in patent stiller and then distilled for the second time in the
Brandy: it is a spirit distilled from grapes (wine).
Flavored brandies are named after the fruit used to flavor
it; some examples are cherry brandy, peach brandy, and
It is stored between
It is best served at room temperature
Cognac is the famous famous brandy which is
Whisky: it is a spirit distilled from
fermented barley, corn during
fermentation the drink gets its amber
Type of whisky
Canadian or rye
American or us
Scotch: it is world’s finest whisky
Scotch whisky is distilled in Scotland
Irish : Irish whisky is distilled in Ireland
The Irish spells whisky as ‘whiskey’
Canadian: Canadian whisky is distilled in Canada
American or us: American whisky is distilled in America
The American’s spell whisky as ‘whiskey’
Bourbon whisky is named after the country bourbon which is prepared in Kentucky
Tennessee whiskey is whisky is distilled in Tennessee
Japanese : Japanese whisky is distilled in Japan
Indian: Indian whisky is distilled in India
Rum: it is a spirit distilled from molasses or
(Molasses - which is a byproduct of
Types of rum:
White or light rum
Light rums: Light rums are light or clear in color.
They are also referred to as white rum.
They are often aged (or) stored for long years in glass lined barrel to prevent
the rum from absorbing the colour of the barrel while storing them
They have very little flavor and are used in cocktails
Gold rums: Gold rums are also known as amber rums.
They are often aged (or) stored for long years in charred oak barrels. To get
the golden colour. Sometimes some or small amount of caramel is also added
They have stronger flavor compared to light rums.
Dark rums: dark rum is darker in color such as black, red.
They are aged (or) stored for long years in heavily charred oak barrels.
To get the dark colour. Sometimes some amount of caramel is also
added to it.
They are stronger and sweeter than light and gold rums.
Spiced rums: These rums obtain the flavor from spices or caramel.
They are dark in color and may have spices such as cinnamon,
rosemary, absinthe/aniseed, or pepper.
Flavored rums: rums which infused (or) mixed with additional flavors
such as banana, coconut, citrus, etc.
Vodka: it is a spirit distilled from barley, corn,
It is a clear drink which is tast less odder less
Vodka originated from Russia.
The term ‘vodka’ is derived from the Slavic
word voda (water)
It is a national drink of Russia and Spain.
Vodka is normally mixed with orange juice.
Types of vodka:
Neutral vodka: it is distilled from grains or potato juice.
Neutral vodka are highly rectified by filtering it through a activated charcoal
This is done to get rid of the flavor and smell of potato.
Flavored vodka: these are vodka that is flavored using natural flavored
The flavorings added are to be named before it. For example orange flavored
vodka, zubrowka vodka