methods and resources

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  • 1. Methods and Resources h d d
  • 2. Comprehension Questions p Q 1. 1 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. Write the stages followed during the dictionary-writing process process. What is the aim of compiling the database from the corpus? State the function of the database entry. What are the benefits of a well-designed dictionary database? What are the goals of transfer and synthesis stages? Write the software types needed for the stages of the dictionary f yp f g f y writing process. What does a ‘lexical profile’ means and what is the benefit of ‘lexical profiling ? profiling’? Write the components that constitute the dictionary writing system.
  • 3. Comprehension Questions p Q 9. 10. 11. 12. 12 13. 14. 15. 16. 16 What is a ‘Style Guide’ and what is the purpose of using it? Which areas are covered by a Style Guide? Write the issues that Style Guides for teams without a DWS should include. Make a comparison between the earlier and the contemporary forms of Style Guides. What are the benefits of a Style Guide? What is a ‘template entry’? State the significance of using templates. Which stages are involved when compiling the templates?
  • 4. 4.1 Preliminaries This chapter describes the role the corpus plays in a dictionary project and the environment the lexicographers work in. 4.2 The di ti n 4 2 Th dictionary-writing p itin process A publishing house owning a dictionary will want you to start from the text of that dictionary, adapt it to suit the new specifications, and update it according t corpus evidence, ifi ti d d t di to id editing the wordlist itself as well as the entries. Lexicographers differ in what they do best: some are better at analysis, some at translating, and some at dictionary-entry l l d d writing.
  • 5. 4.1 Preliminaries 4.2.1 Rationale In a contemporary publishing environment, a good dictionary writing system provides a clear f m itin s st m p id s l framework for editors t work kf dit s to k within, and offers a lot of guidance on the content of dictionary entries. A preliminary pass th li i through the data is an essential part of h th d t i ti l t f writing a bilingual dictionary entry: it’s impossible to supply adequate target language equivalents without knowing a great deal more about the contexts in which the headword is found than can eventually be included in the actual entry.
  • 6. The advantages of storing the facts about the headword: • The structure of the database guides the analysis process. • The completed database holds a comprehensive record of how your headword behaves in th corpus. h h d db h s the p s • The database allows editors to scan the material in a systematic way. • The database speeds up the editing process. • The database is re-usable.
  • 7. 4.2.2 Analysis: compiling the database from the corpus The purpose of this database is to store selected facts about the th word in a systematic way, so th t by scanning them you can d s st m ti s that b s nnin th m n quickly and efficiently get a fix on the headword and extract the information you need for the final dictionary entry. The f Th format of the database entry reflects that of a dictionary t f th d t b t fl t th t f di ti entry, but is much more detailed. The more detail the better, but avoid redundancies. It can hold a rich selection of corpus examples showing the headword in use in its various meanings and patterns.
  • 8. A well-designed and well-populated dictionary database represents a valuable piece of intellectual property. As well as being usable as a basis for all kinds of dictionary and as an information-source f l f for linguistic research, it is likely to h lk l be attractive to builders of computer applications. All the corpus searching, sense finding, collocate noting, and grammar coding is done in the analysis stage. The value of the database lies in the fact that it is an unbiased record of what is happening in the one single language it is describing.
  • 9. 4.2.3 Transfer: translating the database The purpose of this stage is to build up a body of target language equivalents of the headword in as many contexts as l i l f h h d di possible, so that when the entry editors come to extract the final entry they have all their options assembled for them in y y p one place. This work is best done by experienced translators with an excellent knowledge of both languages, and native speakers of languages the target language.
  • 10. 4.2.4 4 2 4 Synthesis: editing the entry The purpose of this stage is to produce the final entry, the one most appropriate for the typical user of your dictionary. This work is best done by skilled and experienced lexicographers. Each entry will be drafted by a native speaker of the SL SL, checked through by a native speaker of the TL, then finalized by the SL speaker (for bilingual dictionaries).
  • 11. 4.3 Software The Th processes are supported by two types of software: t db t t f ft • A corpus query system (CQS): a computer program that enables you to analyze the data in a corpus in various ways. y y p y • A dictionary writing system (DWS): a program that enables lexicographers to compile and edit dictionary text, as well as facilitating project management and typesetting and output to printed or electronic media.
  • 12. 4.3.1 The co pus que y syste (CQS) 3 e corpus query system 4.3.1.1 Lexicographic needs and CQS functionality A good way of evaluating a CQS is to start from the categories of information you want to include in your dictionary but how quickly and easily you can retrieve the information by using your CQS is the question. f 4.3.2.1 The KWIC concordance It is the basic tool of corpus lexicography. The ft Th software takes advantage of the following features of the BNC: t k d t f th f ll i f t f th BNC • • • Lemmatization POS-tagging Document headers If the KWIC display doesn’t provide enough information for a given line, you can see more of the source text by clicking on the node word. 4.3.1.3 How to frame a query The drop-down list next to the lemma box allows you to select any of the main wordclasses
  • 13. The ‘context’ bo es in t e lower half o t e sc ee a e used for spec y g t e e co te t boxes the o e a of the screen are o specifying the text to the left of right of the node word, and you can either enter a specify word or simply select a wordclass. 4.3.1.4 CQS functionality A powerful CQS has a great many functions, the majority of which will be f f f employed only rarely and a few will be in regular use. 4.3.1.5 Lexical profiling: the ‘Word Sketch’ A lexical profile is a kind of statistical summary which reveals the salient facts about the way a word most typically combines with other words. Lexical profiling offers a solution that maximizes the value of a large corpus while reducing the effort required by the human user. The Word Sketch is a type of lexical profile. The Word Sketch provides collocate lists for a wide range of grammatical relations and achieves this by collecting every corpus instance of the search term and then subjecting this data to a further round of processing processing. Lexical-profiling software adds a valuable resource to the lexicographer’s repertoire.
  • 14. It was originally seen as a useful supplementary tool well-adapted for identifying g y pp y p y g collocational patterns – important information for pedagogical dictionaries. Word Sketches provide a compact and revealing snapshot of a word’s bahaviour and uses. Graphic representations of word behaviour offer faster and more reliable ways of indicating lexicographically relevant facts. 4.3.1.6 The CQS: some conclusions The CQS provides the link between raw corpus data and the dictionary. All the data you need to write your d ll h d d dictionary will b present in a good corpus, ll be d and a powerful and well-designed CQS allows you to retrieve relevant information efficiently and view it in a variety of ways. Additional functionality in the CQS can extend the scope of what dictionaries are able to do. As new functions become available, lexicographers’ search strategies evolve. A good CQS offers a number of ways of uncovering information, and one of the skills a lexicographer develops over time is to know which functions to use in a given situation in order to get the most out of the corpus with least effort.
  • 15. 4.3.2 The d ct o a y writing syste (DWS) 3 e dictionary t g system ( S) Lexicographers compile dictionary text onscreen, and the software that allows them to do this is generally referred to as DWS. The simplest form of text-input software is a generic XML editing tool. A commercial DWS program is designed to manage the entire process of producing a dictionary, from compiling the first entry to outputting the final product for publication in print or electronic media. A typical DWS consists of three main components: • • • A text-editing interface A database A set of administrative tools 4.3.2.1 The lexicographer’s interface: the editing tool This is where dictionary text is compiled and edited. The DWS will generally offer a number of ways of viewing the data. A good DWS maximizes the lexicographer’s productivity by streamlining routine tasks and automating many of the administrative procedures that used to be done manually.
  • 16. 4.3.2.2 The database 3 e Text compiled and edited in the front end of the DWS is stored in the dictionary’s database. The DWS’s database component makes it possible to run complex searches over the entire text. 4.3.2.3 Administrative tools A DWS program will usually include housekeeping tools that facilitate the management of a large dictionary project. project Systems like this ensure that only one person works on a given entry at any one time, and that individual fields in the database are lockable. 4.3.2.4 Benefits The DWS facilitates the entire process of creating and publishing a dictionary. A good DWS streamlines the editorial process and allows lexicographers to focus on lexicography The system makes it easy for senior editors to review the text as it develops, monitor its quality, and give feedback to the editorial team.
  • 17. As with CQS software, the trend is for the user’s interface to be accessed online, and this environment makes it possible for widely dispersed editorial teams to work efficiently on the same project. The benefits include productivity gains, a smoother transfer of text to its eventual delivery format, and opportunities for re-using expensively created dictionary y , pp g p y y text. The various features of the DWS help to deliver higher levels of quality, accuracy, and internal consistency. 4.4 The Style Guide For each entry component, the editorial team needs a set of guidelines. These guidelines show how the dictionary’s style policies should be applied in individual d d d l dictionary entries. The style guide – essentially a book of instructions for lexicographers – is the document in which all these guidelines are assembled. y 4.4.1 What kinds of information does a Style Guide include? The Style Guide will show how each entry component should be dealth with and will cover the following areas:
  • 18. • • • • • • • • Morphology Variant forms Grammar Labels and their use Definitions Examples Derived forms Cross-references 4.4.2 Style Guides past and present Style Guides for teams without a DWS must include detailed instructions on issues such as: • • • The correct order of the various parts of an entry The correct font to be used for each element The precise designation of a recurring element Data is entered in the form of plain text, and the software takes care of its eventual representation on page or screen. The Th question of the order in which the entry components may appear almost i f h d i hi h h l ceases to be an issue because the writing system won’t allow you to enter elements in the wrong order.
  • 19. A good d ct o a y writing syste will p o de a list to c oose from items valid for dictionary t g system provide st choose o te s a d o any field where there is a finite set of options. The correct forms are thus hardwired into the system. Contemporary Style Guides no longer concern themselves with trivial issues like the correct f form of a grammar code. f However, they need to include instructions for inputting data in the right field. The traditional Style Guide was a printed document, and could easily run to several hundred pages. pages Nowadays, the Style Guide is an electronic document. 4.4.3 Why you need a Style Guide A clear, well-structured Style Guide resolves uncertainty in cases where clear well structured straightforward rulings can be given, and provides advice in situations where lexicographers have to use their own judgment. All of this enhances editors’ confidence and improves the efficiency of the compilation process. il i This in turn brings benefits to the dictionary user.
  • 20. Use s g adua y Users gradually get to know how t e d ct o a y works, a d if it is well o ga ed o o their dictionary o s, and t s e organized and internally consistent, they should find that unsatisfactory look-ups are relatively rare. A good Style Guide will provide the information you need in the great majority of cases. cases But the dynamic nature of human languages means that there will always be situations where the Style Guide can’t give a ruling. 4.5 Template entries Template entries are ‘pro forma’ entries for use by the lexicographers writing either database or dictionary. 4.5.1 What they are and how they are used A lexical set is any group of words that share a common element of meaning such as the days of the week or months of the year. A template entry i a f l is framework d i k designed to f ili d facilitate writing entries f words that ii i for d h belong to lexical sets. Most of the dictionaries on your shelves will have been produced without the benefit of lexical set compiling or template entries.
  • 21. The members of a lexical set pose t e sa e kinds o lexicographic p ob e a d e e be s o e ca the same ds of e cog ap c problem and should be handled in the same way in a dictionary. Once you’ve planned the entry for one word in the set, you can benefit from that work next time you meet another word from the same set. The template is designed to hold, in an ordered way, the essential f facts about any word belonging to a specific category. 4.5.1.1 Entry structure and content template Whenever you come to a headword belonging to a lexical set, a good first move is set to check the relevant template entry. 4.5.2 Why templates are useful Writing template entries is a useful form of lexicographic training for g p g p g lexicographers because it streamlines the editorial process and ensures systematic and comprehensive coverage of the lexical units involved. 4.5.3 How templates are compiled Each E h person chooses one word from the lexical set being studied, and compiles h df h l i l b i di d d il the richest corpus-based entry they can for that word.
  • 22. These entries are then compared a d co ated in a d scuss o sess o , a d t e ese e t es a e t e co pa ed and collated discussion session, and the final version of the template entry is drawn up, with all possible relevant lexical units included in it. • • • • • • First choose some ‘sample’ words in the lexical set. Share these words out amongst the lexicography team. team Each person studies the corpus data for their particular word and outlines an entry. Everyone completes their own entry. The group assembles the facts into a template entry. The resulting template can be used as a checklist entry for any word in the set.
  • 23. Turkish Summary y Bu bölümde bir bütüncenin sözlük oluşturma sürecindeki işlevi ve sözlükbilimcilerin nasıl ş ş bir ortamda çalıştığı anlatılmaktadır. Sözlük oluşturma sürecinde temel prensipler, analiz, aktarım ve sentez aşamaları takip edilir. Bu süreçte veri tabanının oluşturulması sözlüğün tek dilli veya iki dilli olmasına göre farklılık gösterir. Tek dilli sözlüklerde veri tabanının analizlerle oluşturulması ve elde edilen bilginin veri tabanıyla sentezlenmesi ş g y sonucunda sözlük oluşturulurken, iki dilli sözlüklerde bu süreçlere oluşturulan veri tabanının tercüme edilmesi süreci de eklenir. Sözlüğü oluştururken bazı yazılımlardan yardım alınabilir. Bu yazılımlar ‘bütünce sorgulama sistemi (CQS)’ ve ‘sözlük yazma sistemi (DWS)’ olarak adlandırılırlar. Sözlükteki tekrarlanan öğelerin istikrarlı bir ( ) ğ biçimde nasıl ele alınacağı temel bir ilkedir ve bunun için bazı kurallar dizisine ihtiyaç duyulur. Bu kurallar dizisi de sözlükbilimciler için bir talimat kitabı niteliğinde olan ve ‘Biçem Klavuzu’ adı verilen bir el kitabında bir araya getirilir. Bu el kitabı her bir madde başlığının nasıl ele alınacağı konusunda bilgiler verir ve biçimbilim, değişik sözcük ş ğ ğ g ç , ğş biçimleri, dilbilgisi, etiketler ve onların kullanımları, tanımlamalar, örnekler, türetilmiş sözcük biçimleri ve çapraz gönderimler alanlarını kapsar. Anlam açısından ortak bir öğeye sahip olan bir sözcük dizisi oluşturulur. Bu sözcük dizisine ait olan sözcüklerin madde başlıklarını y ş yazmayı kolaylaştırmak için tasarlanmış ç ç y y ş ç ş çerçeve ise ‘şablon madde ş başlığı’ olarak adlandırılır. Şablon madde başlıkları yazı sürecini verimli hale getirir ve sözcük dizisinin sistematik ve anlaşılabilir bir içeriğe sahip olmasını sağlar.
  • 24. Write t e stages followed du g the dictionary-writing process. te the o o ed during t e d ct o a y t g p ocess These stages are rationale, analysis, transfer and synthesis. What is the aim of compiling the database from the corpus? The purpose of this database is to store selected facts about the word in a systematic way way, so that by scanning them you can quickly and efficiently get a fix on the headword and extract the information you need for the final dictionary entry. State the function of the database entry. It can h ld a rich selection of corpus examples showing the headword in use in its various hold h l f l h h h d d meanings and patterns. What are the benefits of a well-designed dictionary database? A well designed and well populated dictionary database represents a valuable piece of well-designed well-populated intellectual property. As well as being usable as a basis for all kinds of dictionary and as an information-source for linguistic research, it is likely to be attractive to builders of computer applications. The value of the database lies in the fact that it is an unbiased record of what is happening in the one single language it is describing. What are the goals of transfer and synthesis stages?
  • 25. The purpose of transfer stage is to build up a body of target language equivalents of the p p g p y g g g q headword in as many contexts as possible, so that when the entry editors come to extract the final entry they have all their options assembled for them in one place. The purpose of synthesis stage is to produce the final entry, the one most appropriate for the typical user of your dictionary. Write the software types needed for the stages of the dictionary writing process. These are ‘corpus query system’ and ‘dictionary writing system’. What does a ‘lexical profile means and what is the benefit of ‘lexical profiling ? lexical profile’ lexical profiling’? A lexical profile is a kind of statistical summary which reveals the salient facts about the way a word most typically combines with other words. Lexical profiling offers a solution that maximizes the value of a large corpus while reducing the effort required by the human user. Lexical-profiling user Lexical profiling software adds a valuable resource to the lexicographer’s repertoire repertoire. It was originally seen as a useful supplementary tool well-adapted for identifying collocational patterns – important information for pedagogical dictionaries. Write the components that constitute the dictionary writing system. These components are a text-editing interface, a database, and a set of administrative tools.
  • 26. What is a ‘Style Gu de a d what is t e pu pose o us g it? at s Sty e Guide’ and at s the purpose of using t The style guide – essentially a book of instructions for lexicographers – is the document in which all these guidelines are assembled. For each entry component, the editorial team needs a set of guidelines. These guidelines show how the dictionary’s style policies should be applied in individual dictionary entries. • Which areas are covered by a Style Guide? The Style Guide will show how each entry component should be dealth with and will cover the following areas: • Morphology • Variant forms • Grammar • Labels and their use • Definitions • Examples • Derived forms • Cross-references C f Write the issues that Style Guides for teams without a DWS should include.
  • 27. Style Guides for teams without a DWS must include detailed instructions on issues such as: y • The correct order of the various parts of an entry • The correct font to be used for each element • The precise designation of a recurring element Make a comparison between the earlier and the contemporary forms of Style Guides. Contemporary Style Guides no longer concern themselves with trivial issues like the correct form of a grammar code. However, they need to include instructions for inputting data in the right field. The traditional Style Guide was a printed document, and could easily run to several hundred pages. Nowadays, the Style Guide is an electronic document. • What are the benefits of a Style Guide? A clear, well-structured Style Guide resolves uncertainty in cases where straightforward clear well structured rulings can be given, and provides advice in situations where lexicographers have to use their own judgment. All of this enhances editors’ confidence and improves the efficiency of the compilation process. This in turn brings benefits to the dictionary user. Users gradually g get to know how their dictionary works, and if it is well organized and internally consistent, y , g y , they should find that unsatisfactory look-ups are relatively rare. A good Style Guide will provide the information you need in the great majority of cases.
  • 28. What is a ‘template e t y at s te p ate entry’? A template entry is a framework designed to facilitate writing entries for words that belong to lexical sets. State the significance of using templates. Writing template entries is a useful form of lexicographic training for lexicographers because it streamlines the editorial process and ensures systematic and comprehensive coverage of the lexical units involved. Which stages are involved when compiling the templates? g p g p • • • • • • First choose some ‘sample’ words in the lexical set. Share these words out amongst the lexicography team. Each person studies the corpus data for their particular word and outlines an entry. Everyone completes their own entry. entry The group assembles the facts into a template entry. The resulting template can be used as a checklist entry for any word in the set.