what's a dictionary?


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from the lecture Lexicography in English Linguistics

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what's a dictionary?

  2. 2. Outline Dictionaries and Encyclopedias A Survey of Types of Dictionaries and Other Language References
  3. 3. Dictionaries and Encyclopedias Dictionary is a book that lists words in alphabetic order and describes their meanings. Dictionaries are about words. Encyclopedia is a collection of articles about every branch of knowledge. Encyclopedias are about things.
  4. 4. A Survey of Types of Dictionaries and Other Language References Dictionaries Range Perspective Presentation
  5. 5. Dictionaries differ in … The number of languages The manner of financing The age of users The size of dictionaries The scope of coverage by subject Limitations in the aspect of language covered The lexical unit The primary language of the market The period of time covered The linguistic approach chosen The means of access
  6. 6. The Number of Languages Monolingual Dictionary Bilingual Dictionary Unidirectional (Mono-directional) (Monoi.e. from English to Turkish Bidirectional i.e. from English to Turkish/Turkish to English
  7. 7. Bilingual Dictionary-1 Dictionary…includes the following: It provides a translation for each word in the source language. Its coverage of the source language lexicon is complete. Grammatical, syntactic and semantic information is provided. Usage guidance is given.
  8. 8. Bilingual Dictionary-2 DictionaryIt includes special vocabulary items, such as scientific terms. Spelling aids and alternative spellings are indicated. Pronunciation is included. It is compact in size.
  9. 9. The Manner of Financing Scholarly Dictionaries Dictionaries are financed by government or foundation grants. grants. Commercial Dictionaries are supported by private investors. investors.
  10. 10. The Age of Users Child’s (School) Dictionaries School) Elementary School (grades three-eight) three-eight) Middle School (grades six-ten) sixSecondary School (grades nine-twelve) nine-twelve) Adult’s Dictionaries
  11. 11. The Size of Dictionaries Unabridged Dictionaries (400.000 to 600.000words) College Dictionaries (130.000 to 160.000 words) words) SemiSemi-unabridged Dictionaries (approximately 260.000 words) words) Desk Dictionaries (60.000 to 100.000 words) words) Pocket (Paperback) Dictionaries (40.000 to Paperback) 60.000 words) words)
  12. 12. The Scope of Coverage by Subject SpecialSpecial-field Dictionaries: Dictionaries: medical and legal dictionaries dictionaries of military and nautical science, science, etc. etc. SubjectSubject-field Dictionaries: Dictionaries: Dictionaries of law, medicine, biology, law, medicine, biology, electronics, architecture, etc. electronics, architecture, etc.
  13. 13. Limitations in the Aspect of Language Covered SpecialSpecial-purpose Dictionaries (by Barnhart) Barnhart) Etymological Dictionaries Pronunciation Dictionaries Synonym Dictionaries Slang Dictionaries Dictionaries Dialect Dictionaries (Linguistic Atlases) Atlases) Neologisims (collections of new words) words)
  14. 14. Etymological Dictionaries: Etymological Dictionaries: they are alphabetic lists of words showing how the current form derived from older ones in the same or another language. language. Pronunciation Dictionaries: Dictionaries: they provide transcriptions of the sounds of speech corresponding to an alphabetic list of words so that the reader may understand how each word is usually pronounced. pronounced.
  15. 15. Synonym Dictionaries: Dictionaries: They have existed in English since the late eighteenth century. They contain the century. synonyms of the lexicons in one language. language. Slang Dictionaries: Dictionaries: Slang is defined as words or expressions that originated in cant (nontechnical vocabulary restricted to a particular occupation, age, group, etc.) occupation, age, group, etc.)
  16. 16. Dialect Dictionaries (Linguistic Atlases): Atlases): They are some kind of a map the geographic distribution of uses of particular vocabulary items or features of pronunciation. pronunciation. Neologisms (Collections of new words): words): Neologisms vary from newspaper glossaries to extensive dictionaries with illustrative quotations documenting each new term. term.
  17. 17. The Lexical Unit Index: Index: An index is a reordering of the important words in a text in alphabetic order so as to access to particular parts of the text where each word is used. used. Concordance: Concordance: If the repeated words constitute an exhaustive list of all the words in the text, the text, index is called a concordance. concordance. An Exegesis(Exegetic Dictionary): It explains a Exegesis( Dictionary): text, text, such as the Bible, by means of an index to Bible, particular words used in key passages. passages.
  18. 18. ABBREVIATIONS Initialisms (Alphabetisms): reflect the separate Alphabetisms): pronunciation of the initial letters of the constituent words. words. TV (television), EU (European Union), ID (identity document), RSVP (reply (television), (European Union), (identity document), (reply please), please), PTO (please turn over), FAQ (frequently asked questions) (please over), (frequently questions) Acronyms: Acronyms: are pronounced as single words. words. NATO, laser Clippings (clipped forms): reductions of longer forms, forms): forms, usually removing the end of the word. word. Ad (advertisement), plane (airplane), flu (influenza) (advertisement), airplane), influenza) Blends: Blends: combine part of words. words. Sitcom (situational comedy), bedsit (one room which is a bedroom and a sitting comedy), room), sci- (science fiction) room), sci-fi (science fiction) A Ghost Word: It is a word that has never existed in actual usage but that appears in dictionaries through the lexicographer’s error. error.
  19. 19. The Primary Language of the Market Monolingual dictionaries; dictionaries; designed for those learning English as a second language (ESL) designed for the native speakers
  20. 20. The Period of Time Covered Diachronic (Historical) Dictionaries: Historical) Dictionaries: ...deal with an extended period of time, ...deal with the purpose of tracing the developments of form and meanings of each headword over the period covered. covered. Synchronic Dictionaries: Dictionaries: ...deal with a narrow band of time and ...deal attempt to represent the lexicon as it exists or existed at a particular point in time.
  21. 21. The Linguistic Approach Chosen Descriptive Prescriptive
  22. 22. The Means of Access Four basic systems of classification are by alphabet by the form of the entry words (morphemic) morphemic) by meaning (semantic) semantic) by no system at all (haphazard) haphazard)