A Guide to SQL, Eighth Edition Chapter 4 Single-Table Queries
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A Guide to SQL, Eighth Edition Chapter 4 Single-Table Queries

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Objectives ...

Objectives
● Retrieve data from a database using SQL commands
● Use simple and compound conditions in queries
● Use the BETWEEN, LIKE, and IN operators in queries
● Use computed columns in queries
● Sort data using the ORDER BY clause
● Sort data using multiple keys and in ascending and descending order
● Use aggregate functions in a query
● Use subqueries
● Group data using the GROUP BY clause
● Select individual groups of data using the HAVING clause
● Retrieve columns with null values

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A Guide to SQL, Eighth Edition Chapter 4 Single-Table Queries A Guide to SQL, Eighth Edition Chapter 4 Single-Table Queries Presentation Transcript

  • A Guide to SQL, Eighth Edition Chapter Four Single-Table Queries
  • A Guide to SQL, Eighth Edition 2 Objectives • Retrieve data from a database using SQL commands • Use simple and compound conditions in queries • Use the BETWEEN, LIKE, and IN operators in queries • Use computed columns in queries
  • A Guide to SQL, Eighth Edition 3 Objectives (continued) • Sort data using the ORDER BY clause • Sort data using multiple keys and in ascending and descending order • Use aggregate functions in a query • Use subqueries • Group data using the GROUP BY clause
  • A Guide to SQL, Eighth Edition 4 Objectives (continued) • Select individual groups of data using the HAVING clause • Retrieve columns with null values
  • A Guide to SQL, Eighth Edition 5 Constructing Simple Queries • What is a query ? – Question represented in a way that the DBMS can understand • How do you implement in SQL? – Use SELECT command • Are there any special formatting rules? – No
  • A Guide to SQL, Eighth Edition 6 Constructing Simple Queries (continued) • SELECT-FROM-WHERE statement – SELECT columns to include in result – FROM table containing columns – WHERE any conditions to apply to the data WHERE clause is optional
  • A Guide to SQL, Eighth Edition 7 Retrieving Certain Columns and Rows • Use SELECT command to retrieve specified columns and all rows – List the number, name, and balance of all customers • No WHERE clause needed, because all customers are requested
  • A Guide to SQL, Eighth Edition 8 Retrieving Certain Columns and Rows (continued)
  • A Guide to SQL, Eighth Edition 9 Retrieving All Columns and Rows • Use an asterisk (*) to indicate all columns in the SELECT clause • Will list all columns in the order used when table was created • List specific columns in SELECT clause to present columns in a different order
  • A Guide to SQL, Eighth Edition 10 Retrieving All Columns and Rows (continued)
  • A Guide to SQL, Eighth Edition 11 Using a WHERE Clause • WHERE clause – Used to retrieve rows that satisfy some condition – What is the name of customer number 148? • Simple Condition – Column name, comparison operator followed by either a column name or a value
  • A Guide to SQL, Eighth Edition 12 Using a WHERE Clause (continued)
  • A Guide to SQL, Eighth Edition 13 Using a WHERE Clause (continued)
  • A Guide to SQL, Eighth Edition 14 Using a WHERE Clause (continued) • Simple conditions can compare columns
  • A Guide to SQL, Eighth Edition 15 Using Compound Conditions • Compound conditions – Connect two or more simple conditions with AND, OR, and NOT operators • AND operator: all simple conditions are true • OR operator: any simple condition is true • NOT operator: reverses the truth of the original condition
  • A Guide to SQL, Eighth Edition 16 Using Compound Conditions (continued)
  • A Guide to SQL, Eighth Edition 17 Using Compound Conditions (continued)
  • A Guide to SQL, Eighth Edition 18 Using Compound Conditions (continued)
  • A Guide to SQL, Eighth Edition 19 Using the BETWEEN Operator • Use instead of AND operator • Use when searching a range of values • Makes SELECT commands simpler to construct • Inclusive – When using BETWEEN 2000 and 5000, values of 2000 or 5000 would be true
  • A Guide to SQL, Eighth Edition 20 Using the BETWEEN Operator (continued)
  • A Guide to SQL, Eighth Edition 21 Using Computed Columns • Computed column – Does not exist in the database but is computed using data in existing columns • Arithmetic operators – + for addition – - for subtraction – * for multiplication – / for division
  • A Guide to SQL, Eighth Edition 22 Using Computed Columns (continued)
  • A Guide to SQL, Eighth Edition 23 Using Computed Columns (continued) • Use AS clause to assign a name
  • A Guide to SQL, Eighth Edition 24 Using the LIKE Operator • Used for pattern matching • LIKE %Central% will retrieve data with those characters – “3829 Central” or “Centralia” • Underscore (_) represents any single character – “T_M” for TIM or TOM or T3M
  • A Guide to SQL, Eighth Edition 25 Using the LIKE Operator (continued)
  • A Guide to SQL, Eighth Edition 26 Using the IN Operator • Concise phrasing of OR conditions
  • A Guide to SQL, Eighth Edition 27 Sorting • By default, no defined order in which results are displayed • Use ORDER BY clause to list data in a specific order
  • A Guide to SQL, Eighth Edition 28 Using the ORDER BY Clause • Sort key or key – Column on which data is to be sorted • Ascending is default sort order
  • A Guide to SQL, Eighth Edition 29 Additional Sorting Options • Possible to sort data by more than one key • Major sort key and minor sort key • List sort keys in order of importance in the ORDER BY clause • For descending order sort, use DESC
  • A Guide to SQL, Eighth Edition 30 Additional Sorting Options (continued)
  • A Guide to SQL, Eighth Edition 31 Using Functions • Aggregate functions – Apply to groups of rows
  • A Guide to SQL, Eighth Edition 32 Using the COUNT Function • Counts the number of rows in a table • Can use asterisk (*) to represent any column
  • A Guide to SQL, Eighth Edition 33 Using the SUM Function • Used to calculate totals of columns • Column must be specified and must be numeric • Null values are ignored
  • A Guide to SQL, Eighth Edition 34 Using the AVG, MAX, and MIN Functions • Numeric columns only • Ignores nulls
  • A Guide to SQL, Eighth Edition 35 Using the DISTINCT Operator • Eliminates duplicate values • Used with COUNT function
  • A Guide to SQL, Eighth Edition 36 Using the DISTINCT Operator (continued)
  • A Guide to SQL, Eighth Edition 37 Using the DISTINCT Operator (continued)
  • A Guide to SQL, Eighth Edition 38 Nesting Queries • Query results require two or more steps • Subquery: an inner query placed inside another query • Outer query uses subquery results
  • A Guide to SQL, Eighth Edition 39 Nesting Queries (continued)
  • A Guide to SQL, Eighth Edition 40 Nesting Queries (continued)
  • A Guide to SQL, Eighth Edition 41 Grouping • Grouping: creates groups of rows that share common characteristics • Calculations in the SELECT command are performed for the entire group
  • A Guide to SQL, Eighth Edition 42 Using the GROUP BY Clause • Group data on a particular column • Calculate statistics
  • A Guide to SQL, Eighth Edition 43 Using the GROUP BY Clause (continued)
  • A Guide to SQL, Eighth Edition 44 Using a HAVING Clause • Used to restrict groups that will be included
  • A Guide to SQL, Eighth Edition 45 Having vs. Where • WHERE: limit rows • HAVING: limit groups • Can use together if condition involves both rows and groups
  • A Guide to SQL, Eighth Edition 46 Having vs. Where (continued)
  • A Guide to SQL, Eighth Edition 47 Nulls • Condition that involves a column that can be null – IS NULL – IS NOT NULL
  • A Guide to SQL, Eighth Edition 48 Summary • Create queries that retrieve data from a single table using SELECT commands • Comparison operators – =, >,=>,<,=<, or <>, or != • Compound conditions – AND,OR, and NOT • Use the BETWEEN operator • Use the LIKE operator
  • A Guide to SQL, Eighth Edition 49 Summary (continued) • IN operator • ORDER BY clause • Aggregate functions – COUNT, SUM, AVG, MAX, and MIN – DISTINCT operator • Subqueries • GROUP BY – HAVING • NULL