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# Problem solving section 1

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• Title Flipchart “Ground Rules” Group brainstorms other ground rules for the training session. Keep this posted throughout the 16 hours of training. Participants should record the group rules on their PowerPoint handout. Looking for input from everyoneNo judging of ideasOther Rules?Trainer collects sign-in sheets &amp; registration forms
• Objective 1: Define a problem and identify the owner__:__ - __:__ ( 40 total minutes for this objective )Initiate: (5 min)Ask: What is a problem?Tell: One way to look at it: A problem is a deviation from a standard, a target, or what is should be happening.
• Objective 1 ContinuedInitiate (Cont.): The way that you communicate the existence of a problem is thru a problem statement. A problem statement communicates “what is wrong with what”. This also includes both the Object and the Defect.
• Practice: (10 Min): Directions: In pairs spend five minutes coming up with two problem statements that communicate a past or current problem at work. Record each problem statement on a Large Post-it note. Report Out: Each pair reports out their problem statements. Ask for clarification regarding the defect (gap) and the object when necessary. Trainer collects post-its and sticks on a flipchart titled “Problem Statements”Debrief (5 Min) Ask: “What was difficult about this activity?” Ask: “What value does the problem statement have? A place to start the conversationAsk: “What value is there in identifying the owner of a problem?”So everyone knows who is taking responsibility for a problem. This is NOT about blame.Ask: “Who should have ownership over a problem? Someone with authority over the problem area – through empowerment or job title.
• Practice (15 Minutes): Spend 10 minutes reading over the ORBCO case packet one. With your partner come up with as many problem statements as possible utilize proper format. Identify the owner of the problem, then record your problem statement on the top of a large post it and the owner at the bottom. Each pair will report out their initial problem statements. Trainer then collects post-its and places them at the top of the large group A3. If there is hesitation regarding the owner of the problem… knowing what you know about manufacturing in general, who would it be?Debrief (5 min): What was challenging about this activity? ***********Why is the training designed this way? ***********
• Objective 2: Identify the difference between a cause and a symptom__:__ - __:__ ( 40 total minutes for this objective )Initiate (5 min):The goal of problems solving is close the gap that exits between what is happening should be happening and what is actually happening. Problem solving and root cause analysis is about getting past the symptoms and drilling down to the cause of the problem. Ask: What is a cause?Ask: What is a symptom?
• Practice (10 min):As a large group brainstorm symptoms and causes associated with provided causes and symptoms. Trainer creates a flipchart and divides it into two columns one labeled Cause and the other SymptomWrite in cause column: Flu VirusAsk for associated SymptomsWrite in symptom column: Being late to workAsk for associated causesWrite in symptom column: Oil on the floorAsk for associated symptomsWrite in cause column: Production Machine FailureAsk for associated symptoms? Couldn’t this also be considered a symptom? What appears to be a cause can actually be a symptom.
• Practice (10 min):Large Group Practice - using the sample problems that were created earlier identify if it is a cause or a symptom. Select 3-5 if it is a cause brainstorm possible symptoms. If it is a symptom brainstorm possible causes.Debrief (5 min):Ask “What was challenging about this activity?”Ask “Knowing what you now know about the difference between a cause and a symptom what thoughts do you have regarding the problem statements that were created for the ORBCO case?It should be clear that the problem statements generated from the case study represent symptoms and not causes, more digging is necessary!
• Objective 4: Define the Plan-Do-Check-Adjust cycle and A3 Problem Solving. __ : __ - __:___ (30 Total Minutes for this objective) Initiate (10 min):The model or process that all problem solving processes are based on is known as the scientific method. The systematic observation, measurement, and experiment, and the formulation, testing, and modification of hypotheses. The problem solving and root cause analysis will follow this same scientific method. This process is also known as the Deming circle/cycle/wheel or Shewart cycle.Grasp the Situation – What is happening now? What are the current conditions? Describe the problemLook for root causeVerify root causePlan – What steps do we think will move us closer to our vision?Develop and select a countermeasureDo – Implement the planCheck – How’s it working?Evaluate the resultsAdjust – What have we learned? What changes do we need to make?Make changes as needed, standardize the countermeasure Continue to next page:
• Grasp the situation: What’s happening now? What are the current conditions? This step also includes identifying the root cause of the problem: Talk with involved people—ask questionsDo some investigating, figure out what is going on. If appropriate collect some data for a designated period of time.Depending on the scope of the problem: report back to larger department/unit with preliminary findings.
• Plan: What steps do we think will move us closer to our vision? Come up with countermeasures to try or test.Determine who will be affected by the proposed solutionCommunicate solution to appropriate people, ask for concerns if it makes senseMake adjustments to plan as needed.  Adjust: What have we learned? What changes do we need to make?--&gt; Continue back to PLAN step and repeat.
• Do: Implement the plan. Schedule “check” meeting where affected staff can report back and talk about what is working and what needs to be adjusted.
• Check: How’s it working?At scheduled check, ask for what is going well and what needs more improvement/adjusting/tweaksRecord all comments in a visible place—dry erase board or flip chartFollow tips for receiving feedback effectivelyDo not respond to feedbackRecord comments using person’s own words as much as possibleCheck for understanding by paraphrasing more complicated comments/concernsCommunicate plan for making further adjustments
• Adjust: What have we learned? What changes do we need to make?--&gt; Continue back to PLAN step and repeat.
• Practice: (15 minutes)Your team of 3-4 is working to develop a new electrical device that generates light. During your last experiment you observed that the device is failing after a very short period of time. Use a flipchart to communicate each step of a PDCA cycle using the following example as a starting point. Report Out
• In a lot of organizations problems are dealt with in superficial ways.Very few organizations actually arrive at the root cause of their problems. Frequently superficial solutions or band-aids are applied.   At Toyota, they employ Root Cause analysis in almost everything they do.  One problem solving approach they employ is the A3 Process. A3 is a paper size, typically 11″ x 17″.  Toyota believes that when you structure your problem solving around 1 page of paper, then your thinking is focused and structured.Ask: Who here is familiar with A3s? How do you currently use A3s? The large piece of paper on the wall represents problem solving A3. This is the tool that we are going to utilize to organize, manage, and tell the story of our problem solving efforts related to the ORBCO case.3ft by 6 ft blank A3 should be posted on the wallEach person should have two blank A3 sheets in front of them. One for the Orbco sheet, Second for a job aid, notes etc.
• Practice: On large group A3 we are going to outline the format based on PDCA working from left to Right. Go ahead and outline one of the blank A3s in front of you, this will be your job aid – feel free to capture any notes or thoughts you may have. Ask: What was the first step we discussed when I introduced PDCA? “Grasp the Situation”Ask: What questions were we trying to answer when grasping the situation? Describe the problem, What is happening now, What are the current conditions? Collect data Set goals and targets.Ask: How will you collect the data or information you need? Go-See-For-YourselfAsk: What is next in the PDCA Cycle? “Plan”What are we going to do? Analysis, Identify steps necessary to move towards vision , Set out goals/targetsAsk: What is next in the PDCA Cycle? “Do” - Implement the planRepeat for Check and Adjust. Debrief: What thoughts do you have regarding PDCA and A3s?
• Objective #: prioritize a problem for further action. __ : __ - __:___ (Total Minutes for this objective) Initiate (10 min):Based on the problem statements you created earlier it is clear that one or more problems exist to take on. Ask: How do you prioritize what problems get addressed first at your organization? Each company handles this differently; some use a formal process, others just fight fires. One tool that is used to is a Prioritization Matrix. This is used to weigh the problems vs a set of selected criteria. Memory Jogger page 105
• On this sample a prioritization matrix, the problem statements would be listed on the right hand side of the page. And the weighted criteria across the top. Ask: Who here can explain what weighed means? Some criteria are more valued than others. Practice: (30 Minutes) In groups of 3 or 4 create a problem matrix for the problems that you identified in the ORBCO case. Debrief: (5 min)Report out round robin, have each group indicate their 1st, 2nd, 3rd criteria. What was difficult about this activity? Practice: (5 min) In your groups, utilize the created criteria to triage the problems presented in the case study. Each group will then report out what issue they selected, and why they selected that issue. Debrief: (10 min)Ask Each Team Reports Out:What problem did you decided was more important to address based on the selected criteria? Record each groups top prioritized idea on a large post-it and put it at the top left of the group A3. Build consensus – a group we will move forward with the “injuries” or petals falling off” By the end of this activity everyone should be focused on “injuries” or “petals falling off”
• Activity: (30 min)See PPT.Debrief: (10 min)Ask Each Team Reports Out:What problem did you decided was more important to address based on the selected criteria? Record each groups top prioritized idea on a large post-it and put it at the top left of the group A3. Build consensus – a group we will move forward with the “injuries” or petals falling off” By the end of this activity everyone should be focused on “injuries” or “petals falling off”
• Objective :Paraphrase to check for understandingDemonstrate empathyidentify “key words” and use open-ended questions to learn more  __ : __ - __:___ (20 Total Minutes for this objective)  Initiate: Ask, “Why does listening matter? The concept of “Go See” is one of the foundational concepts behind A3 problem solving and root cause analysis. Problem solving doesn’t happen in an office or conference room, it requires that you go-see, observe, and ask questions.  What does good listening look like? How do you know when someone is really listening to you?What is frustrating when you are speaking to someone? What makes you think they are not listening?
• Here are some tools that you as problem solvers can use when going to see. 1. Listen without blame2. Use paraphrasing to check for understanding3.Ask open ended questionsDemo: Ask if someone is willing to talk about a problem they are having at work.Trainer then listens without blame, uses paraphrasing to check for understandingAsks open ended questions
• Practice:Each group is going to get a set of three activity cards. Each person should have one card, if there are 4 people in the group then the observer role will be shared. This activity is in replacement of go-see to gather further background information regarding the problem.5 Minutes Roll Playing and debriefing within the groupTrainer debrief in between rounds: What did you observe?Hand out second card set, collect previous, Cont. When you are done rotating all roles, you will be creating a graphical summary of the current condition. On a Large sized post-it note.
• ### Transcript

• 1. Problem Solving & Root Cause Analysis – Section One
NMC Training & Research
1
• 2. Name
Area of responsibility
Expectation of this training
Past experience with problem solving
Introductions
2
• 3. Reduce defects that are due to ongoing or critical problems.
Purpose of Training
3
• 4. Day One “Grasp the Situation”
Defining a Problem
Causes vs. Symptoms
P-D-C-A Thinking
A3’s for Problem Solving
Break Time
Prioritizing a problem
Listening Skills “Go-See”
Grasp the Current Condition
Agenda
4
• 5. Everyone participates
No judging of ideas
Different points of view are okay
Ground Rules
5
• 6. What is a problem?
Defining a problem
What “should” be happening?
Gap = Problem
What is “actually” happening?
6
• 7. Communicates “what is wrong with what”
Includes both an Object and a Defect
Examples
Tires are delaminating
Missing cover on part NMC-1520
Cam Cover Gasket is getting folded
What are some other real life examples of problem statements?
Initial Problem Statement
7
• 8. Directions: In pairs spend five minutes coming up with two problem statements that communicate a past or current problem at work. Record each problem statement on a post-it note.
Initial Problem Statement Cont.
8
• 9. Spend 10 minutes reading over the ORBCO case packet one.
With your partner come up with as many problem statements as you can. Identify the owner of the problem, then record your problem statements on the top of a large post it and the owner at the bottom.
Introducing:
Problem Statement
Problem Owner
9
• 10. What is a cause?
What is a symptom?
Cause vs. Symptom
10
• 11. What is a cause?
A cause is a deviation from the standard that creates an unwanted symptom. What is “actually” occurring vs. what “should” be occurring. A point or distribution within the control limits that is wider than specified or expected.
What is a symptom?
A symptom is an initial incident experienced by the customer that may indicate the existence of one or more problems. It is something that has been observed. It is evidence, signs or clues that a problem exists. A gap between what is happening and the desired condition.
Cause vs. Symptom
11
• 12. Causes vs. Symptoms
12
• 13. A problem can turn into the symptom once further investigation and analysis occurs.
Symptom
Problem (Symptom)
Specs in Product
Problem
Rusty Equipment
Wrong Lubricant
13
• Problem Solving Model Based on Scientific Method
• 15. Hypothesis"–“Experiment"–“Evaluation“
14
• 16. Grasp the Situation
Think “Problem”
PLAN
Think “Hypothesis”
• Describe the problem
• 17. What is happening now?
• 18. What are the current conditions?
• 19. Collect data
• 20. Set goals and targets
15
• 21. PLAN
Think “Hypothesis”
PLAN
Think “Hypothesis”
• Develop and select countermeasures
• 22. Identify steps necessary to move towards vision
• 23. Set targets
• 24. Build consensus
16
• 25. DO
Think “Experiment or Trial”
PLAN
Think “Hypothesis”
• Implement the plan
• 26. Give the changes or new process a try!
17
• 27. CHECK
Think “”Study and Reflect”
PLAN
Think “Hypothesis”
• How is it working?
• 28. Evaluate the results
18
PLAN
Think “Hypothesis”
• What have we learned?
• 30. What changes do we need to make?
• 31. Make changes as needed
• 32. Standardize and stabilize countermeasures
19
• 33. Your team of 3-4 is working to develop a new electrical device that generates light.
During your last experiment you observed that the device is failing after a very short period of time.
Use a flipchart to communicate each step of a PDCA cycle.
Use the PDCA slides as a reference
Doing PDCA
20
• 34. An A3 is a problem solving tool that leads the user through P-D-C-A.
Toyota believes that when you structure problem solving around one piece of paper, then your thinking is focused and structured.
The A3 becomes a method of standardized story telling.
PDCA & A3 Thinking
21
• 35. PDCA & A3 Thinking
Left Side
• Grasp the Situation
• 36. Plan
22
• 37. PDCA & A3 Thinking
Right Side
23
• 40. PDCA & A3 Thinking
Shook, John. Managing to Learn. 1st. Cambridge, MA: Lean Enterprise Institute, Inc, 2008. 127. Print.
24
• 41. How do you prioritize what problems get taken on at your organization?
The goal is to narrow down your options through a systematic approach of comparing choices by selecting, weighting, and applying criteria.
Prioritizing a problem
25
• 42. Prioritization Matrix
26
• 43. In groups of 3-4 create and complete a Prioritization Matrix for the issues identified in the ORBCO case.
Utilize the information provided to create a list of weighted criteria
Report out what problem you selected and why.
Prioritizing a problem
27
• 44. What does good listening look like?
How do you know when someone is really listening to you?
What makes you think they are not listening?
Listening Skills for Problem Solvers
28
• 45. Listen without blame
Use paraphrasing to check for understanding