Your SlideShare is downloading. ×
MBA MCO101 Unit 8b Lecture 9 200806xx
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in...5

Thanks for flagging this SlideShare!

Oops! An error has occurred.

Saving this for later? Get the SlideShare app to save on your phone or tablet. Read anywhere, anytime – even offline.
Text the download link to your phone
Standard text messaging rates apply

MBA MCO101 Unit 8b Lecture 9 200806xx


Published on

Published in: Business, Sports
  • Be the first to comment

No Downloads
Total Views
On Slideshare
From Embeds
Number of Embeds
Embeds 0
No embeds

Report content
Flagged as inappropriate Flag as inappropriate
Flag as inappropriate

Select your reason for flagging this presentation as inappropriate.

No notes for slide


  • 1. Unit 8B: Motivation, Leadership, Groups and Teams
  • 2. Managing Expectations
    • At the end of the course, students will be able to:
      • Explain fundamental concepts and principles of management including the basic roles, skills, and functions of management
      • Discuss the knowledgeable of historical development, theoretical aspects and practice application of managerial process
      • Examine the environment, technology, human resources, and organisations in order to achieve high performance
      • Discuss the ethical dilemmas faced by managers and the social responsibilities of businesses.
  • 3. Managing Expectations
      • Management, Managers and evolution of Management theory
      • Personality traits and diversity
      • Organisation, Globalisation and the resulting environments
      • Decision-making and Planning
      • Structure and Strategy
      • Executing and Controlling
      • Human Resources Management as a function
      • Motivation, Leadership, Groups and Teams
      • Communication, conflicts and politics
      • Operations Management. Entrepreneurship. Innovation
  • 4. Managing Expectations
    • After going through UNIT 8B, you should be able to:
      • explain the basics of motivation.
      • use equity theory to explain how employees’ perceptions of fairness affect motivation.
      • use expectancy theory to describe how workers’ expectations about rewards, effort, and the link between rewards and performance influence motivation.
      • explain how reinforcement theory works and how it can be used to motivate.
      • describe the components of goal-setting theory and how managers can use them to motivate workers.
      • discuss how the entire motivation model can be used to motivate workers.
  • 5. Basics of Motivation Extrinsic and Intrinsic Rewards Motivating People Effort and Performance Need Satisfaction
  • 6. Effort and Performance Job Performance = Motivation x Ability x Situational Constraints
    • Job performance: how well someone performs the job
    • Motivation: effort put forth on the job
    • Ability: capability to do the job
    • Situational Constraints: external factors affecting performance
    Performance Effort
    • Initiation
    • Direction
    • Persistence
  • 7. Need Satisfaction
    • Needs : physical or psychological requirements, must be met to ensure survival and well being.
    • Unmet needs motivate people
    • Three approaches : (1) Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs (2) Alderfer’s ERG Theory (3) McClelland’s Learned Needs Theory
  • 8. Needs Classification McClelland’s Learned Needs Alderfer’s ERG Maslow’s Hierarchy Higher-Order Needs Lower-Order Needs Self-Actualization Esteem Belongingness Safety Physiological Growth Relatedness Existence Power Achievement Affiliation
  • 9. Extrinsic and Intrinsic Rewards
    • Extrinsic Rewards
      • tangible and visible to others
      • given contingent on performance
    • Intrinsic Rewards
      • natural rewards
      • associated with performing the task for its own sake
    • Good benefits
    • Health insurance
    • Job security
    • Vacation time
    • Interesting work
    • Learning new skills
    • Independent work situations
  • 10. Extrinsic and Intrinsic Rewards
  • 11. Motivating with the Basics
    • Ask people what their needs are
    • Satisfy lower-order needs first
    • Expect people’s needs to change
    • Satisfy higher order needs by looking for ways to allow employees to experience intrinsic rewards
  • 12. How Perceptions and Expectations Affect Motivation Equity Theory Components of Equity Theory Reaction to Perceived Inequity Motivating People Using Equity Theory
    • Inputs: employee contributions to the organization
    • Outcomes: rewards employees receive from the organization
    • Referents: comparison others
    • Outcome/input (O/I) ratio
    • INEQUITY : When a person’s O/I ratio differs from their referent’s O/I ratio
    • Underreward
      • referent’s O/I ratio is greater than yours
      • experience anger or frustration
    • Overreward
      • referent’s O/I ratio is less than yours
      • experience guilt
    Outcomes self Inputs self Outcomes referent Inputs referent =
  • 13. How People React to Perceived Inequity
    • Motivating with Equity Theory
    • Look for and correct major inequities
    • Reduce employees’ inputs
    • Make sure decision-making processes are fair
      • distributive justice
      • procedural justice
  • 14. Expectancy Theory Motivating with Expectancy Theory Components of Expectancy Theory
    • Systematically gather information to find out what employees want from their jobs
    • Clearly link rewards to individual performance
    • Empower employees to make decisions which enhance expectancy perceptions
    Valence Expectancy Instrumentality
  • 15. Expectancy Theory
  • 16. Reinforcement Theory Components of Reinforcement Theory Schedules for Delivering Reinforcement Motivating with Reinforcement Theory Reinforcement Theory A theory that states that behavior is a function of its consequences, that behaviors followed by positive consequences will occur more frequently, and that behaviors followed by negative consequences, or not followed by positive consequences, will occur less frequently. Motivating Reinforcement Theory Identify, measure, analyze, intervene, and evaluate. Don’t reinforce the wrong behavior. Correctly administer punishment at the appropriate time. Choose the simplest and most effective schedule of reinforcement. Continuous Schedule A schedule that requires a consequence to be administered following every instance of a behavior.
  • 17. Reinforcement Theory Schedule – Intermittent
  • 18. Goal-Setting Theory Goal-Setting Theory relates to the basic model: desire to meet a goal prompts effort.
    • Goal Specificity: the clarity of goals
    • Goal Difficulty: how challenging goals are
    • Goal Acceptance: how well goals are agreed to or understood
    • Performance Feedback: information on goal progress
    • Assign specific, challenging goals
    • Make sure workers truly accept organizational goals
    • Provide frequent, specific performance-related feedback
  • 19. Goal-Setting Theory
  • 20. Motivating with the Integrated Model Motivating with the Basics Motivating with Equity Theory Motivating with Expectancy Theory Motivating with Reinforcement Theory Motivating with Goal-Setting Theory
  • 21. Motivating with the Integrated Model