MBA MCO101 Unit 8 A Lecture 9 200806 Xx
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MBA MCO101 Unit 8 A Lecture 9 200806 Xx Presentation Transcript

  • 1. Unit 8A: Motivation, Leadership, Groups and Teams
  • 2. Managing Expectations
    • LEARNING OUTCOMES:
    • At the end of the course, students will be able to:
      • Explain fundamental concepts and principles of management including the basic roles, skills, and functions of management
      • Discuss the knowledgeable of historical development, theoretical aspects and practice application of managerial process
      • Examine the environment, technology, human resources, and organisations in order to achieve high performance
      • Discuss the ethical dilemmas faced by managers and the social responsibilities of businesses.
  • 3. Managing Expectations
    • SUBJECTS DISCUSSED:
      • Management, Managers and evolution of Management theory
      • Personality traits and diversity
      • Organisation, Globalisation and the resulting environments
      • Decision-making and Planning
      • Structure and Strategy
      • Executing and Controlling
      • Human Resources Management as a function
      • Motivation, Leadership, Groups and Teams
      • Communication, conflicts and politics
      • Operations Management. Entrepreneurship. Innovation
  • 4. Managing Expectations
    • TOPIC DETAILS:
    • After going through UNIT 8A, you should be able to:
      • explain what leadership is.
      • describe who leaders are and what effective leaders do
      • explain Fiedler’s contingency theory.
      • describe how path-goal theory works.
      • discuss Hersey and Blanchard’s Situational Leadership theory.
      • explain the normative decision theory.
      • explain how visionary leadership (i.e., charismatic and transformational leadership) helps leaders achieve strategic leadership.
  • 5. Leaders versus Managers MANAGERS Do things right Status quo Short-term Means Builders Problem solving LEADERS Do the right thing Change Long-term Ends Architects Inspiring & motivating
  • 6. Leadership Traits Leadership Traits Desire to Lead Honesty and Integrity Drive Self- Confidence Emotional Stability Cognitive Ability Knowledge of the Business
  • 7. Leadership Behaviors Initiating Structure The degree to which a leader structures the roles of followers by setting goals, giving directions, setting deadlines, and assigning tasks. Consideration The extent to which a leader is friendly, approachable, and supportive and shows concern for employees.
  • 8. Blake/Moulton Leadership Grid 1,9 Country Club Management 9,9 Team Management 1,1 Impoverished Management 9,1 Authority-Compliance 5,5 Middle of the Road 5,5 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 Concern for People Concern for Production High Low Low High
  • 9. Putting Leaders in the Right Situation: Fiedler’s Contingency Theory Group Performance = Leadership Style Situational Favorableness
  • 10. Putting Leaders in the Right Situation: Fiedler’s Contingency Theory Least Preferred Coworker Situational Favorableness Matching Leadership Styles to Situations
    • Leadership style is the way a leader generally behaves toward followers. seen as stable and difficult to change.
    • Style is measured by the Least Preferred Co-worker scale (LPC): relationship-oriented vv task-oriented
    Situational Favorableness: The degree to which a particular situation either permits or denies a leader the chance to influence the behavior of group members. Three factors: (1) Leader-member relations, (2) Task structure, (3) Position power
  • 11. Path-Goal Theory Path-Goal Theory A leadership theory that states that leaders can increase subordinate satisfaction and performance by clarifying and clearing the paths to goals and by increasing the number and kinds of rewards available for goal attainment. assumptions Clarify paths to goals Clear paths to goals by solving problems and removing roadblocks Increase the number and kinds of rewards available for goal attainment Do things that satisfy followers today or will lead to future rewards or satisfaction Offer followers something unique and valuable beyond what they’re experiencing
  • 12. Path-Goal Theory
    • Subordinate Contingencies
    • Perceived Ability
    • Locus of Control
    • Experience
    • Environmental Contingencies
    • Task Structure
    • Formal Authority System
    • Primary Work Group
    • Outcomes
    • Subordinate satisfaction
    • Subordinate performance
    • Leadership Styles
    • Directive
    • Supportive
    • Participative
    • Achievement-Oriented
  • 13. Adapting Leader Behavior: Path-Goal Theory Leadership Styles
    • Directive: clarifying expectations and guidelines
    • Supportive: being friendly and approachable
    • Participative: allowing input on decisions
    • Achievement-Oriented: setting challenging goals
  • 14. Adapting Leadership Behavior Worker Readiness Leadership Styles Hersey and Blanchard’s Situational Leadership Theory R4 R3 R2 R1 Confident, willing , able Insecure, not willing, able Confident, willing, not able Insecure, not able, not willing Telling (R1) Selling (R2) Participating (R3) Delegating (R4) high task behavior, low relationship behavior high task behavior, high relationship behavior low task behavior, high relationship behavior low task behavior, low relationship behavior
  • 15. Normative Decision Theory Decision Styles Decision Quality and Acceptance
  • 16. Normative Decision Theory Decision Style Solve the problem yourself Obtain information. Select a solution yourself. Share problem, get ideas from individuals. Select a solution yourself. AI AII CI Share problem with group, get ideas. Make decision, which may or may not reflect input. Share problem with group. Together tries to reach a solution. Leader acts as facilitator. CII GII Leader solves the problem or makes the decision Leader accepts any decision supported by the entire group
  • 17. Normative Decision Theory Decision Quality and Acceptance
    • Using the right amount of employee participation:
      • improves decision quality
      • improves acceptance
    • Decision tree helps leader identify optimal level of participation
    • Quality Rule
      • If the quality of the decision is important, then don't use an autocratic decision style
    • Leader Information Rule
      • If the quality of the decision is important, and if the leader doesn't have enough information to make the decision on his or her own, then don't use an autocratic decision style
    • Subordinate Information Rule
      • If the quality of the decision is important, and if the subordinates don't have enough information to make the decision themselves, then don't use a group decision style
    Increasing Quality of Decisions [1]
  • 18. Normative Decision Theory Decision Quality and Acceptance
    • Using the right amount of employee participation:
      • improves decision quality
      • improves acceptance
    • Decision tree helps leader identify optimal level of participation
    • Goal Congruence Rule
      • If the quality of the decision is important, and subordinates' goals are different from the organization's goals, then don't use a group decision style
    • Problem Structure Rule
      • If the quality of the decision is important, the leader doesn't have enough information to make the decision on his or her own, and the problem is unstructured, then don't use an autocratic decision style
    Increasing Quality of Decisions [2]
  • 19. Normative Decision Theory Decision Quality and Acceptance
    • Using the right amount of employee participation:
      • improves decision quality
      • improves acceptance
    • Decision tree helps leader identify optimal level of participation
    • Commitment Probability Rule
      • If having subordinates accept and commit to the decision is important, then don't use an autocratic decision style
    • Subordinate Conflict Rule
      • If having subordinates accept the decision is important and critical to successful implementation and subordinates are likely to disagree or end up in conflict over the decision, then don't use an autocratic or consultative decision style
    • Commitment Requirement Rule
      • If having subordinates accept the decision is absolutely required for successful implementation and subordinates share the organization's goals, then don't use an autocratic or consultative style
    Increasing Quality of Decisions [3]
  • 20. Strategic Leadership Visionary Leadership Charismatic Leadership Transformational Leadership
    • Creates an exceptionally strong relationship between leader and follower. Charismatic leaders:
      • articulate a clear vision, based on values
      • model values consistently with vision
      • communicate high performance expectations
      • display confidence in followers’ abilities
    • Generates awareness and acceptance of group’s purpose and mission
    • Gets followers to accomplish more than they intended or thought possible
    • Components:
      • Charisma or idealized influence
      • Inspirational motivation
      • Intellectual stimulation
      • Individualized consideration
  • 21. Kinds of Charismatic Leaders
    • Ethical Charismatics
      • provide developmental opportunities
      • open to positive and negative feedback
      • recognize others’ contributions
      • share information
      • concerned with the interests of the group
    • Unethical Charismatics
      • control and manipulate followers
      • do what is best for themselves
      • only want positive feedback
      • motivated by self-interest
  • 22. Ethical Charismatic Leaders Exercising Power Power is used to serve others Creating the vision Followers help develop the vision Communicating with followers Two-way communication Accepting feedback Open to feedback Want followers to think and to questions the status quo Stimulating followers Developing followers Focus on developing followers Living by moral standards Three virtues: courage, sense of fairness, integrity Charismatic Leader Behaviors Ethical Charismatics
  • 23. Unethical Charismatic Leaders Exercising Power Power is used to serve others Creating the vision Followers help develop the vision Communicating with followers Two-way communication Accepting feedback Open to feedback Want followers to think and to questions the status quo Stimulating followers Developing followers Focus on developing followers Living by moral standards Three virtues: courage, sense of fairness, integrity Charismatic Leader Behaviors Unethical Charismatics Power is used to dominate others Vision comes solely from the leader One-way communication, not open to input from others Prefer yes-men, punish candid feedback Don’t want followers to think, prefer uncritical acceptance of own ideas Insensitive to followers’ needs Follow standards only if they satisfy immediate self interests