Generally responsible for Creating a context for change Developing commitment and ownership in employees Creating a positive organisational culture through language and action Monitoring their business environments
Generally responsible for Coordinate and link groups, departments, and divisions Monitor and manage the performance of subunits and managers who report to them Implement changes or strategies generated by top managers Plan and allocate resources to meet objectives
Generally responsible for Manage the performance of entry-level employees Encourage, monitor, and reward the performance of workers Teach entry-level employees how to do their jobs Make detailed schedules and operating plans
Interpersonal Role Monitor: Managers scan their environment for information Disseminator: Managers share information with others in their company Spokesperson: Managers share information with others outside their departments or companies
Informational Role Figurehead: Managers perform ceremonial duties Leader: Managers motivate and encourage workers to accomplish objectives Liaison: Managers deal with people outside their units
Decisional Role Entrepreneur: Managers adapt to incremental change Disturbance Managers respond to problems that Handler: demand immediate action Resource Allocator: Managers decide who gets what resources Negotiator: Managers negotiate schedules, projects, goals, outcomes, resources, and raises
What Companies Look for in Managers Conceptual Skills Motivation to Manage Technical Skills Human Skills
What Companies Look for in Managers Skills are more or less important at different levels of management:
Mistakes Managers Make Adapted from Exhibit 1.6 McCall & Lombardo, “What Makes a Top Executive?” Psychology Today, Feb 1983 1. Insensitive to others 2. Cold, aloof, arrogant 3. Betrayal of trust 4. Overly ambitious 5. Specific performance problems with the business 6. Overmanaging: unable to delegate or build a team 7. Unable to staff effectively 8. Unable to think strategically 9. Unable to adapt to boss with different style 10. Overdependent on advocate or mentor
After going through this part, you should be able to:
Explain the origins of management
Explain the history of scientific management.
Discuss the history of bureaucratic and administrative management.
Explain the history of human relations management.
Discuss the history of operations, information systems, and contingency management.
Management Ideas and Practice Throughout History 5000 BC 4000-2000 BC 1800 BC 600 BC 500 BC 400 BC 400 BC 175 284 900 1100 1418 1436 1500 1525 Sumerians Egyptians Hammurabi Nebuchadnezzar Sun Tzu Xenophon Cyrus Cato Diocletian Alfarabi Ghazali Barbarigo Venetians Sir Thomas More Machiavelli Record keeping Plan, organize, control. Written requests. Controls and written documentation Wage incentives, production control Strategy Management as a separate art Human relations and motion study Job descriptions Delegation of authority Listed leadership traits Listed managerial traits Different organizational forms/structures Numbering, standardization, interchangeability Critical of poor management and leadership Cohesiveness, power, and leadership
Why we need managers today? Work in families Skilled labourers Small, self-organised groups Unique, small batches of production Then Work in factories Specialised, unskilled labourers Large factories Large standardised mass production Now
Studies and tests methods to identify the best, most efficient ways
“ Seat-of-the Pants” Management
No standardisation of procedures
No follow-up on improvements
Frederick W. Taylor Frederick Taylor is known today as the "father of scientific management." One of his many contributions to modern management is the common practice of giving employees rest breaks throughout the day. Frederick W. Taylor, 1856-1915
Taylor’s Four Management Principles Develop a science for each element of a man’s work, which replaces the old rule-of-thumb method. Scientifically select and then train, teach, and develop the workman. Cooperate with the men to insure all work is done in accordance with the principles of the science. There is almost equal division of the work and the responsibility between management and workmen.
Frank & Lillian Gilbreth Frank and Lillian Gilbreth were prolific researchers and often used their family as guinea pigs. Their work is the subject of Cheaper by the Dozen, written by their son and daughter. Time Study: Timing how long it takes good workers to complete each part of their jobs. Motion Study: Breaking each task into its separate motions and then eliminating those that are unnecessary or repetitive.
Bureaucratic Management Max Weber, 1864-1920 The exercise of control on the basis of knowledge, expertise, or experience, with the following aims: 1. Qualification-based hiring 2. Merit-based promotion 3. Chain of command 4. Division of labor 5. Impartial application of rules and procedures 6. Recorded in writing 7. Managers separate from owners
Administrative Management: Henri Fayol 1. Division of work 2. Authority and responsibility 3. Discipline 4. Unity of command 5. Unity of direction 6. Subordination of individual interests 7. Remuneration 8. Centralisation 9. Scalar chain 10. Order 11. Equity 12. Stability of tenure of personnel 13. Initiative 14. Esprit de corps
Human Relations Management Efficiency alone is not enough to produce organisational success. Success also depends on treating workers well.
Mary Parker Follett Mary Parker Follett, 1868-1933 Mary Parker Follett is known today as the “mother of scientific management." Her many contributions to modern management include the ideas of negotiation, conflict resolution, and power sharing.
Constructive Conflict and Coordination: Mary Parker Follett Dealing with Conflict Compromise Domination Integration
Constructive Conflict and Coordination: Mary Parker Follett
Coordination as reciprocal relating all the factors in a situation
Coordination by direct contact of the responsible people concerned
Workers’ feelings and attitudes affected their work
Financial incentives weren’t the most important motivator for workers
Group norms and behaviour play a critical role in behaviour at work
Cooperation and Acceptance of Authority: Chester Barnard
Managers can gain cooperation by:
Securing essential services from individuals
Unifying people by clearly formulating an organisation’s purpose and objectives
Providing a system of effective communication
People will be indifferent to managerial directives if they…
are consistent with the purpose of the organisation
are compatible with the people’s personal interests
can actually be carried out by those people
Operations, Information, Systems, and Contingency Management Information Management Operations Management Contingency Management Systems Management
Origin of Operations Management Quality control Forecasting techniques Capacity planning
Productivity measurement and improvement
Work measurement techniques
Whitney, Monge, and Olds Eli Whitney, 1765-1825 Gaspard Monge, 1746-1818 Ransom Olds, 1864-1950
Information Management Milestones in information management: 1400s Horses in Italy 1500-1700 Creation of paper and the printing press 1850 Manual typewriter 1860s Vertical file cabinets and the telegraph 1879 Cash registers 1880s Telephone 1890s Time clocks 1980s Personal computer 1990s Internet