PART IV: Leading 8
Learning Outcomes   After this class, I will be able to:
<ul><li>1. Define the focus and goals of  organizational behavior  (OB). </li></ul>
<ul><li>2. Identify and describe the three components of  attitudes . </li></ul>
<ul><li>3. Explain  cognitive dissonance . </li></ul>
<ul><li>4. Describe the Myers-Briggs personality type framework and its use in organizations. </li></ul>
<ul><li>5. Define perception and describe the factors that can shape or distort perception. </li></ul>
<ul><li>6. Explain how managers can  shape  employee behavior. </li></ul>
<ul><li>7. Contrast  formal  and  informal  groups. </li></ul>
<ul><li>8. Explain why people join  groups . </li></ul>
<ul><li>9. State how  roles  and  norms  influence employees’ behavior. </li></ul>
<ul><li>10. Describe how  group size  affects group behavior. </li></ul>
Organizational Behavior (OB) Defined <ul><li>The study of the  actions of people at work </li></ul><ul><li>The focus of OB...
The Organization as an Iceberg Metaphor Exhibit 8.1
Behaviors of Interest to OB <ul><li>Employee productivity </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The efficiency and effectiveness of employ...
Understanding Employees <ul><li>Attitudes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Valuative statements concerning objects, people, or events...
Job-Related Attitudes <ul><li>Job satisfaction </li></ul><ul><ul><li>An employee’s general attitude toward his or her job....
Cognitive Dissonance Theory <ul><li>Cognitive dissonance </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Any incompatibility between two or more att...
Fostering Positive Job Attitudes <ul><li>Managers can reduce dissonance by: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Creating the perception ...
Personality and Behavior <ul><li>Personality is the combination of the psychological traits that characterize that person....
Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI) <ul><li>Extroversion  versus  introversion  (EI) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>An individual’s ...
Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI) (cont’d) <ul><li>Thinking  versus  feeling  (TF) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>One’s preference...
Characteristics Frequently Associated with Myers-Briggs Types Exhibit 8.2 Source:  Modified and reproduced by special perm...
Big Five Model of Personality Factors <ul><li>Extroversion </li></ul><ul><li>Agreeableness </li></ul><ul><li>Conscientious...
The Big Five Model of Personality Extroversion A personality dimension that describes the degree to which someone is socia...
Emotional intelligence (EI) <ul><li>An assortment of noncognitive skills, capabilities, and competencies that influence a ...
Personality Traits And Work-related Behaviors <ul><li>Locus of control </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A personality attribute that ...
Personality Traits And Work-related Behaviors (cont’d) <ul><li>Self-esteem  (SE) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>An individual’s deg...
Matching Personalities And Jobs Person Job Performance
Holland’s Typology of Personality  and Sample Occupations <ul><li>Realistic </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Prefers physical activit...
Relationship Among Occupational Personality Types Exhibit 8.4 Source:  Reproduced by special permission of the publisher, ...
Key Points of Holland’s Model <ul><li>There do appear to be  intrinsic differences  in personality among individuals. </li...
Personality Characteristics of Entrepreneurs <ul><li>Proactive personality </li></ul><ul><ul><li>High level of motivation ...
Perception <ul><li>Perception </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A process by which individuals organize and interpret their sensory im...
Influences on Perception <ul><li>Personal characteristics </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Attitudes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Perso...
Perceptual Challenges:  What Do You See? Exhibit 8.5
How Managers Judge Employees <ul><li>Attribution theory </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A theory based on the premise that we judge ...
Interpreting Behavior <ul><li>Distinctiveness </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Whether an individual displays a behavior in many situ...
The Process of Attribution Theory Exhibit 8.6
Judgment Errors <ul><li>Fundamental attribution error </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The tendency to underestimate the influence of...
Distortions in Shortcut Methods  in Judging Others Selectivity Assumed similarity Stereotyping Halo effect Self-fulfilling...
Learning <ul><li>Learning defined </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Any relatively permanent change in behavior that occurs as a resul...
Learning (cont’d) <ul><li>Social learning theory </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The theory that people can learn through observatio...
Shaping Behavior <ul><li>Shaping behavior </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Systematically reinforcing each successive step that moves...
Foundations Of Group Behavior <ul><li>Group </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Two or more interacting and interdependent individuals w...
Foundations Of Group Behavior (cont’d) <ul><li>Status </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A prestige grading, position, or rank within a...
Reasons Why People Join Groups Security Status Self-esteem Affiliation Power Goal achievement Exhibit 8.8
Examples of Cards Used in Asch Study Solomon Asch and Group Conformity: Does the desire to be accepted as a part of a grou...
Group Effects <ul><li>Social loafing </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The tendency of an individual in a group to decrease his or her...
The Relationship Between  Group Cohesiveness and Productivity Exhibit 8.10
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Day 8 - Understanding work teams

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  • Day 8 - Understanding work teams

    1. 1. PART IV: Leading 8
    2. 2. Learning Outcomes After this class, I will be able to:
    3. 3. <ul><li>1. Define the focus and goals of organizational behavior (OB). </li></ul>
    4. 4. <ul><li>2. Identify and describe the three components of attitudes . </li></ul>
    5. 5. <ul><li>3. Explain cognitive dissonance . </li></ul>
    6. 6. <ul><li>4. Describe the Myers-Briggs personality type framework and its use in organizations. </li></ul>
    7. 7. <ul><li>5. Define perception and describe the factors that can shape or distort perception. </li></ul>
    8. 8. <ul><li>6. Explain how managers can shape employee behavior. </li></ul>
    9. 9. <ul><li>7. Contrast formal and informal groups. </li></ul>
    10. 10. <ul><li>8. Explain why people join groups . </li></ul>
    11. 11. <ul><li>9. State how roles and norms influence employees’ behavior. </li></ul>
    12. 12. <ul><li>10. Describe how group size affects group behavior. </li></ul>
    13. 13. Organizational Behavior (OB) Defined <ul><li>The study of the actions of people at work </li></ul><ul><li>The focus of OB </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Individual behaviors </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Personality, perception, learning, and motivation </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Group behaviors </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Norms, roles, team-and conflict </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>The goals of OB </li></ul><ul><ul><li>To explain </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>To predict behavior </li></ul></ul>
    14. 14. The Organization as an Iceberg Metaphor Exhibit 8.1
    15. 15. Behaviors of Interest to OB <ul><li>Employee productivity </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The efficiency and effectiveness of employees </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Absenteeism </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The election by employees to attend work </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Turnover </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The exit of an employee from an organization </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Organizational citizenship </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Employee behaviors that promote the welfare of the organization </li></ul></ul>
    16. 16. Understanding Employees <ul><li>Attitudes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Valuative statements concerning objects, people, or events </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Cognitive component </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The beliefs, opinions, knowledge, and information held by a person </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Affective component </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The emotional, or feeling, segment of an attitude </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Behavioral component </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>An intention to behave in a certain way toward someone or something </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
    17. 17. Job-Related Attitudes <ul><li>Job satisfaction </li></ul><ul><ul><li>An employee’s general attitude toward his or her job. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Job involvement </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The degree to which an employee identifies with his or her job, actively participates in it, and considers his or her job performance important for self-worth. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Organizational commitment </li></ul><ul><ul><li>An employee’s orientation toward the organization in terms of his or her loyalty to, identification with, and involvement in the organization. </li></ul></ul>
    18. 18. Cognitive Dissonance Theory <ul><li>Cognitive dissonance </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Any incompatibility between two or more attitudes or between behavior and attitudes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Inconsistency is uncomfortable and individuals will seek a stable state with a minimum of dissonance. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>The desire to reduce dissonance is determined by: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The importance of the elements creating the dissonance </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The degree of influence the individual believes he or she has over the elements </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The rewards that may be involved. </li></ul></ul>
    19. 19. Fostering Positive Job Attitudes <ul><li>Managers can reduce dissonance by: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Creating the perception that the source of the dissonance is externally imposed and uncontrollable. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Increasing employee rewards for engaging in the behaviors related to the dissonance. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Satisfied workers are not necessarily more productive workers. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Assisting employees in successful performance of their jobs will increase their desired outcomes and lead to increased job satisfaction—focusing on productivity as a means rather than an ends. </li></ul></ul>
    20. 20. Personality and Behavior <ul><li>Personality is the combination of the psychological traits that characterize that person. </li></ul><ul><li>Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A method of identifying personality types uses four dimensions of personality to identify 16 different personality types. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Big Five model </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Five-factor model of personality that includes extroversion, agreeableness, conscientiousness, emotional stability, and openness to experience. </li></ul></ul>
    21. 21. Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI) <ul><li>Extroversion versus introversion (EI) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>An individual’s orientation toward the inner world of ideas (I) or the external world of the environment (E). </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Sensing versus intuitive (SN) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>An individual’s reliance on information gathered from the external world (S) or from the world of ideas (N). </li></ul></ul>
    22. 22. Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI) (cont’d) <ul><li>Thinking versus feeling (TF) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>One’s preference for evaluating information in an analytical manner (T) or on the basis of values and beliefs (F). </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Judging versus perceiving (JP). </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Reflects an attitude toward the external world that is either task completion oriented (J) or information seeking (P). </li></ul></ul>
    23. 23. Characteristics Frequently Associated with Myers-Briggs Types Exhibit 8.2 Source: Modified and reproduced by special permission of the publisher. Consulting Psychologists Press, Inc., Palo Alto, CA 94303, from Introduction to Type , 6th ed., by Isabel Myers-Briggs, and Katherine C. Briggs. Copyright 1998 by Consulting Psychologists Press, Inc. All rights reserved. Further reproduction is prohibited without publisher’s written consent. Introduction to Type is a trademark of Consulting Psychologists Press, Inc. (The Myers-Briggs Type Indicator and MBTI are registered trademarks of Consulting Psychologists Press, Inc.)
    24. 24. Big Five Model of Personality Factors <ul><li>Extroversion </li></ul><ul><li>Agreeableness </li></ul><ul><li>Conscientiousness </li></ul><ul><li>Emotional stability </li></ul><ul><li>Openness to experience </li></ul>
    25. 25. The Big Five Model of Personality Extroversion A personality dimension that describes the degree to which someone is sociable, talkative, and assertive. Agreeableness A personality dimension that describes the degree to which someone is good-natured, cooperative, and trusting. Conscientiousness A personality dimension that describes the degree to which someone is responsible, dependable, persistent, and achievement oriented. Emotional stability A personality dimension that describes the degree to which someone is calm, enthusiastic, and secure (positive) or tense, nervous, depressed, and insecure (negative). Openness to experience A personality dimension that describes the degree to which someone is imaginative, artistically sensitive , and intellectual.
    26. 26. Emotional intelligence (EI) <ul><li>An assortment of noncognitive skills, capabilities, and competencies that influence a person’s ability to cope with environmental demands and pressures. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Dimensions of EI </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Self-awareness own feelings </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Self-management of own emotions </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Self-motivation in face of setbacks </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Empathy for others’ feelings </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Social skills to handle others’ emotions </li></ul></ul></ul>
    27. 27. Personality Traits And Work-related Behaviors <ul><li>Locus of control </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A personality attribute that measures the degree to which people believe that they are masters of their own fate. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Machiavellianism (“Mach”) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A measure of the degree to which people are pragmatic, maintain emotional distance, and believe that ends can justify means. </li></ul></ul>
    28. 28. Personality Traits And Work-related Behaviors (cont’d) <ul><li>Self-esteem (SE) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>An individual’s degree of life dislike for him- or herself </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Self-monitoring </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A measure of an individual’s ability to adjust his or her behavior to external, situational factors </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Propensity for risk taking </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The willingness to take chances—a preference to assume or avoid risk </li></ul></ul>
    29. 29. Matching Personalities And Jobs Person Job Performance
    30. 30. Holland’s Typology of Personality and Sample Occupations <ul><li>Realistic </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Prefers physical activities that require skill, strength, and coordination </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Investigative </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Prefers activities involving thinking, organizing, and understanding </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Social </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Prefers activities that involve helping and developing others </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Conventional </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Prefers rule-regulated, orderly and unambiguous activities </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Enterprising </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Prefers verbal activities where there are opportunities to influence others and attain power </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Artistic </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Prefers ambiguous and unsystematic activities that allow creative expression </li></ul></ul>Exhibit 8.3
    31. 31. Relationship Among Occupational Personality Types Exhibit 8.4 Source: Reproduced by special permission of the publisher, Psychological Assessment Resources, Inc., Making Vocational Choices , 3rd ed., copyright 1973, 1985, 1992, 1997 by Psychological Assessment Resources, Inc. All rights reserved.
    32. 32. Key Points of Holland’s Model <ul><li>There do appear to be intrinsic differences in personality among individuals. </li></ul><ul><li>There are different types of jobs. </li></ul><ul><li>People in job environments congruent with their personality types should be more satisfied and less likely to resign voluntarily than people in incongruent jobs. </li></ul>
    33. 33. Personality Characteristics of Entrepreneurs <ul><li>Proactive personality </li></ul><ul><ul><li>High level of motivation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Internal locus of control </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Need for autonomy </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Abundance of self-confidence </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Self-esteem </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>High energy levels </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Persistence </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Moderate risk taker </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Problem solver </li></ul></ul></ul>
    34. 34. Perception <ul><li>Perception </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A process by which individuals organize and interpret their sensory impressions in order to give meaning to their environment. </li></ul></ul>
    35. 35. Influences on Perception <ul><li>Personal characteristics </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Attitudes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Personality </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Motives </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Interests </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Past experiences </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Expectations </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Target characteristics </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Relationship of a target to its background </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Closeness and/or similarity to other things </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The context in objects is seen </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Other situational factors. </li></ul></ul>
    36. 36. Perceptual Challenges: What Do You See? Exhibit 8.5
    37. 37. How Managers Judge Employees <ul><li>Attribution theory </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A theory based on the premise that we judge people differently depending on the meaning we attribute to a given behavior </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Internally caused behavior is believed to be under the control of the individual. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Externally caused behavior results from outside causes; that is, the person is seen as having been forced into the behavior by the situation. </li></ul></ul></ul>
    38. 38. Interpreting Behavior <ul><li>Distinctiveness </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Whether an individual displays a behavior in many situations or whether it is particular to one situation. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Consensus </li></ul><ul><ul><li>If the individual responds in the same way as everyone else faced with a similar situation responds. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Consistency </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The individual engages in the same behaviors regularly and consistently over time. </li></ul></ul>
    39. 39. The Process of Attribution Theory Exhibit 8.6
    40. 40. Judgment Errors <ul><li>Fundamental attribution error </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The tendency to underestimate the influence of external factors and overestimate the influence of internal or personal factors when making judgments about the behavior of others. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Self-serving bias </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The tendency for individuals to attribute their own successes to internal factors while putting the blame for failures on external factors. </li></ul></ul>
    41. 41. Distortions in Shortcut Methods in Judging Others Selectivity Assumed similarity Stereotyping Halo effect Self-fulfilling prophecy Exhibit 8.7
    42. 42. Learning <ul><li>Learning defined </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Any relatively permanent change in behavior that occurs as a result of experience. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Operant conditioning (B. F. Skinner) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A behavioral theory that argues that voluntary, or learned, behavior is a function of its consequences. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Reinforcement increases the likelihood that behavior will be repeated; behavior that is not rewarded or is punished is less likely to be repeated. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Rewards are most effective if they immediately follow the desired response. </li></ul></ul>
    43. 43. Learning (cont’d) <ul><li>Social learning theory </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The theory that people can learn through observation and direct experience; by modeling the behavior of others. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Modeling processes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Attentional processes. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Retention processes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Motor reproduction processes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Reinforcement processes </li></ul></ul>
    44. 44. Shaping Behavior <ul><li>Shaping behavior </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Systematically reinforcing each successive step that moves an individual closer to a desired behavior </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Four ways in which to shape behavior: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Positive reinforcement </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Negative reinforcement </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Punishment </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Extinction. </li></ul></ul>
    45. 45. Foundations Of Group Behavior <ul><li>Group </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Two or more interacting and interdependent individuals who come together to achieve particular objectives </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Role </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A set of expected behavior patterns attributed to someone in a given position in a social unit </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Norms </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Acceptable standards (e.g., effort and performance, dress, and loyalty) shared and enforced by the members of a group </li></ul></ul>
    46. 46. Foundations Of Group Behavior (cont’d) <ul><li>Status </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A prestige grading, position, or rank within a group </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>May be informally conferred by characteristics such as education, age, skill, or experience. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Anything can have status value if others in the group admire it. </li></ul></ul></ul>
    47. 47. Reasons Why People Join Groups Security Status Self-esteem Affiliation Power Goal achievement Exhibit 8.8
    48. 48. Examples of Cards Used in Asch Study Solomon Asch and Group Conformity: Does the desire to be accepted as a part of a group leave one susceptible to conforming to the group’s norms? Will the group exert pressure that is strong enough to change a member’s attitude and behavior? According to the research by Solomon Asch, the answer appears to be yes. Exhibit 8.9
    49. 49. Group Effects <ul><li>Social loafing </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The tendency of an individual in a group to decrease his or her effort because responsibility and individual achievement cannot be measured </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Group cohesiveness </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The degree to which members of a group are attracted to each other and share goals </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Size, work environment, length of time in existence, group-organization, and goal congruency affect the degree of group cohesiveness. </li></ul></ul></ul>
    50. 50. The Relationship Between Group Cohesiveness and Productivity Exhibit 8.10
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