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  • 1. Staff Appraisal, Salary Increments and Development<br />Dr. Derek Nicoll<br />
  • 2. Limkokwing University is fully committed to ensuring that all staff, irrespective of role, grade and location, are provided with the relevant knowledge, skills and experience to enable them to perform their work effectively, and to develop their expertise and potential.<br />
  • 3. So What is Appraisal?<br />
  • 4. "... a basic human tendency to make judgements about those one is working with, as well as about oneself."<br />
  • 5. “A two way discussion of past and present experiences and achievements at work and using this as the basis for agreeing future development to the benefit of the organisation and the employee”. <br />The aim of Appraisal is to facilitate development, motivate and improve performance. It is linked to both training, promotion and to salary increments.<br />
  • 6. In the absence of a carefully structured system of appraisal, people will tend to judge the work performance of others, including subordinates, naturally, informally and arbitrarily.<br />
  • 7. FACT: Different people with roughly equal work abilities could be paid the same amount of money and yet have quite different levels of motivation and performance.<br />
  • 8. FACT: Pay rates are important, yes; but other issues also feature, such as morale and self-esteem, they also have a major influence. <br />
  • 9. FACT: Some researchers love appraisals, some have even suggested that the process is so inherently flawed that it may be impossible to perfect it <br />
  • 10. FACT: Imagine an appraisal system where rewards were based upon how many ‘A’s students were awarded<br />
  • 11. We can't supervise everybody at the same time and therefore you are never fully aware of the tasks they are doing.<br />
  • 12. *the infrequency of classroom visits by either colleagues or supervisors<br />
  • 13. Group work<br />
  • 14. In groups adopt the role that you are academic management and that the University now operates as a co-operative where everyone benefits from the quality work of everyone else<br />
  • 15.
  • 16. What is the benefits and limitations of self-appraisal?<br />What kind of questions should be answered?<br />How should they be worded?<br />
  • 17. We work in classrooms and labs with students, imparting knowledge, sharing experiences, giving examples, and practicing necessary skills <br />
  • 18. You spend a lotof your time in the class with the students – student evaluations<br />
  • 19. What is the benefits and limitations of this kind of feedback?<br />What kind of questions should be raised?<br />How should they be worded?<br />How should the questionnaire be delivered?<br />
  • 20. You spend a lot of time in the staffroom with your peers<br />
  • 21. What is the benefits and limitations of this kind of feedback?<br />What kind of questions should be raised?<br />How should they be worded?<br />How should any questionnaire be delivered?<br />
  • 22. You spend a bit of time with the boss<br />
  • 23. What is the benefits and limitations of the kind of feedback they can provide?<br />What kind of questions should be raised?<br />How should they be worded?<br />How should the questionnaire be delivered?<br />
  • 24. Anchoring – the common human tendency to rely too heavily, or "anchor," on one trait or piece of information when making decisions. Bandwagon effect – the tendency to do (or believe) things because many other people do (or believe) the same. Related to groupthink and herd behavior. Bias blind spot – the tendency to see oneself as less biased than other people.[2]Choice-supportive bias – the tendency to remember one's choices as better than they actually were. Confirmation bias – the tendency to search for or interpret information in a way that confirms one's preconceptions.[3]Congruence bias – the tendency to test hypotheses exclusively through direct testing, in contrast to tests of possible alternative hypotheses. Contrast effect – the enhancement or diminishing of a weight or other measurement when compared with a recently observed contrasting object.[4]Denomination effect – the tendency to spend more money when it is denominated in small amounts (e.g. coins) rather than large amounts (e.g. bills).[5]Distinction bias – the tendency to view two options as more dissimilar when evaluating them simultaneously than when evaluating them separately.[6]Endowment effect – "the fact that people often demand much more to give up an object than they would be willing to pay to acquire it".[7]Experimenter's or Expectation bias – the tendency for experimenters to believe, certify, and publish data that agree with their expectations for the outcome of an experiment, and to disbelieve, discard, or downgrade the corresponding weightings for data that appear to conflict with those expectations.[8]Extraordinarity bias – the tendency to value an object more than others in the same category as a result of an extraordinarity of that object that does not, in itself, change the value.[citation needed]Focusing effect – the tendency to place too much importance on one aspect of an event; causes error in accurately predicting the utility of a future outcome.[9]Framing effect – drawing different conclusions from the same information, depending on how that information is presented. Hyperbolic discounting – the tendency for people to have a stronger preference for more immediate payoffs relative to later payoffs, where the tendency increases the closer to the present both payoffs are.[10]Illusion of control – the tendency to overestimate one's degree of influence over other external events.[11]Impact bias – the tendency to overestimate the length or the intensity of the impact of future feeling states.[12]Information bias – the tendency to seek information even when it cannot affect action.[13]Interloper effect – the tendency to value third party consultation as objective, confirming, and without motive. Also consultation paradox, the conclusion that solutions proposed by existing personnel within an organization are less likely to receive support than from those recruited for that purpose. Irrational escalation – the phenomenon where people justify increased investment in a decision, based on the cumulative prior investment, despite new evidence suggesting that the decision was probably wrong. Loss aversion – "the disutility of giving up an object is greater than the utility associated with acquiring it".[14] (see also Sunk cost effects and Endowment effect). Mere exposure effect – the tendency to express undue liking for things merely because of familiarity with them.[15]Money illusion – the tendency to concentrate on the nominal (face value) of money rather than its value in terms of purchasing power.[16]Moral credential effect – the tendency of a track record of non-prejudice to increase subsequent prejudice. Negativity bias – the tendency to pay more attention and give more weight to negative than positive experiences or other kinds of information. Neglect of probability – the tendency to completely disregard probability when making a decision under uncertainty.[17]Normalcy bias – the refusal to plan for, or react to, a disaster which has never happened before. Omission bias – the tendency to judge harmful actions as worse, or less moral, than equally harmful omissions (inactions).[18]Outcome bias – the tendency to judge a decision by its eventual outcome instead of based on the quality of the decision at the time it was made. Planning fallacy – the tendency to underestimate task-completion times.[12]Post-purchase rationalization – the tendency to persuade oneself through rational argument that a purchase was a good value. Pseudocertainty effect – the tendency to make risk-averse choices if the expected outcome is positive, but make risk-seeking choices to avoid negative outcomes.[19]Reactance – the urge to do the opposite of what someone wants you to do out of a need to resist a perceived attempt to constrain your freedom of choice. Restraint bias – the tendency to overestimate one's ability to show restraint in the face of temptation. Selective perception – the tendency for expectations to affect perception. Semmelweis reflex – the tendency to reject new evidence that contradicts an established paradigm.[20]Status quo bias – the tendency to like things to stay relatively the same (see also loss aversion, endowment effect, and system justification).[21][22]Wishful thinking – the formation of beliefs and the making of decisions according to what is pleasing to imagine instead of by appeal to evidence or rationality.[23]Zero-risk bias – preference for reducing a small risk to zero over a greater reduction in a larger risk. <br />
  • 25. These are just what’s termed “decision-making and behavioural biases”other long lists denote; *Biases in probability and belief*Social biases*Memory errors<br />
  • 26. Self evaluationPeer evaluationStudent evaluationTeaching ObservationParticipation in staff trainingSchool/Faculty contributionUniversity Contribution<br />
  • 27.
  • 28. Promotion and Incremental index<br />
  • 29. List any significant teaching activities and outcomes (indicate role and percentage contribution where relevant) in areas such as:_development of teaching materials _development of reliable and valid assessment tools _development of curricula at course or program level_development of innovative approaches to teaching_development of learning communities amongst students_curriculum review at program, school or faculty level tutor training_teaching students with special needs_mentoring colleagues in teaching and learning<br />
  • 30. All Appraisee’s should be given a copy of the appraisal form in advance and should ask themselves the following questions:What have I achieved that I am pleased about against last years (semesters’) targets and objectives?Where does the individual consider there is room for improvement in their performance and why? <br />
  • 31. The process of observation can then be seen in 3 stages: 1. Initial briefing2. Observation3. Debriefing <br />
  • 32. Initial Briefing (before the observation has taken place) This process will establish ground rules, set the scene, focus the observer and decide practical issues. Examples of items to be discussed include: <br />* Objectives of the selected session* Issues that the tutor would particularly like feedback on* Any new or experimental parts of the session where feedback would be valuable* Where the observer will sit, or whether it is appropriate to wander around (in a practical session it may be useful for the observer to talk to students)*How the observation will be explained to students*How the observer will record information*When you will meet to debrief after the session* How you will each provide feedback<br />
  • 33. The Observation There are four stages in the teaching process which can be identified in any session which is likely to be observed: <br />_Planning prior to the session_Introducing the session_Delivering and developing the plans_Conclusions<br />
  • 34. The Debriefing Staff should be given time to reflect on their observed class. Within one week the observer and lecturer should meet to debrief on how the session went. It is often best to let the observed person have first comment on how they felt the session went. It may then be appropriate to go through the observer’s notes.  Good feedback should help you lead to an action plan for personal development and perhaps an agreement to use another observation as a way of reviewing progress.<br />_<br />
  • 35. The aim of the observation is twofold: to give teachers feedback on what they are doing and provide forum for discussion, and to monitor what is taking place in the classroom. <br />
  • 36.
  • 37.
  • 38. What is Sustainability?<br />An official definition:<br />Use and development that meets today’s needs without preventing those needs from being met by future generations.<br />Brundtland Commission, 1987<br />see DITP page xxi<br />
  • 39. What is Sustainability?<br />A casual definition:<br />Don’t do things today that<br />make tomorrow worse.<br />see DITP page xxii<br />
  • 40. What is Sustainability?<br />A casual definition:<br />Don’t do things today that<br />make tomorrow worse.<br />...for your kids<br />
  • 41. What is Sustainability?<br />A casual definition:<br />Don’t do things today that<br />make tomorrow worse.<br />...for your grand-kids<br />
  • 42. What is Sustainability?<br />A casual definition:<br />Don’t do things today that<br />make tomorrow worse.<br />...for your grand-kids<br />
  • 43. Don’t Call it Green<br />
  • 44. Some are calling it Blue<br />
  • 45. What is Sustainability?<br />Sustainability encompasses 3 domains:<br />FINANCIAL<br />SOCIAL<br />ENVIRONMENTAL<br />
  • 46. What is Sustainability?<br />In business terms:<br />FINANCIAL CAPITAL<br />SOCIALHUMAN CAPITAL<br />ENVIRONMENTAL<br />NATURAL CAPITAL<br />
  • 47. What is Sustainability?<br />In terms of society:<br />FINANCIAL CAPITAL<br />MONEY<br />SOCIALPEOPLE<br />ENVIRONMENTAL<br />NATURAL RESOURCES<br />
  • 48. What is Sustainability?<br />They form a system:<br />MONEY<br />PEOPLE<br />NATURAL RESOURCES<br />
  • 49. What is Sustainability?<br />So, we need to understand society from a systems perspective:<br />• Diversity = Resiliency<br />• Centralization<br />• Decentralization<br />• Competition<br />• Cooperation<br />• Vitality<br />• Stakeholders<br />see DITP chapter 1<br />
  • 50. What is Sustainability?<br />So, we need to understand society from a systems perspective:<br />• Diversity = Resiliency<br />• Centralization<br />• Decentralization<br />• Competition<br />• Cooperation<br />• Vitality<br />• Stakeholders<br />see DITP chapter 1<br />
  • 51. What is Sustainability?<br />Diversity = Resiliency<br />see DITP page 6<br />
  • 52. What is Sustainability?<br />Diversity = Resiliency<br />see DITP page 6<br />
  • 53. What is Sustainability?<br />Centralization:<br />• Optimization and Efficiency<br />• Standardization<br />• Economies of Scale<br />• Coordination<br />see DITP page 10<br />
  • 54. What is Sustainability?<br />Decentralization:<br />• Local Expertise and Appropriateness<br />• Higher/Quicker Response<br />see DITP page 10<br />
  • 55. What is Sustainability?<br />Decentralization:<br />• Local Expertise and Appropriateness<br />• Higher/Quicker Response<br />• Resiliency and Robustness<br />see DITP page 10<br />
  • 56. What is Sustainability?<br />Competition:<br />• Increases variety<br />• Creates new—often better—solutions<br />• Responds better to challenges<br />• Responds better to change<br />• Rewards better performance<br />• Enhances innovation<br />see DITP page 11<br />
  • 57. What is Sustainability?<br />Cooperation:<br />• Creates Standards<br />• Increases volume and scale<br />• Spreads “best practices”<br />• Increases likelihood of success<br />• Stabilizes markets<br />see DITP page 11<br />
  • 58. What is Sustainability?<br />Cooperation:<br />• Creates Standards<br />• Increases volume and scale<br />• Spreads “best practices”<br />• Increases likelihood of success<br />• Stabilizes markets<br />• Forms foundation for innovation<br />see DITP page 11<br />
  • 59. What is Sustainability?<br />Stakeholders:<br />Employees, Distributors, Partners, Suppliers, Media, Investors, Clients<br />Organizations, Unions, Institutions<br />Business<br />NGOs<br />Government<br />Individuals<br />see DITP page 17<br />Courts, Departments, Lawmakers (city, state, federal, and international)<br />Customers, Fans, Teams, Groups, Communities<br />
  • 60. What is Sustainability?<br />So, we need to understand society from a systems perspective:<br />• Diversity = Resiliency<br />• Centralization<br />• Decentralization<br />• Competition<br />• Cooperation<br />• Vitality<br />• Stakeholders<br />• Balance<br />see DITP chapter 19<br />
  • 61. What is Sustainability?<br />Any questions so far on the following:<br />• Definition of Sustainability<br />• Scope/domain of Sustainability<br />• Systems Perspective<br />
  • 62. Sustainability Frameworks<br />What is a framework?<br />
  • 63. Sustainability Frameworks<br />What is a framework?<br />A perspective on Sustainability that organizes our understanding.<br />
  • 64. Sustainability Frameworks<br />What is a framework?<br />A perspective on Sustainability that organizes our understanding.<br />What is a tool?<br />
  • 65. Sustainability Frameworks<br />What is a framework?<br />A perspective on Sustainability that organizes our understanding.<br />What is a tool?<br />A mechanism to use to measure or evaluate sustainable impacts.<br />
  • 66. Sustainability Frameworks<br />What is a framework?<br />A perspective on Sustainability that organizes our understanding.<br />What is a tool?<br />A mechanism to use to measure or evaluate sustainable impacts.<br />What is a strategy?<br />
  • 67. Sustainability Frameworks<br />What is a framework?<br />A perspective on Sustainability that organizes our understanding.<br />What is a tool?<br />A mechanism to use to measure or evaluate sustainable impacts.<br />What is a strategy?<br />A design approach to lessen the negative impacts of something.<br />
  • 68. Sustainability Frameworks<br />These are the major frameworks:<br />Natural Capitalism<br />The Natural Step™<br />Cradle to Cradle<br />Holistic Management<br />see DITP chapter 3<br />
  • 69. Sustainability Frameworks<br />These are the major frameworks:<br />Natural Capitalism<br />The Natural Step™<br />Cradle to Cradle<br />Holistic Management<br />LCA (Life Cycle Assessment)<br />Total Beauty™<br />Biomimicry<br />SROI (Social Return on Investment)<br />Sustainability Helix<br />see DITP chapter 3<br />
  • 70. Sustainability Frameworks<br />Natural Capitalism (eco-efficiency):<br />NATURAL CAPITAL<br />FINANCIAL CAPITAL<br />HUMAN CAPITAL<br />MANUFACTURED CAPITAL<br />see DITP page 45<br />
  • 71. Sustainability Frameworks<br />Natural Capitalism (eco-efficiency):<br /><ul><li>Radical Resource Productivity: Buy time using resources radically more productively
  • 72. Ecological Redesign: Make use of Biomimicry
  • 73. Service & Flow Economies: Redesign all products and processes for sustainability
  • 74. Investing in Natural Capital: Restore Ecosystem Services
  • 75. Whole Systems Thinking</li></ul>HUMAN CAPITAL<br />FINANCIAL<br />CAPITAL<br />MANUF. CAPITAL<br />NATURAL CAPITAL<br />see DITP page 46<br />
  • 76. Sustainability Frameworks<br />Natural Capitalism (eco-efficiency):<br /><ul><li>Human Capital: people & society
  • 77. Natural Capital: materials, energy, stability & diversity
  • 78. Financial Capital: money, profit, etc.
  • 79. Manufactured Capital: materials, energy, & IP</li></ul>HUMAN CAPITAL<br />FINANCIAL<br />CAPITAL<br />MANUF. CAPITAL<br />NATURAL CAPITAL<br />see DITP page 46<br />
  • 80. Sustainability Frameworks<br />Sidebar: Types of Capital<br />see DITP page 49<br />
  • 81. Sustainability Frameworks<br />The Natural Step:™<br />FINANCIAL IMPACTS<br />SOCIAL IMPACTS<br />ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACTS<br />see DITP page 83<br />
  • 82. Sustainability Frameworks<br />The Natural Step:™<br />Four System Conditions<br />• System Condition #1: Substances<br /> from the Earth’s crust shouldn’t accumulate in the environment<br />• System Condition #2: Substances <br /> produced by society should not increase<br /> in the biosphere<br />• System Condition #3: We must<br /> preserve the productivity and biodiversity<br /> of the ecosystem<br />• System Condition #4: Resources should be used fairly and efficiently to meet human needs.<br />SOCIAL<br />IMPACTS<br />FINANCIAL<br />IMPACTS<br />ENVIRONMENTAL<br />IMPACTS<br />see DITP page 84<br />
  • 83. Sustainability Frameworks<br />The Natural Step:™<br />SOCIAL<br />IMPACTS<br />FINANCIAL<br />IMPACTS<br />ENVIRONMENTAL<br />IMPACTS<br />see DITP page 84<br />
  • 84. Sustainability Frameworks<br />Cradle to Cradle (eco-effectiveness):<br />TECHNICAL NUTRIENTS<br />FINANCIAL IMPACTS<br />SOCIAL IMPACTS<br />ENVIRONMENTAL<br />NUTRIENTS<br />see DITP page 51<br />
  • 85. Sustainability Frameworks<br />Cradle to Cradle (eco-effectiveness):<br />Concept & term coined by Stahel<br />Popularized by McDonough & Braungart<br />• Eliminate hazardous materials<br />• Consider the entire lifecycle<br />• Materials should be upcyclable<br />• Less Bad does not equal Good!<br />SOCIAL<br />IMPACTS<br />FINANCIAL<br />IMPACTS<br />ENVIRONMENTAL<br />IMPACTS<br />see DITP page 52<br />
  • 86. Sustainability Frameworks<br />MARKET<br />(FINANCIAL CAPITAL)<br />Corporate Strategy:<br />• Governance & Management<br />• HR Development & Corporate Culture<br />• Operations & Facilities<br />• Design & Process Innovation<br />• Marketing & Communications<br />• Partnerships & Stakeholder<br />Summary<br />ENVIRONMENT<br />(NATURAL CAPITAL)<br />• Ecosystem Services<br />• Radical Resource Efficiency<br /> (min 10x)<br />• Renewable energy and<br /> materials<br />• Eliminate the use of toxic<br /> substances<br />• Nature’s solutions can inspire<br /> our own<br />• Maintain Biodiveristy<br />• All Wastes are inputs for<br /> other systems.<br />• Safe deposits of energy and<br /> materials to the environment<br /> are balanced with those<br /> taken from it<br />SOCIETY<br />(HUMAN CAPITAL)<br />Multiple Potential Criteria<br />Issues:<br />Fair/just distribution/use of<br />resources according to<br />(whose?) values<br />PRODUCTS & SERVICES (MANUFACTURED CAPITAL)<br />see DITP page 102<br />
  • 87. Sustainability Tools<br />These are the major tools:<br />LCA (Life Cycle Assessment)<br />Total Beauty™<br />Biomimicry<br />SROI (Social Return on Investment)<br />Sustainability Helix<br />
  • 88. Sustainability Tools<br />LCA (Life Cycle Assessment)<br />FINANCIAL IMPACTS<br />SOCIAL IMPACTS<br />ENVIRONMENTAL<br />IMPACTS<br />see DITP page 66<br />
  • 89. Sustainability Tools<br />LCA (Life Cycle Assessment)<br />see DITP page 67<br />
  • 90. Sustainability Tools<br />Total Beauty™<br />FINANCIAL IMPACTS<br />SOCIAL IMPACTS<br />ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACTS<br />see DITP page 86<br />
  • 91. Sustainability Tools<br />Total Beauty™<br />EFFICIENT<br />SOCIAL<br />FINANCIAL IMPACTS<br />SAFE<br />SOCIAL IMPACTS<br />SOLAR<br />CYCLIC<br />ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACTS<br />see DITP page 87<br />
  • 92. Sustainability Tools<br />Biomimicry<br />FINANCIAL IMPACTS<br />SOCIAL IMPACTS<br />ENVIRONMENTAL<br />IMPACTS<br />see DITP page 59<br />
  • 93. Sustainability Tools<br />Biomimicry<br />SOCIAL<br />IMPACTS<br />FINANCIAL<br />IMPACTS<br />ENVIRONMENTAL<br />IMPACTS<br />see DITP page 62<br />
  • 94. Sustainability Tools<br />Biomimicry<br />SOCIAL<br />IMPACTS<br />FINANCIAL<br />IMPACTS<br />ENVIRONMENTAL<br />IMPACTS<br />see DITP page 63<br />
  • 95. Sustainability Tools<br />Biomimicry<br />Self-assembly<br />Solar transformation<br />Power of shape<br />Color without pigments<br />Cleaning without detergents<br />Water-based chemistry<br />Metals without mining<br />Green chemistry<br />Timed degradation<br />Sensing and responding<br />Growing fertility<br />Life creates conditions conducive to life<br />Decentralization and distributed control<br />Simple building blocks<br />Use of feedback loops<br />Redundancy<br />Cyclic solutions<br />Diverse solutions<br />SOCIAL<br />IMPACTS<br />FINANCIAL<br />IMPACTS<br />ENVIRONMENTAL<br />IMPACTS<br />see DITP page 60<br />
  • 96. Sustainability Tools<br />SROI (Social Return on Investment)<br />SROI (Social Return on Investment)<br />FINANCIAL IMPACTS<br />SOCIAL IMPACTS<br />ENVIRONMENT<br />IMPACTS<br />see DITP page 79<br />
  • 97. What is Sustainability?<br />It’s not just about the environment. There are a myriad of social issues:<br /><ul><li>Alcohol
  • 98. Animal rights
  • 99. Board transparency
  • 100. Biodiversity
  • 101. Chemical accidents
  • 102. Child Labor
  • 103. Cultural Impact
  • 104. Death penalty
  • 105. Deforestation
  • 106. Drug support (legalization, trade...)</li></li></ul><li>Sustainability Tools<br />SROI (Social Return on Investment)<br />SOCIAL<br />IMPACTS<br />FINANCIAL<br />IMPACTS<br />ENVIRONMENTAL<br />IMPACTS<br />see DITP page 81<br />
  • 107. Sustainability Tools<br />Sustainability Helix<br />Stakeholders<br />& Partnerships<br />Marketing & Communications<br />FINANCIAL IMPACTS<br />Governance & Management<br />Design Process<br />Innovation<br />HR Develop. & Corp. Culture<br />SOCIAL IMPACTS<br />Operations<br />& Facilties<br />ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACTS<br />see DITP page 93<br />
  • 108. Sustainability Tools<br />Sustainability Helix<br />SOCIAL<br />IMPACTS<br />FINANCIAL<br />IMPACTS<br />ENVIRONMENTAL<br />IMPACTS<br />see DITP page 95<br />
  • 109. Sustainability Tools<br />However, there are many other tools:<br />LCA (Life Cycle Assessment)<br />Total Beauty™<br />Biomimicry<br />SROI<br />Sustainability Helix<br />Blended Value<br />Integrated Bottom Line<br />LASER Manual<br />Footprint Calculators<br /> (water, carbon, etc.)<br />Stakeholder Analysis<br />SA 8000<br />CSR<br />SOS (Blackburn)<br />Wheel of Change<br />Metrics (GDP, GPI, GNH, GRI, SRI)<br />LEED<br />FASB redefinition of Profit<br />Rethinking corporate charters (Corp 2020, B-corp)<br />Standards turning into Law: Mandatory Carbon Trading in the EU<br />Mention only:<br />SCORE<br />Factor 4 and Factor 10<br />SHINGO (Waste Minimalization/Lean Manufacturing) and other industry-specific tools<br />SIGMA (and other country-specific tools)<br />ISO 50001<br />SOS (Blackburn)<br />Wheel of Change<br />City Climate Protection<br /> Manual<br />Metrics (GDP, GPI, GNH,<br /> GRI, SRI)<br />LEED<br />FASB redefinition of Profit<br />SCORE<br />Factor 4 and Factor 10<br />SHINGO<br />SIGMA<br />see DITP page 99<br />
  • 110. Sustainability Frameworks & Tools<br />Any questions so far on the following:<br />• Sustainability Frameworks<br />• Sustainability Tools<br />
  • 111. Sustainability Frameworks & Tools<br />How about some examples...<br />
  • 112. Which is better?<br />
  • 113. What does “better” mean?<br />
  • 114. Answer:How about no bag?<br />
  • 115. Which is better for the environment?<br />Toyota Prius<br />Hummer H2<br />
  • 116. Which is better for the environment?<br />Toyota Prius<br />Hummer H2<br />Manufacturing<br />Transportation<br />Use<br />Disposal<br />
  • 117. Which is better for the environment?<br />Toyota Prius<br />Hummer H2<br />Manufacturing<br />Transportation<br />Use<br />Disposal<br />Lifetime?<br />48/45 2008 EPA mpg (city/highway)<br />11/17 2008 EPA mpg (city/highway)<br />200K-300K miles?<br />~100K miles?<br />
  • 118. Answer:We don’t really know<br />"A "Dust to Dust" study by CNW Marketing Research of Bandon, OR http://cnwmr.com/nss-folder/automotiveenergy/<br />
  • 119. Which is better for the environment?<br />Paper Cup<br />Ceramic Mug<br />
  • 120. Which is better for the environment?<br />Paper Cup<br />Ceramic Mug<br />1-69 uses<br />70 uses<br />71+ uses<br />
  • 121. Answer:It depends<br />
  • 122. Sustainability Strategies<br />These are the major design strategies:<br />Reduce<br />• Design for Use (Usability & Meaning)<br />• Dematerialization (Materials, Energy & Transportation)<br />• Substitution (Materials & Energy)<br />• Localization<br />• Transmaterialization<br />• Informationalization<br />Reuse<br />Recycle<br />Restore<br />see DITP page 103<br />
  • 123. Sustainability Strategies<br />Design for Use<br />(Usability, Accessibility, Clarity & Meaning)<br />see DITP page 112<br />
  • 124. Sustainability Strategies<br />Dematerialization<br />(Materials, Energy & Transportation)<br />Apple iPhone<br />Apple Keyboard<br />see DITP page 119<br />
  • 125. Sustainability Strategies<br />Dematerialization<br />(Materials, Energy & Transportation)<br />Apple packaging<br />see DITP page 121<br />
  • 126. Sustainability Strategies<br />Dematerialization<br />(Materials, Energy & Transportation)<br />Apple iPhone<br />see DITP page 122<br />
  • 127. Sustainability Strategies<br />Substitution<br />(Materials, Energy & Transportation)<br />Less expensive,<br />less toxic, and<br />more sustainable:<br />• Raw materials<br />• Components<br />• Energy sources<br />Mirra chair,<br />Herman Miller<br />see DITP pages 128, 130<br />
  • 128. Localization<br />(Materials, Energy & Transportation)<br />Each ton of Aluminum Oxide is smelted into 1/4 ton of aluminum in Sweden or Norway.<br />Sealed cans are inserted into cardboard cartons made of forest pulp from British Columbia<br />Cans are created in roller mills in Sweden or Germany.<br />Phosphorus is excavated from open-pit mines in Idaho. <br />The Sugar might come from beet fields in France.<br />Aluminum sheets are punched and formed into cans, washed, dried, painted, lacquered, flanged, sprayed with protective coating and inspected.<br />Lovins, et al.<br />The Caffeine might come from a chemical manufacturer<br />Cartons of cans are shipped to warehouses and supermarkets—84% of which are discarded after use.<br />A ton of mined Bauxite turns into half a ton of aluminum oxide.<br />Ore takes a month to travel to the refinery.<br />Sustainability Strategies<br />see DITP page 136<br />
  • 129. Sustainability Strategies<br />Transmaterialization<br />Zip Cars<br />see DITP pages 142, 145<br />
  • 130. Sustainability Strategies<br />Transmaterialization<br />Interface FLOR carpet<br />see DITP page 147<br />
  • 131. Sustainability Strategies<br />Informationalization<br />iTunes Music Store<br />see DITP page 152<br />
  • 132. Sustainability Strategies<br />Informationalization<br />Open Architecture Network, Architecture for Humanity<br />see DITP page 156<br />
  • 133. Sustainability Strategies<br />These are the major strategies:<br />Reduce<br />Reuse<br />• Design for Durability<br />• Design for Reuse<br />Recycle<br />Restore<br />see DITP page 159<br />
  • 134. Sustainability Strategies<br />Design for Durability<br />• Higher quality/longer lasting<br />• Servicable/Repairable<br />• Upgradable<br />• Component service<br />• Rental system (components and/or offering)<br />Dyson vacuum<br />see DITP pages 162, 173<br />
  • 135. Sustainability Strategies<br />Design for Reuse (unintended)<br />Artecnica tranSglass vases<br />see DITP page 160<br />
  • 136. Sustainability Strategies<br />Design for Reuse (intended)<br />Reuse of: Materials, Energy, Components, and Functions<br />Maille condiment jars<br />see DITP pages 176, 178<br />
  • 137. Sustainability Strategies<br />Design for Reuse (intended)<br />Reuse of: Materials, Energy, Components, and Functions<br />Rapioli reusable shipping package<br />see DITP pages 176, 178<br />
  • 138. Sustainability Strategies<br />These are the major strategies:<br />Reduce<br />Reuse<br />Recycle<br />• Design for Disassembly<br />• Close the Loop<br />• Design for Effectiveness<br />Restore<br />see DITP page 181<br />
  • 139. Sustainability Strategies<br />Design for Disassembly<br />• Product redesign<br />• Labeled components<br />• Uni-material components<br />Rickshaw Zero bag<br />see DITP page 184<br />
  • 140. Sustainability Strategies<br />Design for Disassembly<br /><ul><li>Use materials identification labels
  • 141. Avoid permanently attached, dissimilar materials
  • 142. Design for ease of disassembly (snap fits vs. screws)
  • 143. Use only one polymer type per product
  • 144. Use only one polymer-color combination per product
  • 145. If necessary, use compatible combinations of polymers
  • 146. Avoid paints and lacquers
  • 147. Avoid labels or use compatible labels
  • 148. Choose high-value plastics
  • 149. Avoid density overlaps between different polymers</li></ul>From Eric Masanet,<br />UC Berkeley<br />see DITP page 185<br />
  • 150. Sustainability Strategies<br />Close the Loop<br />Kalundborg, Denmark<br />see DITP page 199<br />
  • 151. Sustainability Strategies<br />Design for Effectiveness<br />• Process redesign<br />• Take-back programs<br />• Eco-industrial parks/industrial estates<br />Rickshaw Bags<br />see DITP pages 204, 206<br />
  • 152. Sustainability Strategies<br />These are the major strategies:<br />Reduce<br />Reuse<br />Recycle<br />Restore<br />• Design for Systems<br />see DITP page 209<br />
  • 153. Sustainability Strategies<br />Design for Systems<br />Curitiba, Brazil<br />see DITP pages 212-215<br />
  • 154. Sustainability Development Process<br />• User-centric (design and user research)<br />• Strategic/whole-systems-oriented<br />• Integrating frameworks and tools into the<br /> process<br />• Focused on innovation<br />• Iterative/prototyping (experience, paper, <br /> working, etc.)<br />
  • 155. Sustainability Development Process<br />What business should we be in?<br />What should we make/offer?<br />How should we make it best?<br />
  • 156. Sustainability Development Process<br />
  • 157. Sustainability Development Process<br />
  • 158. Sustainability Development Process<br />Measuring Results:<br />• Testing<br />• Labeling and Rating Systems<br />• Molecular-based LCA<br />• Tools<br />• Regulation (a tool)<br />
  • 159. Sustainability Development Process<br />GRI (Global Reporting Initiative) —redesigned by Covive<br />
  • 160. Sustainability Development Process<br />Reveal Rating System: revealinfo.com<br />
  • 161. Sustainability Development Process<br />Declaring Results:<br />• Green washing<br />• Does your brand reflect these values?• Does your company reflect these values?<br />• Don’t spend more declaring your results <br /> than the results themselves are worth<br />• It may be easier to “sell” efficiency or <br /> health than sustainability<br />
  • 162. Sustainability Strategies<br />Summary/Checklist:<br />1. Provide More(value, meaning, performance)<br /> for Less (materials and energy)<br />2. Focus on Efficiency and Health<br />3. Use & Promote Local energy, resources,<br /> and labor<br />4. Don’t use PVC<br />5. Design solutions to be savored<br />6. Don’t spend more declaring your <br /> results than the value they provide<br />see DITP page 288<br />
  • 163. Sustainability Strategies<br />Next Steps:<br />see DITP page 296<br />
  • 164. Sustainability Strategies<br />Now for the rest of the questions...<br />

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